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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 13, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 35 articles

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Article
Application of Injectable, Crosslinked, Fibrin-Containing Hyaluronic Acid Scaffolds for In Vivo Remodeling
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030119 (registering DOI) - 13 Aug 2022
Abstract
The present research aimed to characterize soft tissue implants that were prepared with the use of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) using two different crosslinkers and multiple reagent concentrations, alone or in combination with fibrin. The effect of the implants was evaluated in an [...] Read more.
The present research aimed to characterize soft tissue implants that were prepared with the use of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) using two different crosslinkers and multiple reagent concentrations, alone or in combination with fibrin. The effect of the implants was evaluated in an in vivo mouse model, after 4 weeks in one group and after 12 weeks in the other. The explants were compared using analytical methods, evaluating microscopic images, and a histology analysis. The kinetics of the degradation and remodeling of explants were found to be greatly dependent on the concentration and type of crosslinker; generally, divinyl sulfone (DVS) resists degradation more effectively compared to butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE). The presence of fibrin enhances the formation of blood vessels, and the infiltration of cells and extracellular matrix. In summary, if the aim is to create a soft tissue implant with easier degradation of the HA content, then the use of 2–5% BDDE is found to be optimal. For a longer degradation time, 5% DVS is the more suitable crosslinker. The use of fibrin was found to support the biological process of remodeling, while keeping the advances of HA in void filling, enabling the parallel degradation and remodeling processes. Full article
Review
Three-Dimensional Bioprinting for Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Insights into Naturally-Derived Bioinks from Land and Marine Sources
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030118 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 103
Abstract
In regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, the possibility to: (I) customize the shape and size of scaffolds, (II) develop highly mimicked tissues with a precise digital control, (III) manufacture complex structures and (IV) reduce the wastes related to the production process, are the [...] Read more.
In regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, the possibility to: (I) customize the shape and size of scaffolds, (II) develop highly mimicked tissues with a precise digital control, (III) manufacture complex structures and (IV) reduce the wastes related to the production process, are the main advantages of additive manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. Specifically, this technique, which uses suitable hydrogel-based bioinks, enriched with cells and/or growth factors, has received significant consideration, especially in cartilage tissue engineering (CTE). In this field of interest, it may allow mimicking the complex native zonal hyaline cartilage organization by further enhancing its biological cues. However, there are still some limitations that need to be overcome before 3D bioprinting may be globally used for scaffolds’ development and their clinical translation. One of them is represented by the poor availability of appropriate, biocompatible and eco-friendly biomaterials, which should present a series of specific requirements to be used and transformed into a proper bioink for CTE. In this scenario, considering that, nowadays, the environmental decline is of the highest concerns worldwide, exploring naturally-derived hydrogels has attracted outstanding attention throughout the scientific community. For this reason, a comprehensive review of the naturally-derived hydrogels, commonly employed as bioinks in CTE, was carried out. In particular, the current state of art regarding eco-friendly and natural bioinks’ development for CTE was explored. Overall, this paper gives an overview of 3D bioprinting for CTE to guide future research towards the development of more reliable, customized, eco-friendly and innovative strategies for CTE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Functional Biomaterials in Italy)
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Review
Alginate-Based Bio-Composites and Their Potential Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030117 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Over the last two decades, bio-polymer fibers have attracted attention for their uses in gene therapy, tissue engineering, wound-healing, and controlled drug delivery. The most commonly used bio-polymers are bio-sourced synthetic polymers such as poly (glycolic acid), poly (lactic acid), poly (e-caprolactone), copolymers [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, bio-polymer fibers have attracted attention for their uses in gene therapy, tissue engineering, wound-healing, and controlled drug delivery. The most commonly used bio-polymers are bio-sourced synthetic polymers such as poly (glycolic acid), poly (lactic acid), poly (e-caprolactone), copolymers of polyglycolide and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate), and natural polymers such as chitosan, soy protein, and alginate. Among all of the bio-polymer fibers, alginate is endowed with its ease of sol–gel transformation, remarkable ion exchange properties, and acid stability. Blending alginate fibers with a wide range of other materials has certainly opened many new opportunities for applications. This paper presents an overview on the modification of alginate fibers with nano-particles, adhesive peptides, and natural or synthetic polymers, in order to enhance their properties. The application of alginate fibers in several areas such as cosmetics, sensors, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and water treatment are investigated. The first section is a brief theoretical background regarding the definition, the source, and the structure of alginate. The second part deals with the physico-chemical, structural, and biological properties of alginate bio-polymers. The third part presents the spinning techniques and the effects of the process and solution parameters on the thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of alginate fibers. Then, the fourth part presents the additives used as fillers in order to improve the properties of alginate fibers. Finally, the last section covers the practical applications of alginate composite fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Polymers and Textiles)
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Review
Application of Biocompatible Drug Delivery Nanosystems for the Treatment of Naturally Occurring Cancer in Dogs
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030116 - 07 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Background: Cancer is a common disease in dogs, with a growing incidence related to the age of the animal. Nanotechnology is being employed in the veterinary field in the same manner as in human therapy. Aim: This review focuses on the application of [...] Read more.
Background: Cancer is a common disease in dogs, with a growing incidence related to the age of the animal. Nanotechnology is being employed in the veterinary field in the same manner as in human therapy. Aim: This review focuses on the application of biocompatible nanocarriers for the treatment of canine cancer, paying attention to the experimental studies performed on dogs with spontaneously occurring cancer. Methods: The most important experimental investigations based on the use of lipid and non-lipid nanosystems proposed for the treatment of canine cancer, such as liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles containing doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin, are described and their in vivo fate and antitumor features discussed. Conclusions: Dogs affected by spontaneous cancers are useful models for evaluating the efficacy of drug delivery systems containing antitumor compounds. Full article
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Article
Trilateral Multi-Functional Polyamide 12 Nanocomposites with Binary Inclusions for Medical Grade Material Extrusion 3D Printing: The Effect of Titanium Nitride in Mechanical Reinforcement and Copper/Cuprous Oxide as Antibacterial Agents
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030115 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 362
Abstract
In this work, for the first time, polyamide 12 (PA12) nanocomposites with binary inclusions in material extrusion (MEX) 3D printing were developed. The aim was to achieve an enhanced mechanical response with the addition of titanium nitride (TiN) and antibacterial performance with the [...] Read more.
In this work, for the first time, polyamide 12 (PA12) nanocomposites with binary inclusions in material extrusion (MEX) 3D printing were developed. The aim was to achieve an enhanced mechanical response with the addition of titanium nitride (TiN) and antibacterial performance with the addition of copper (Cu) or cuprous oxide (Cu2O), towards the development of multi-functional nanocomposite materials, exploiting the 3D printing process benefits. The prepared nanocomposites were fully characterized for their mechanical properties. The thermal properties were also investigated. Morphological characterization was performed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial performance was investigated with an agar-well diffusion screening process. Overall, the introduction of these nanofillers induced antibacterial performance in the PA12 matrix materials, while at the same time, the mechanical performance was significantly increased. The results of the study show high potential for expanding the areas in which 3D printing can be used. Full article
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Article
Dentin Sealing of Calcium Silicate-Based Sealers in Root Canal Retreatment: A Confocal Laser Microscopy Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030114 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 215
Abstract
The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the intratubular penetration of three bioceramic sealers in root canal retreatment. Here, 30 single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with the Protaper Universal system and filled with gutta-percha and the epoxy-resin-based sealer AH [...] Read more.
The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the intratubular penetration of three bioceramic sealers in root canal retreatment. Here, 30 single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with the Protaper Universal system and filled with gutta-percha and the epoxy-resin-based sealer AH Plus mixed with rhodamine B. After two weeks in a humid environment, they were re-instrumented with Reciproc Blue and divided into three groups according to the endodontic sealer to be used in the re-filling (n = 10): G1: CeraSeal, G2: TotalFill BC Sealer, G3: TotalFill BC Sealer HiFlow. For the filling, a single cone technique was used, and the respective sealers were mixed with fluorescein. The roots were then sectioned at 2, 5, and 8 mm (apical, medial, and coronal measurement points, respectively) from the apex, and the dentinal tubule penetration depth and percentage of penetration around the canal perimeter were evaluated by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Penetration between groups was compared using the Kruskal−Wallis test, and within each group using the Wilcoxon test. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.05. A non-significant reduction was found in the penetration depths and in a percentage of penetration around the canal perimeter between AH Plus and the tested calcium-silicate-based sealers (p > 0.05). Consequently, this reduction may not affect the three-dimensional seal of the root canal system in a negative manner. The penetration depth and percentage of penetration around the canal perimeter at both the root canal treatment and retreatment were significantly reduced from the coronal to apical points in all groups (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Biomaterials)
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Article
The Preparation and Characterization of Chitooligosaccharide–Polylactide Polymers, and In Vitro Release of Microspheres Loaded with Vancomycin
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030113 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Drug-loaded microspheres are an ideal bone tissue delivery material. In this study, a biodegradable Schiff base chitosan–polylactide was used as the encapsulation material to prepare drug-loaded microspheres as biocompatible carriers for controlled vancomycin release. In this regard, Schiff base chitosan was prepared by [...] Read more.
Drug-loaded microspheres are an ideal bone tissue delivery material. In this study, a biodegradable Schiff base chitosan–polylactide was used as the encapsulation material to prepare drug-loaded microspheres as biocompatible carriers for controlled vancomycin release. In this regard, Schiff base chitosan was prepared by the Schiff base method, and then different proportions of the Schiff base chitosan–polylactide polymer were prepared by ring-opening polymerization. Drug-loaded microspheres were prepared by the W/O emulsion method, and the polymers and polymer microspheres were characterized and studied by NMR, IR, and antibacterial methods. The drug loading and release rates of microspheres were determined to investigate the drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and release rate of drug microspheres at different ratios. In this study, different proportions of Schiff base chitosan–polylactic acid materials are successfully prepared, and vancomycin-loaded microspheres are successfully prepared using them as carriers. This study proves that the materials have antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The particle size of drug-loaded microspheres was below 10 μm, and the particle size decreased with decreasing molecular weight. The obtained results show that 1:100 microspheres have the highest drug-loading and encapsulation efficiencies, the drug-loaded microspheres have no burst release within 24 h, and the release quantity reaches more than 20%. After 30 days of release, the release amounts of 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, 1:60, and 1:100 drug-loaded microspheres were 64.80 ± 0.29%, 54.43 ± 0.54%, 44.60 ± 0.43%, 42.53 ± 0.40% and 69.73 ± 0.45%, respectively, and the release amount of 1:100 was the highest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Drug Delivery)
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Article
Unveiling Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activities of Biosynthesized Selenium Nanoparticles Using Prickly Pear Peel Waste
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030112 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 243
Abstract
In the current study, prickly pear peel waste (PPPW) extract was used for the biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles through a green and eco-friendly method for the first time. The biosynthesized SeNPs were characterized using UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDX, and mapping. Characterization [...] Read more.
In the current study, prickly pear peel waste (PPPW) extract was used for the biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles through a green and eco-friendly method for the first time. The biosynthesized SeNPs were characterized using UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDX, and mapping. Characterization results revealed that biosynthesized SeNPs were spherical, polydisperse, highly crystalline, and had sizes in the range of 10–87.4 nm. Antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of biosynthesized SeNPs were evaluated. Results revealed that SeNPs exhibited promising antibacterial against Gram negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) bacteria where MICs were 125, 125, 62.5, and 15.62 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, SeNPs showed potential antifungal activity toward Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans where MICs were 3.9 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, tested crud extract and SeNPs severely induced larvicidal activity for tested mosquitoes with LC50 and LC90 of 219.841, 950.087 mg/L and 75.411, 208.289 mg/L, respectively. The fecundity and hatchability of C. pipiens mosquito were significantly decreased as applied concentrations increased either for the crude or the fabricated SeNPs extracts. In conclusion, the biosynthesized SeNPs using prickly pear peel waste have antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities, which can be used in biomedical and environmental applications. Full article
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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Ceramide-Containing Liposomes as Membrane Models for Different T Cell Subpopulations
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030111 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 264
Abstract
A fine balance of regulatory (Treg) and conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconv) is required to prevent harmful immune responses, while at the same time ensuring the development of protective immunity against pathogens. As for many cellular processes, sphingolipid [...] Read more.
A fine balance of regulatory (Treg) and conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconv) is required to prevent harmful immune responses, while at the same time ensuring the development of protective immunity against pathogens. As for many cellular processes, sphingolipid metabolism also crucially modulates the Treg/Tconv balance. However, our understanding of how sphingolipid metabolism is involved in T cell biology is still evolving and a better characterization of the tools at hand is required to advance the field. Therefore, we established a reductionist liposomal membrane model system to imitate the plasma membrane of mouse Treg and Tconv with regards to their ceramide content. We found that the capacity of membranes to incorporate externally added azide-functionalized ceramide positively correlated with the ceramide content of the liposomes. Moreover, we studied the impact of the different liposomal preparations on primary mouse splenocytes in vitro. The addition of liposomes to resting, but not activated, splenocytes maintained viability with liposomes containing high amounts of C16-ceramide being most efficient. Our data thus suggest that differences in ceramide post-incorporation into Treg and Tconv reflect differences in the ceramide content of cellular membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application)
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Article
In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of B-Doped Strontium Apatite Nanoparticles Produced by Hydrothermal Method on Bone Repair
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030110 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 326
Abstract
In the present study, the structural, morphological, and in vivo biocompatibility of un-doped and boron (B)-doped strontium apatite (SrAp) nanoparticles were investigated. Biomaterials were fabricated using the hydrothermal process. The structural and morphological characterizations of the fabricated nanoparticles were performed by XRD, FT-IR, [...] Read more.
In the present study, the structural, morphological, and in vivo biocompatibility of un-doped and boron (B)-doped strontium apatite (SrAp) nanoparticles were investigated. Biomaterials were fabricated using the hydrothermal process. The structural and morphological characterizations of the fabricated nanoparticles were performed by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, and EDX. Their biocompatibility was investigated by placing them in defects in rat tibiae in vivo. The un-doped and B-doped SrAp nanoparticles were successfully fabricated. The produced nanoparticles were in the shape of nano-rods, and the dimensions of the nano-rods decreased as the B ratio increased. It was observed that the structural and morphological properties of strontium apatite nanoparticles were affected by the contribution of B. A stoichiometric Sr/P ratio of 1.67 was reached in the 5% B-doped sample (1.68). The average crystallite sizes were 34.94 nm, 39.70 nm, 44.93 nm, and 48.23 nm in un-doped, 1% B-doped, 5% B-doped, and 10% B-doped samples, respectively. The results of the in vivo experiment revealed that the new bone formation and osteoblast density were higher in the groups with SrAp nanoparticles doped with different concentrations of B than in the control group, in which the open defects were untreated. It was observed that this biocompatibility and the new bone formation were especially elevated in the B groups, which added high levels of strontium were added. The osteoblast density was higher in the group in which the strontium element was placed in the opened bone defect compared with the control group. However, although new bone formation was slightly higher in the strontium group than in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the strontium group had the highest amount of fibrotic tissue formation. The produced nanoparticles can be used in dental and orthopedic applications as biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Biodegradable Materials and Their Processing)
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Article
PLGA Nanoparticles Uptake in Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth and Oral Keratinocyte Stem Cells
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030109 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Polymeric nanoparticles have been introduced as a delivery vehicle for active compounds in a broad range of medical applications due to their biocompatibility, stability, controlled release of active compounds, and reduced toxicity. The oral route is the most used approach for delivery of [...] Read more.
Polymeric nanoparticles have been introduced as a delivery vehicle for active compounds in a broad range of medical applications due to their biocompatibility, stability, controlled release of active compounds, and reduced toxicity. The oral route is the most used approach for delivery of biologics to the body. The homeostasis and function of oral cavity tissues are dependent on the activity of stem cells. The present work focuses, for the first time, on the interaction between two types of polymeric nanoparticles, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA and PLGA/chitosan, and two stem cell populations, oral keratinocyte stem cells (OKSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). The main results show that statistical significance was observed in OKSCs uptake when compared with normal keratinocytes and transit amplifying cells after 24 h of incubation with 5 and 10 µg/mL PLGA/chitosan. The CD117+ SHED subpopulation incorporated more PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles than nonseparated SHED. The uptake for PLGA/chitosan particles was better than for PLGA particles with longer incubation times, yielding better results in both cell types. The present results demonstrate that nanoparticle uptake depends on stem cell type, incubation time, particle concentration, and surface properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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Article
Hydrothermal Synthesis and In Vivo Fluorescent Bioimaging Application of Eu3+/Gd3+ Co-Doped Fluoroapatite Nanocrystals
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030108 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 181
Abstract
In this study, Eu3+/Gd3+ co-doped fluoroapatitååe (Eu/Gd:FAP) nanocrystals were synthesized by the hydrothermal method as a fluorescent bioimaging agent. The phase composition, morphology, fluorescence, and biosafety of the resulting samples were characterized. Moreover, the in vivo fluorescent bioimaging application of [...] Read more.
In this study, Eu3+/Gd3+ co-doped fluoroapatitååe (Eu/Gd:FAP) nanocrystals were synthesized by the hydrothermal method as a fluorescent bioimaging agent. The phase composition, morphology, fluorescence, and biosafety of the resulting samples were characterized. Moreover, the in vivo fluorescent bioimaging application of Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals was evaluated in mice with subcutaneously transplanted tumors. The results showed that the Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals were short rod-like particles with a size of 59.27 ± 13.34 nm × 18.69 ± 3.32 nm. With an increasing F substitution content, the Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals displayed a decreased size and enhanced fluorescence emission. Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals did not show hemolysis and cytotoxicity, indicating good biocompatibility. In vivo fluorescent bioimaging study demonstrated that Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals could be used as a bioimaging agent and displayed stable fluorescence emitting in tumors, indicating an accumulation in tumor tissue due to the passive targeting ability. In addition, any adverse effects of Eu/Gd:FAP nanocrystals on major organs were not observed. This study shows that biocompatible rare earth co-doped FAP nanocrystals have the potential to be used as a bioimaging agent in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Angiogenic Potential of Co-Cultured Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Adipose Stromal Cells in Customizable 3D Engineered Collagen Sheets
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030107 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 224
Abstract
The wound healing process is much more complex than just the four phases of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds made of biopolymers or ECM molecules using bioprinting can be used to promote the wound healing process, especially for complex 3D [...] Read more.
The wound healing process is much more complex than just the four phases of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds made of biopolymers or ECM molecules using bioprinting can be used to promote the wound healing process, especially for complex 3D tissue lesions like chronic wounds. Here, a 3D-printed mold has been designed to produce customizable collagen type-I sheets containing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and adipose stromal cells (ASCs) for the first time. In these 3D collagen sheets, the cellular activity leads to a restructuring of the collagen matrix. The upregulation of the growth factors Serpin E1 and TIMP-1 could be demonstrated in the 3D scaffolds with ACSs and HUVECs in co-culture. Both growth factors play a key role in the wound healing process. The capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs treated with supernatant from the collagen sheets revealed the secretion of angiogenic growth factors. Altogether, this demonstrates that collagen type I combined with the co-cultivation of HUVECs and ACSs has the potential to accelerate the process of angiogenesis and, thereby, might promote wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomaterials for Soft and Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration)
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Anti-Inflammatory and Mineralization Effects of an ASP/PLGA-ASP/ACP/PLLA-PLGA Composite Membrane as a Dental Pulp Capping Agent
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030106 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Dental pulp is essential for the development and long-term preservation of teeth. Dental trauma and caries often lead to pulp inflammation. Vital pulp therapy using dental pulp-capping materials is an approach to preserving the vitality of injured dental pulp. Most pulp-capping materials used [...] Read more.
Dental pulp is essential for the development and long-term preservation of teeth. Dental trauma and caries often lead to pulp inflammation. Vital pulp therapy using dental pulp-capping materials is an approach to preserving the vitality of injured dental pulp. Most pulp-capping materials used in clinics have good biocompatibility to promote mineralization, but their anti-inflammatory effect is weak. Therefore, the failure rate will increase when dental pulp inflammation is severe. The present study developed an amorphous calcium phosphate/poly (L-lactic acid)-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) membrane compounded with aspirin (hereafter known as ASP/PLGA-ASP/ACP/PLLA-PLGA). The composite membrane, used as a pulp-capping material, effectively achieved the rapid release of high concentrations of the anti-inflammatory drug aspirin during the early stages as well as the long-term release of low concentrations of aspirin and calcium/phosphorus ions during the later stages, which could repair inflamed dental pulp and promote mineralization. Meanwhile, the composite membrane promoted the proliferation of inflamed dental pulp stem cells, downregulated the expression of inflammatory markers, upregulated the expression of mineralization-related markers, and induced the formation of stronger reparative dentin in the rat pulpitis model. These findings indicate that this material may be suitable for use as a pulp-capping material in clinical applications. Full article
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Article
Effect of Alumina Particles on the Osteogenic Ability of Osteoblasts
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030105 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Biomaterials are used as implants for bone and dental disabilities. However, wear particles from the implants cause osteolysis following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Ceramic implants are considered safe and elicit a minimal response to cause periprosthetic osteolysis. However, few reports have highlighted the [...] Read more.
Biomaterials are used as implants for bone and dental disabilities. However, wear particles from the implants cause osteolysis following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Ceramic implants are considered safe and elicit a minimal response to cause periprosthetic osteolysis. However, few reports have highlighted the adverse effect of ceramic particles such as alumina (Al2O3) on various cell types. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of Al2O3 particles on osteoprogenitors. A comparative treatment of Al2O3, Ti, and UHMWPE particles to osteoprogenitors at a similar concentration of 200 μg/mL showed that only Al2O3 particles were able to suppress the early and late differentiation markers of osteoprogenitors, including collagen synthesis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mRNA expression of Runx2, OSX, Col1α, and OCN. Al2O3 particles even induced inflammation and activated the NFkB signaling pathway in osteoprogenitors. Moreover, bone-forming signals such as the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway were inhibited by the Al2O3 particles. Al2O3 particles were found to induce the mRNA expression of WNT/β-catenin signaling antagonists such as DKK2, WIF, and sFRP1 several times in osteoprogenitors. Taken together, this study highlights a mechanistic view of the effect of Al2O3 particles on osteoprogenitors and suggests therapeutic targets such as NFĸB and WNT signaling pathways for ceramic particle-induced osteolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
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Article
Geometry-Based Computational Fluid Dynamic Model for Predicting the Biological Behavior of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030104 - 27 Jul 2022
Viewed by 274
Abstract
The use of biocompatible and biodegradable porous scaffolds produced via additive manufacturing is one of the most common approaches in tissue engineering. The geometric design of tissue engineering scaffolds (e.g., pore size, pore shape, and pore distribution) has a significant impact on their [...] Read more.
The use of biocompatible and biodegradable porous scaffolds produced via additive manufacturing is one of the most common approaches in tissue engineering. The geometric design of tissue engineering scaffolds (e.g., pore size, pore shape, and pore distribution) has a significant impact on their biological behavior. Fluid flow dynamics are important for understanding blood flow through a porous structure, as they determine the transport of nutrients and oxygen to cells and the flushing of toxic waste. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the scaffold architecture, pore size and distribution on its biological performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Different blood flow velocities (BFV) induce wall shear stresses (WSS) on cells. WSS values above 30 mPa are detrimental to their growth. In this study, two scaffold designs were considered: rectangular scaffolds with uniform square pores (300, 350, and 450 µm), and anatomically designed circular scaffolds with a bone-like structure and pore size gradient (476–979 µm). The anatomically designed scaffolds provided the best fluid flow conditions, suggesting a 24.21% improvement in the biological performance compared to the rectangular scaffolds. The numerical observations are aligned with those of previously reported biological studies. Full article
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Review
Immunomodulation Effect of Biomaterials on Bone Formation
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030103 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Traditional bone replacement materials have been developed with the goal of directing the osteogenesis of osteoblastic cell lines toward differentiation and therefore achieving biomaterial-mediated osteogenesis, but the osteogenic effect has been disappointing. With advances in bone biology, it has been revealed that the [...] Read more.
Traditional bone replacement materials have been developed with the goal of directing the osteogenesis of osteoblastic cell lines toward differentiation and therefore achieving biomaterial-mediated osteogenesis, but the osteogenic effect has been disappointing. With advances in bone biology, it has been revealed that the local immune microenvironment has an important role in regulating the bone formation process. According to the bone immunology hypothesis, the immune system and the skeletal system are inextricably linked, with many cytokines and regulatory factors in common, and immune cells play an essential role in bone-related physiopathological processes. This review combines advances in bone immunology with biomaterial immunomodulatory properties to provide an overview of biomaterials-mediated immune responses to regulate bone regeneration, as well as methods to assess the bone immunomodulatory properties of bone biomaterials and how these strategies can be used for future bone tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Functional Biomaterials in China)
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Article
When Nothing Turns Itself Inside out and Becomes Something: Coating Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Spheres with Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles vs. the Other Way Around
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030102 - 23 Jul 2022
Viewed by 318
Abstract
To stabilize drugs physisorbed on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles and prevent burst release, these nanoparticles are commonly coated with polymers. Bioactive HAp, however, becomes shielded from the surface of such core/shell entities, which partially defeats the purpose of using it. The [...] Read more.
To stabilize drugs physisorbed on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles and prevent burst release, these nanoparticles are commonly coated with polymers. Bioactive HAp, however, becomes shielded from the surface of such core/shell entities, which partially defeats the purpose of using it. The goal of this study was to assess the biological and pharmacokinetic effects of inverting this classical core/shell structure by coating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) spheres with HAp nanoparticles. The HAp shell did not hinder the release of vancomycin; rather, it increased the release rate to a minor degree, compared to that from undecorated PLGA spheres. The decoration of PLGA spheres with HAp induced lesser mineral deposition and lesser upregulation of osteogenic markers compared to those induced by the composite particles where HAp nanoparticles were embedded inside the PLGA spheres. This was explained by homeostatic mechanisms governing the cell metabolism, which ensure than the sensation of a product of this metabolism in the cell interior or exterior is met with the reduction in the metabolic activity. The antagonistic relationship between proliferation and bone production was demonstrated by the higher proliferation rate of cells challenged with HAp-coated PLGA spheres than of those treated with PLGA-coated HAp. It is concluded that the overwhelmingly positive response of tissues to HAp-coated biomaterials for bone replacement is unlikely to be due to the direct induction of new bone growth in osteoblasts adhering to the HAp coating. Rather, these positive effects are consequential to more elementary aspects of cell attachment, mechanotransduction, and growth at the site of contact between the HAp-coated material and the tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates 2.0)
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Opinion
From Three-Dimensional (3D)- to 6D-Printing Technology in Orthopedics: Science Fiction or Scientific Reality?
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030101 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Over the past three decades, additive manufacturing has changed from an innovative technology to an increasingly accessible tool in all aspects of different medical practices, including orthopedics. Although 3D-printing technology offers a relatively inexpensive, rapid and less risky route of manufacturing, it is [...] Read more.
Over the past three decades, additive manufacturing has changed from an innovative technology to an increasingly accessible tool in all aspects of different medical practices, including orthopedics. Although 3D-printing technology offers a relatively inexpensive, rapid and less risky route of manufacturing, it is still quite limited for the fabrication of more complex objects. Over the last few years, stable 3D-printed objects have been converted to smart objects or implants using novel 4D-printing systems. Four-dimensional printing is an advanced process that creates the final object by adding smart materials. Human bones are curved along their axes, a morphological characteristic that augments the mechanical strain caused by external forces. Instead of the three axes used in 4D printing, 5D-printing technology uses five axes, creating curved and more complex objects. Nowadays, 6D-printing technology marries the concepts of 4D- and 5D-printing technology to produce objects that change shape over time in response to external stimuli. In future research, it is obvious that printing technology will include a combination of multi-dimensional printing technology and smart materials. Multi-dimensional additive manufacturing technology will drive the printing dimension to higher levels of structural freedom and printing efficacy, offering promising properties for various orthopedic applications. Full article
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Review
Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Improved Cancer Theranostics
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030100 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Beyond their well-known applications in bone tissue engineering, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp NPs) have also been showing great promise for improved cancer therapy. The chemical structure of HAp NPs offers excellent possibilities for loading and delivering a broad range of anticancer drugs in a [...] Read more.
Beyond their well-known applications in bone tissue engineering, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp NPs) have also been showing great promise for improved cancer therapy. The chemical structure of HAp NPs offers excellent possibilities for loading and delivering a broad range of anticancer drugs in a sustained, prolonged, and targeted manner and thus eliciting lower complications than conventional chemotherapeutic strategies. The incorporation of specific therapeutic elements into the basic composition of HAp NPs is another approach, alone or synergistically with drug release, to provide advanced anticancer effects such as the capability to inhibit the growth and metastasis of cancer cells through activating specific cell signaling pathways. HAp NPs can be easily converted to smart anticancer agents by applying different surface modification treatments to facilitate the targeting and killing of cancer cells without significant adverse effects on normal healthy cells. The applications in cancer diagnosis for magnetic and nuclear in vivo imaging are also promising as the detection of solid tumor cells is now achievable by utilizing superparamagnetic HAp NPs. The ongoing research emphasizes the use of HAp NPs in fabricating three-dimensional scaffolds for the treatment of cancerous tissues or organs, promoting the regeneration of healthy tissue after cancer detection and removal. This review provides a summary of HAp NP applications in cancer theranostics, highlighting the current limitations and the challenges ahead for this field to open new avenues for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Biomaterials for Cancer Therapies)
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Article
Dissolution Behavior of Hydrothermally Treated Hydroxyapatite–Titanium Nitride Films Coated on PEEK: In Vitro Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030099 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has become an alternative material for orthopaedics and dental implants. However, bio-inertness is an important limitation in this material. In the present study, a hydroxyapatite (HA)–titanium nitride (TiN) coating was fabricated via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering and treated with hydrothermal treatment [...] Read more.
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has become an alternative material for orthopaedics and dental implants. However, bio-inertness is an important limitation in this material. In the present study, a hydroxyapatite (HA)–titanium nitride (TiN) coating was fabricated via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering and treated with hydrothermal treatment to improve the bioactive property of PEEK. The dissolution behavior of the coating was studied in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days. The coating surface was analyzed before and after the immersion process by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The calcium and phosphorus concentration alteration in SBF was quantified by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Coating dissolution and the precipitation of calcium phosphate complex from SBF were observed as occurring suddenly and continuously throughout the immersion times. These processes resulted in an alteration in both physical and chemical coating properties. After 56 days, the coating remained on PEEK surfaces and the Ca/P ratio was 1.16. These results indicate that HA-TiN coating via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering followed by hydrothermal treatment improved the bioactivity of materials and provided a potential benefit to orthopedics and dental applications. Full article
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Article
Modification of Collagen Film via Surface Grafting of Taurine Molecular to Promote Corneal Nerve Repair and Epithelization Process
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030098 - 17 Jul 2022
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Corneal defects can seriously affect human vision, and keratoplasty is the most widely accepted therapy method for visual rehabilitation. Currently, effective treatment for clinical patients has been restricted due to a serious shortage of donated cornea tissue and high-quality artificial repair materials. As [...] Read more.
Corneal defects can seriously affect human vision, and keratoplasty is the most widely accepted therapy method for visual rehabilitation. Currently, effective treatment for clinical patients has been restricted due to a serious shortage of donated cornea tissue and high-quality artificial repair materials. As the predominant component of cornea tissue, collagen-based materials have promising applications for corneal repair. However, the corneal nerve repair and epithelization process after corneal transplantation must be improved. This research proposes a new collagen-based scaffold with good biocompatibility and biological functionality enhanced by surface chemical grafting of natural taurine molecular. The chemical composition of collagen-taurine (Col-Tau) material is evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its hydrophilic properties, light transmittance, swelling performance and mechanical tensile properties have been measured. The research results indicate that the Col-Tau sample has high transmittance and good mechanical properties, and exhibits excellent capacity to promote corneal nerve cell growth and the epithelization process of corneal epithelial cells. This novel Col-Tau material, which can be easily prepared at a low cost, should have significant application potential for the treating corneal disease in the future. Full article
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Article
Zn–Mn-Doped Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanoparticle-Loaded Zein Coatings for Bioactive and Antibacterial Orthopedic Implants
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030097 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 418
Abstract
In recent years, natural polymers have replaced synthetic polymers for antibacterial orthopedic applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Zein is a biopolymer found in corn. The lacking mechanical stability of zein is overcome by incorporating bioceramics, e.g., mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles [...] Read more.
In recent years, natural polymers have replaced synthetic polymers for antibacterial orthopedic applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Zein is a biopolymer found in corn. The lacking mechanical stability of zein is overcome by incorporating bioceramics, e.g., mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGNs). In the present study, pure zein and zein/Zn–Mn MBGN composite coatings were deposited via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on 316L stainless steel (SS). Zn and Mn were co-doped in MBGNs in order to make use of their antibacterial and osteogenic potential, respectively. A Taguchi design of experiment (DoE) study was established to evaluate the effect of various working parameters on the morphology of the coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited at 20 V for 5 min with 4 g/L concentration (conc.) of Zn–Mn MBGNs showed the highest deposition yield. Uniform coatings with highly dispersed MBGNs were obtained adopting these optimized parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to investigate the morphology and elemental composition of zein/Zn–Mn MBGN composite coatings. Surface properties, i.e., coating roughness and wettability analysis, concluded that composite coatings were appropriate for cell attachment and proliferation. For adhesion strength, various techniques, including a tape test, bend test, pencil hardness test, and tensile test, were performed. Wear and corrosion analysis highlighted the mechanical and chemical stability of the coatings. The colony forming unit (CFU) test showed that the zein/Zn–Mn MBGN composite coating was highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to the presence of Zn. The formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA)-like structure upon immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) validated the in vitro bioactivity of the coating. Moreover, a WST-8 assay depicted that the MG-63 cells proliferate on the composite coating. It was concluded that the zein/Zn–Mn MBGN coating synthesized in this work can be used for bioactive and antibacterial orthopedic applications. Full article
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Review
A Review of Woven Tracheal Stents: Materials, Structures, and Application
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030096 - 16 Jul 2022
Viewed by 254
Abstract
The repair and reconstruction of tracheal defects is a challenging clinical problem. Due to the wide choice of materials and structures, weaving technology has shown unique advantages in simulating the multilayer structure of the trachea and providing reliable performance. Currently, most woven stent-based [...] Read more.
The repair and reconstruction of tracheal defects is a challenging clinical problem. Due to the wide choice of materials and structures, weaving technology has shown unique advantages in simulating the multilayer structure of the trachea and providing reliable performance. Currently, most woven stent-based stents focus only on the effect of materials on stent performance while ignoring the direct effect of woven process parameters on stent performance, and the advantages of weaving technology in tissue regeneration have not been fully exploited. Therefore, this review will introduce the effects of stent materials and fabric construction on the performance of tracheal stents, focusing on the effects of weaving process parameters on stent performance. We will summarize the problems faced by woven stents and possible directions of development in the hope of broadening the technical field of artificial trachea preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Science: Functional Biomaterials)
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Article
Cytotoxicity and Efficacy in Debris and Smear Layer Removal of HOCl-Based Irrigating Solution: An In Vitro Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030095 - 15 Jul 2022
Viewed by 301
Abstract
In the present study we evaluated the cytotoxicity of super-oxidized water on human gingival fibroblasts and its efficacy in debris and smear layer removal from root canal walls. Cultured gingival fibroblasts were exposed to super-oxidized water (Sterilox), which was diluted in Iscove’s modified [...] Read more.
In the present study we evaluated the cytotoxicity of super-oxidized water on human gingival fibroblasts and its efficacy in debris and smear layer removal from root canal walls. Cultured gingival fibroblasts were exposed to super-oxidized water (Sterilox), which was diluted in Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM) at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% concentrations. The control group was maintained in IMDM. The cell viability was evaluated by means of an MTT assay after incubation periods of 1 h, 2 h, 24 h and 48 h. Pathological cellular changes were also observed under fluorescence and phase contrast microscopes. The efficacy in debris and smear layer removal was evaluated in comparison to the conventional application of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Forty maxillary premolars were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 20) and shaped with ProTaper NEXT rotary instruments using Sterilox or NaOCl/EDTA for irrigation. Afterwards, roots were split longitudinally and examined under a scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that super-oxidized water and sterile distilled water have acceptable biological properties for endodontic applications at concentrations up to 50% (p > 0.05). Moreover, super-oxidized water is equally effective in debris and smear layer removal as compared to NaOCl/EDTA (p > 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clinical Endodontic Applications)
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Article
A Three-Dimensional Printed Polycaprolactone–Biphasic-Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Cultured in Xenogeneic Serum-Free Media for the Treatment of Bone Defects
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030093 - 15 Jul 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The efficacy of a three-dimensional printed polycaprolactone–biphasic-calcium-phosphate scaffold (PCL–BCP TDP scaffold) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which were cultured in xenogeneic serum-free media (XSFM) to enhance bone formation, was assessed in vitro and in animal models. The ADSCs were isolated from the [...] Read more.
The efficacy of a three-dimensional printed polycaprolactone–biphasic-calcium-phosphate scaffold (PCL–BCP TDP scaffold) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which were cultured in xenogeneic serum-free media (XSFM) to enhance bone formation, was assessed in vitro and in animal models. The ADSCs were isolated from the buccal fat tissue of six patients using enzymatic digestion and the plastic adherence method. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the cells cultured in XSFM when seeded on the scaffolds were assessed and compared with those of cells cultured in a medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cell–scaffold constructs were cultured in XSFM and were implanted into calvarial defects in thirty-six Wistar rats to assess new bone regeneration. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the cells in the XSFM medium were notably better than that of the cells in the FBS medium. However, the efficacy of the constructs in enhancing new bone formation in the calvarial defects of rats was not statistically different to that achieved using the scaffolds alone. In conclusion, the PCL–BCP TDP scaffolds were biocompatible and suitable for use as an osteoconductive framework. The XSFM medium could support the proliferation and differentiation of ADSCs in vitro. However, the cell–scaffold constructs had no benefit in the enhancement of new bone formation in animal models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffolds and Implants for Bone Regeneration)
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Article
Macrophages Loaded with Fe Nanoparticles for Enhanced Photothermal Ablation of Tumors
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030094 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Magnetic iron nanoparticle-based theranostics agents have attracted much attention due to their good magnetism and biocompatibility. However, efficiently enriching tumors with iron nanoparticles to enhance the treatment effect remains a pressing challenge. Herein, based on the targeting and high phagocytosis of macrophages, an [...] Read more.
Magnetic iron nanoparticle-based theranostics agents have attracted much attention due to their good magnetism and biocompatibility. However, efficiently enriching tumors with iron nanoparticles to enhance the treatment effect remains a pressing challenge. Herein, based on the targeting and high phagocytosis of macrophages, an Fe nanoparticle-loaded macrophage delivery system was designed and constructed to efficiently deliver iron nanoparticles to tumors. Hydrophilic [email protected]3O4 nanoparticles with a core-shell structure were synthesized by pyrolysis and ligand exchange strategy. Subsequently, they were loaded into macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) using a co-incubation method. After loading into RAW264.7, the photothermal performance of [email protected]3O4 nanoparticles were significantly enhanced. In addition, [email protected]3O4 nanoparticles loaded into the macrophage RAW264.7 ([email protected]3O4@RAW) exhibited a good T2-weighted MRI contrast effect and clear tumor imaging in vivo due to the tumor targeting tendency of macrophages. More importantly, after being intravenously injected with [email protected]3O4@RAW and subjected to laser irradiation, the tumor growth was effectively inhibited, indicating that macrophage loading could enhance the tumor photothermal ablation ability of [email protected]3O4. The macrophage mediated delivery strategy for [email protected]3O4 nanoparticles was able to enhance the treatment effect, and has great potential in tumor theranostics. Full article
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Review
A Review of Functional Analysis of Endothelial Cells in Flow Chambers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030092 - 12 Jul 2022
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The vascular endothelial cells constitute the innermost layer. The cells are exposed to mechanical stress by the flow, causing them to express their functions. To elucidate the functions, methods involving seeding endothelial cells as a layer in a chamber were studied. The chambers [...] Read more.
The vascular endothelial cells constitute the innermost layer. The cells are exposed to mechanical stress by the flow, causing them to express their functions. To elucidate the functions, methods involving seeding endothelial cells as a layer in a chamber were studied. The chambers are known as parallel plate, T-chamber, step, cone plate, and stretch. The stimulated functions or signals from endothelial cells by flows are extensively connected to other outer layers of arteries or organs. The coculture layer was developed in a chamber to investigate the interaction between smooth muscle cells in the middle layer of the blood vessel wall in vascular physiology and pathology. Additionally, the microfabrication technology used to create a chamber for a microfluidic device involves both mechanical and chemical stimulation of cells to show their dynamics in in vivo microenvironments. The purpose of this study is to summarize the blood flow (flow inducing) for the functions connecting to endothelial cells and blood vessels, and to find directions for future chamber and device developments for further understanding and application of vascular functions. The relationship between chamber design flow, cell layers, and microfluidics was studied. Full article
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Article
Injectable, Anti-Cancer Drug-Eluted Chitosan Microspheres against Osteosarcoma
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030091 - 10 Jul 2022
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to fabricate different anti-cancer drug-eluted chitosan microspheres for combination therapy of osteosarcoma. In this study, electrospray in combination with ground liquid nitrogen was utilized to manufacture the microspheres. The size of obtained chitosan microspheres was uniform, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to fabricate different anti-cancer drug-eluted chitosan microspheres for combination therapy of osteosarcoma. In this study, electrospray in combination with ground liquid nitrogen was utilized to manufacture the microspheres. The size of obtained chitosan microspheres was uniform, and the average diameter was 532 μm. The model drug release rate and biodegradation rate of chitosan microspheres could be controlled by the glutaraldehyde vapor crosslinking time. Then the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), paclitaxel (PTX), and Cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum (CDDP) eluted chitosan microspheres were prepared, and two osteosarcoma cell lines, namely, HOS and MG-63, were selected as cell models for in vitro demonstration. We found the 5-FU microspheres, PTX microspheres, and CDDP microspheres could significantly inhibit the growth and migration of both HOS and MG-63 cells. The apoptosis of both cells treated with 5-FU microspheres, PTX microspheres, and CDDP microspheres was significantly increased compared to the counterparts of control and blank groups. The anti-cancer drug-eluted chitosan microspheres show great potential for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Full article
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Review
A Bibliometric Analysis of Electrospun Nanofibers for Dentistry
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030090 - 09 Jul 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Electrospun nanofibers have been widely used in dentistry due to their excellent properties, such as high surface area and high porosity, this bibliometric study aimed to review the application fields, research status, and development trends of electrospun nanofibers in different fields of dentistry [...] Read more.
Electrospun nanofibers have been widely used in dentistry due to their excellent properties, such as high surface area and high porosity, this bibliometric study aimed to review the application fields, research status, and development trends of electrospun nanofibers in different fields of dentistry in recent years. All of the data were obtained from the Web of Science from 2004 to 2021. Origin, Microsoft Excel, VOSviewer, and Carrot2 were used to process, analyze, and evaluate the publication year, countries/region, affiliations, authors, citations, keywords, and journal data. After being refined by the year of publication, document types and research fields, a total of 378 publications were included in this study, and an increasing number of publications was evident. Through linear regression calculations, it is predicted that the number of published articles in 2022 will be 66. The most published journal about electrospun dental materials is Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, among the six core journals identified, the percent of journals with Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Q1 was 60%. A total of 17.60% of the publications originated from China, and the most productive institution was the University of Sheffield. Among all the 1949 authors, the most productive author was Marco C. Bottino. Most electrospun dental nanofibers are used in periodontal regeneration, and Polycaprolactone (PCL) is the most frequently used material in all studies. With the global upsurge in research on electrospun dental materials, bone regeneration, tissue regeneration, and cell differentiation and proliferation will still be the research hotspots of electrospun dental materials in recent years. Extensive collaboration and citations among authors, institutions and countries will also reach a new level. Full article
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