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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 50 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ebola virus infection in humans is a severe and often fatal disease, which demands effective interventional strategies for its prevention. Microneedle patches, which are made of an array of micron-scale, solid needles that painlessly penetrate into the upper layers of the skin and dissolve to deliver vaccine intradermally, simplify vaccination and can increase vaccine access, especially in resource-constrained or emergency settings. The present study describes a novel technology, which combines ebolavirus glycoprotein antigen with a polyphosphazene-based immunoadjuvant, PCPP in microneedle patches. Skin immunization of mice induced strong, long-lasting antibody responses. Moreover, vaccinated mice were completely protected against lethal mouse-adapted Ebola virus challenge. View this paper
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30 pages, 3070 KiB  
Review
A Review on Phyto-Therapeutic Approaches in Alzheimer’s Disease
by Mehtap Sahiner, Aynur Sanem Yilmaz, Buket Gungor and Nurettin Sahiner
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010050 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases occur due to progressive and sometimes irreversible loss of function and death of nerve cells. A great deal of effort is being made to understand the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is quite high, [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases occur due to progressive and sometimes irreversible loss of function and death of nerve cells. A great deal of effort is being made to understand the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is quite high, and only symptomatic therapy is available due to the absence of radical treatment. The aim of this review is to try to elucidate the general pathogenesis of AD, to provide information about the limit points of symptomatic treatment approaches, and to emphasize the potential neurologic effects of phytocompounds as new tools as therapeutic agents for disease prevention, retardation, and therapy. This survey also covers the notable properties of herbal compounds such as their effects on the inhibition of an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which has significant value in the treatment of AD. It has been proven that phytopharmaceuticals have long-term effects that could protect nervous system health, eliminate inflammatory responses, improve cognitive damage, provide anti-aging effects in the natural aging process, and alleviate dementia sequelae. Herbal-based therapeutic agents can afford many advantages and can be used as potentially as new-generation therapeutics or complementary agents with high compliance, fewer adverse effects, and lower cost in comparison to the traditional pharmaceutical agents in the fight against AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tannins and Other Polyphenols as Functional Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 3586 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Evaluation of Rapamycin-Loaded Nano-Micelle Ophthalmic Solution
by Ting Zhang, Chao Wei, Xianggen Wu, Sai Zhang, Fangnan Duan, Xiaolin Qi, Weiyun Shi and Hua Gao
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010049 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Rapamycin-loaded nano-micelle ophthalmic solution (RAPA-NM) offers a promising application for preventing corneal allograft rejection; however, RAPA-NM has not yet been fully characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and underlying mechanism of RAPA-NM in inhibiting corneal allograft rejection. An optimized [...] Read more.
Rapamycin-loaded nano-micelle ophthalmic solution (RAPA-NM) offers a promising application for preventing corneal allograft rejection; however, RAPA-NM has not yet been fully characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and underlying mechanism of RAPA-NM in inhibiting corneal allograft rejection. An optimized RAPA-NM was successfully prepared using a polyvinyl caprolactam–polyvinyl acetate–polyethylene glycol (PVCL-PVA-PEG) graft copolymer as the excipient at a PVCL-PVA-PEG/RAPA weight ratio of 18:1. This formulation exhibited high encapsulation efficiency (99.25 ± 0.55%), small micelle size (64.42 ± 1.18 nm), uniform size distribution (polydispersity index = 0.076 ± 0.016), and a zeta potential of 1.67 ± 0.93 mV. The storage stability test showed that RAPA-NM could be stored steadily for 12 weeks. RAPA-NM also displayed satisfactory cytocompatibility and high membrane permeability. Moreover, topical administration of RAPA-NM could effectively prevent corneal allograft rejection. Mechanistically, a transcriptomic analysis revealed that several immune- and inflammation-related Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly enriched in the downregulated genes in the RAPA-NM-treated allografts compared with the rejected allogenic corneal grafts. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential of RAPA-NM in treating corneal allograft rejection and other ocular inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials and Technologies in Ophthalmology)
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21 pages, 1727 KiB  
Review
Matrices Activated with Messenger RNA
by Raquel Martinez-Campelo and Marcos Garcia-Fuentes
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010048 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Over two decades of preclinical and clinical experience have confirmed that gene therapy-activated matrices are potent tools for sustained gene modulation at the implantation area. Matrices activated with messenger RNA (mRNA) are the latest development in the area, and they promise an ideal [...] Read more.
Over two decades of preclinical and clinical experience have confirmed that gene therapy-activated matrices are potent tools for sustained gene modulation at the implantation area. Matrices activated with messenger RNA (mRNA) are the latest development in the area, and they promise an ideal combination of efficiency and safety. Indeed, implanted mRNA-activated matrices allow a sustained delivery of mRNA and the continuous production of therapeutic proteins in situ. In addition, they are particularly interesting to generate proteins acting on intracellular targets, as the translated protein can directly exert its therapeutic function. Still, mRNA-activated matrices are incipient technologies with a limited number of published records, and much is still to be understood before their successful implementation. Indeed, the design parameters of mRNA-activated matrices are crucial for their performance, as they affect mRNA stability, device immunogenicity, translation efficiency, and the duration of the therapy. Critical design factors include matrix composition and its mesh size, mRNA chemical modification and sequence, and the characteristics of the nanocarriers used for mRNA delivery. This review aims to provide some background relevant to these technologies and to summarize both the design space for mRNA-activated matrices and the current knowledge regarding their pharmaceutical performance. Furthermore, we will discuss potential applications of mRNA-activated matrices, mainly focusing on tissue engineering and immunomodulation. Full article
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29 pages, 32917 KiB  
Review
Emerging Trends in Advanced Translational Applications of Silver Nanoparticles: A Progressing Dawn of Nanotechnology
by Shaheen Husain, Aditya Nandi, Faizan Zarreen Simnani, Utsa Saha, Aishee Ghosh, Adrija Sinha, Aarya Sahay, Shailesh Kumar Samal, Pritam Kumar Panda and Suresh K. Verma
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010047 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 7425
Abstract
Nanoscience has emerged as a fascinating field of science, with its implementation in multiple applications in the form of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has recently been more impactful in diverse sectors such as the pharmaceutical industry, agriculture sector, and food market. The peculiar properties which [...] Read more.
Nanoscience has emerged as a fascinating field of science, with its implementation in multiple applications in the form of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has recently been more impactful in diverse sectors such as the pharmaceutical industry, agriculture sector, and food market. The peculiar properties which make nanoparticles as an asset are their large surface area and their size, which ranges between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm). Various technologies, such as chemical and biological processes, are being used to synthesize nanoparticles. The green chemistry route has become extremely popular due to its use in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanomaterials are versatile and impactful in different day to day applications, resulting in their increased utilization and distribution in human cells, tissues, and organs. Owing to the deployment of nanoparticles at a high demand, the need to produce nanoparticles has raised concerns regarding environmentally friendly processes. These processes are meant to produce nanomaterials with improved physiochemical properties that can have significant uses in the fields of medicine, physics, and biochemistry. Among a plethora of nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles have emerged as the most investigated and used nanoparticle. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become vital entities of study due to their distinctive properties which the scientific society aims to investigate the uses of. The current review addresses the modern expansion of AgNP synthesis, characterization, and mechanism, as well as global applications of AgNPs and their limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 5667 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Antibacterial Effect on Zirconia Implant Abutment by Silver Linear-Beam Ion Implantation
by Yang Yang, Mingyue Liu, Zhen Yang, Wei-Shao Lin, Li Chen and Jianguo Tan
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010046 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
Peri-implant lesions, such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, are bacterial-derived diseases that happen around dental implants, compromising the long-term stability and esthetics of implant restoration. Here, we report a surface-modification method on zirconia implant abutment using silver linear-beam ion implantation to reduce the [...] Read more.
Peri-implant lesions, such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, are bacterial-derived diseases that happen around dental implants, compromising the long-term stability and esthetics of implant restoration. Here, we report a surface-modification method on zirconia implant abutment using silver linear-beam ion implantation to reduce the bacterial growth around the implant site, thereby decreasing the prevalence of peri-implant lesions. The surface characteristics of zirconia after ion implantation was evaluated using energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and a contact-angle device. The antibacterial properties of implanted zirconia were evaluated using Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The biocompatibility of the material surface was evaluated using human gingival fibroblasts. Our study shows that the zirconia surface was successfully modified with silver nanoparticles by using the ion-implantation method. The surface modification remained stable, and the silver-ion elution was below 1 ppm after one-month of storage. The modified surface can effectively eliminate bacterial growth, while the normal gingiva’s cell growth is not interfered with. The results of the study demonstrate that a silver-ion-implanted zirconia surface possesses good antibacterial properties and good biocompatibility. The surface modification using silver-ion implantation is a promising method for future usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Functional Biomaterials in China)
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14 pages, 3491 KiB  
Article
One-Piece Zirconia Oral Implants for the Support of Three-Unit Fixed Dental Prostheses: Three-Year Results from a Prospective Case Series
by Ralf-Joachim Kohal, Kirstin Vach, Frank Butz, Benedikt Christopher Spies, Sebastian Berthold Maximilian Patzelt and Felix Burkhardt
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010045 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
The objective was to investigate the clinical and radiological outcome of one-piece zirconia oral implants to support three-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDP) after three years in function. Twenty-seven patients were treated with a total of 54 implants in a one-stage surgery and immediate [...] Read more.
The objective was to investigate the clinical and radiological outcome of one-piece zirconia oral implants to support three-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDP) after three years in function. Twenty-seven patients were treated with a total of 54 implants in a one-stage surgery and immediate provisionalization. Standardized radiographs were taken at implant placement, after one year and after three years, to evaluate peri-implant bone loss. Soft-tissue parameters were also assessed. Linear mixed regression models as well as Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used for analyzing differences between groups and time points (p < 0.05). At the three-year evaluation, one implant was lost, resulting in a cumulative survival rate of 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss amounted to 2.16 mm. An implant success grade I of 52% (bone loss of ≤2 mm) and success grade II of 61% (bone loss of ≤3 mm) were achieved. None of the evaluated baseline parameters affected bone loss. The survival rate of the zirconia implants was comparable to market-available titanium implants. However, an increased marginal bone loss was observed with a high peri-implantitis incidence and a resulting low implant success rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials and Oral Implantology)
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22 pages, 2061 KiB  
Review
Icariin: A Promising Natural Product in Biomedicine and Tissue Engineering
by Zahra Seyedi, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri, Vahideh Mohammadzadeh, Alireza Hashemzadeh, Aliakbar Haddad-Mashadrizeh, Mohammad Mashreghi, Mohsen Qayoomian, Mohammad Reza Hashemzadeh, Jesus Simal-Gandara and Mohammad Ehsan Taghavizadeh Yazdi
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010044 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4862
Abstract
Among scaffolds used in tissue engineering, natural biomaterials such as plant-based materials show a crucial role in cellular function due to their biocompatibility and chemical indicators. Because of environmentally friendly behavior and safety, green methods are so important in designing scaffolds. A key [...] Read more.
Among scaffolds used in tissue engineering, natural biomaterials such as plant-based materials show a crucial role in cellular function due to their biocompatibility and chemical indicators. Because of environmentally friendly behavior and safety, green methods are so important in designing scaffolds. A key bioactive flavonoid of the Epimedium plant, Icariin (ICRN), has a broad range of applications in improving scaffolds as a constant and non-immunogenic material, and in stimulating the cell growth, differentiation of chondrocytes as well as differentiation of embryonic stem cells towards cardiomyocytes. Moreover, fusion of ICRN into the hydrogel scaffolds or chemical crosslinking can enhance the secretion of the collagen matrix and proteoglycan in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. To scrutinize, in various types of cancer cells, ICRN plays a decisive role through increasing cytochrome c secretion, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as well as caspase stimulations. Surprisingly, ICRN can induce apoptosis, reduce viability and inhibit proliferation of cancer cells, and repress tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. Moreover, cancer cells no longer grow by halting the cell cycle at two checkpoints, G0/G1 and G2/M, through the inhibition of NF-κB by ICRN. Besides, improving nephrotoxicity occurring due to cisplatin and inhibiting multidrug resistance are the other applications of this biomaterial. Full article
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12 pages, 5451 KiB  
Article
A Novel Hydrophilic, Antibacterial Chitosan-Based Coating Prepared by Ultrasonic Atomization Assisted LbL Assembly Technique
by Xiaoyu Wang, Yuyang Zhou, Melissa Johnson, Cameron Milne, Sigen A, Yening Li, Wenxin Wang, Nan Zhang and Qian Xu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010043 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
To explore the potential applicability of chitosan (CTS), we prepared aldehyde chitosan (CTS-CHO) with chitosan and sodium periodate via oxidation reaction and then a chitosan-based hydrophilic and antibacterial coating on the surface of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) film was developed and characterized. The [...] Read more.
To explore the potential applicability of chitosan (CTS), we prepared aldehyde chitosan (CTS-CHO) with chitosan and sodium periodate via oxidation reaction and then a chitosan-based hydrophilic and antibacterial coating on the surface of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) film was developed and characterized. The oxidation degree was determined by Elemental analyser to be 12.53%, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the structure of CTS-CHO. It was evident that CTS-CHO is a biocompatible coating biomaterial with more than 80% cell viability obtained through the Live/Dead staining assay and the alamarBlue assay. The hydrophilic and antibacterial CTS-CHO coating on the PLA surface was prepared by ultrasonic atomization assisted LbL assembly technique due to Schiff’s base reaction within and between layers. The CTS-CHO coating had better hydrophilicity and transparency, a more definite industrialization potential, and higher antibacterial activity at experimental concentrations than the CTS coating. All of the results demonstrated that the ultrasonic atomization-assisted LbL assembly CTS-CHO coating is a promising alternative for improving hydrophilicity and antibacterial activity on the PLA surface. The functional groups of CTS-CHO could react with active components with amino groups via dynamic Schiff’s base reaction and provide the opportunity to create a drug releasing surface for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Biomaterials for Drug Delivery)
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13 pages, 14495 KiB  
Article
Acid-Triggered Release of Eugenol and Fluoride by Desensitizing Macro- and Nanoparticles
by Grigoriy Sereda, Abu Ahammadullah, Nisitha Wijewantha and Yulia Almiron Solano
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010042 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
The modern dentifrice industry needs non-toxic materials able to adhere to dentin, occlude dentinal tubules, hold pharmacons at the surface of dentin, and release them on demand to the location the tooth needs them most. Novel dental materials loaded with eugenol or fluoride-ions [...] Read more.
The modern dentifrice industry needs non-toxic materials able to adhere to dentin, occlude dentinal tubules, hold pharmacons at the surface of dentin, and release them on demand to the location the tooth needs them most. Novel dental materials loaded with eugenol or fluoride-ions examined for the release of the pharmacon in an aqueous suspension efficiently adhere to the surface of human dentin and occlude dentinal tubules as evidenced by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and a fluoride-selective electrode quantified the release of pharmacons. The surface modification with casein stabilizes micro- and nanoparticles of calcium carbonate in aqueous suspensions, enabling their application in dentifrices. The ability of particles to hold and release eugenol depends on their morphology and composition, with the casein-coated calcium carbonate microspheres being the most acid-sensitive and most promising for dentifrice applications. The novel material releases fluoride under physiologically low pH, regardless of the presence of other ingredients of the artificial saliva, which sustains the bulk fluoride concentration comparable with most fluorinated toothpastes. Low pH-triggered release mechanisms selectively supply the drug to the areas that need it most, reducing the overall dose and ushering in a new type of targeted dentifrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Dental Materials)
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17 pages, 2748 KiB  
Article
Combining IVUS + OCT Data, Biomechanical Models and Machine Learning Method for Accurate Coronary Plaque Morphology Quantification and Cap Thickness and Stress/Strain Index Predictions
by Rui Lv, Liang Wang, Akiko Maehara, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Xiaoya Guo, Habib Samady, Don P. Giddens, Jie Zheng, Gary S. Mintz and Dalin Tang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010041 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
Assessment and prediction of vulnerable plaque progression and rupture risk are of utmost importance for diagnosis, management and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and possible prevention of acute cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. However, accurate assessment of plaque vulnerability assessment and [...] Read more.
Assessment and prediction of vulnerable plaque progression and rupture risk are of utmost importance for diagnosis, management and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and possible prevention of acute cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. However, accurate assessment of plaque vulnerability assessment and prediction of its future changes require accurate plaque cap thickness, tissue component and structure quantifications and mechanical stress/strain calculations. Multi-modality intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography image data with follow-up were acquired from ten patients to obtain accurate and reliable plaque morphology for model construction. Three-dimensional thin-slice finite element models were constructed for 228 matched IVUS + OCT slices to obtain plaque stress/strain data for analysis. Quantitative plaque cap thickness and stress/strain indices were introduced as substitute quantitative plaque vulnerability indices (PVIs) and a machine learning method (random forest) was employed to predict PVI changes with actual patient IVUS + OCT follow-up data as the gold standard. Our prediction results showed that optimal prediction accuracies for changes in cap-PVI (C-PVI), mean cap stress PVI (meanS-PVI) and mean cap strain PVI (meanSn-PVI) were 90.3% (AUC = 0.877), 85.6% (AUC = 0.867) and 83.3% (AUC = 0.809), respectively. The improvements in prediction accuracy by the best combination predictor over the best single predictor were 6.6% for C-PVI, 10.0% for mean S-PVI and 8.0% for mean Sn-PVI. Our results demonstrated the potential using multi-modality IVUS + OCT image to accurately and efficiently predict plaque cap thickness and stress/strain index changes. Combining mechanical and morphological predictors may lead to better prediction accuracies. Full article
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39 pages, 74149 KiB  
Article
Additive Manufacturing of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Based Blends Using Fused Deposition Modelling for the Development of Biomedical Devices
by David Alexander Gregory, Annabelle T. R. Fricker, Peter Mitrev, Meghna Ray, Emmanuel Asare, Daniel Sim, Soponvit Larpnimitchai, Zixuan Zhang, Jinge Ma, Santosh S. V. Tetali and Ipsita Roy
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010040 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3547
Abstract
In the last few decades Additive Manufacturing has advanced and is becoming important for biomedical applications. In this study we look at a variety of biomedical devices including, bone implants, tooth implants, osteochondral tissue repair patches, general tissue repair patches, nerve guidance conduits [...] Read more.
In the last few decades Additive Manufacturing has advanced and is becoming important for biomedical applications. In this study we look at a variety of biomedical devices including, bone implants, tooth implants, osteochondral tissue repair patches, general tissue repair patches, nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) and coronary artery stents to which fused deposition modelling (FDM) can be applied. We have proposed CAD designs for these devices and employed a cost-effective 3D printer to fabricate proof-of-concept prototypes. We highlight issues with current CAD design and slicing and suggest optimisations of more complex designs targeted towards biomedical applications. We demonstrate the ability to print patient specific implants from real CT scans and reconstruct missing structures by means of mirroring and mesh mixing. A blend of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a family of biocompatible and bioresorbable natural polymers and Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), a known bioresorbable medical polymer is used. Our characterisation of the PLA/PHA filament suggest that its tensile properties might be useful to applications such as stents, NGCs, and bone scaffolds. In addition to this, the proof-of-concept work for other applications shows that FDM is very useful for a large variety of other soft tissue applications, however other more elastomeric MCL-PHAs need to be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials Sourced from Nature)
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16 pages, 3046 KiB  
Article
BMSCs-Seeded Interpenetrating Network GelMA/SF Composite Hydrogel for Articular Cartilage Repair
by Kaiwen Zheng, Xu Zheng, Mingzhao Yu, Yu He and Di Wu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010039 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Because of limited self-healing ability, the treatment of articular cartilage defects is still an important clinical challenge. Hydrogel-based biomaterials have broad application prospects in articular cartilage repair. In this study, gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)and silk fibroin (SF) were combined to form a composite hydrogel [...] Read more.
Because of limited self-healing ability, the treatment of articular cartilage defects is still an important clinical challenge. Hydrogel-based biomaterials have broad application prospects in articular cartilage repair. In this study, gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)and silk fibroin (SF) were combined to form a composite hydrogel with an interpenetrating network (IPN) structure under ultraviolet irradiation and ethanol treatment. Introducing silk fibroin into GelMA hydrogel significantly increased mechanical strength as compressive modulus reached 300 kPa in a GelMA/SF-5 (50 mg/mL silk fibroin) group. Moreover, composite IPN hydrogels demonstrated reduced swelling ratios and favorable biocompatibility and supported chondrogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) at day 7 and day 14. Additionally, significantly higher gene expressions of Col-2, Acan, and Sox-9 (p < 0.01) were found in IPN hydrogel groups when compared with the GelMA group. An in vivo study was performed to confirm that the GelMA-SF IPN hydrogel could promote cartilage regeneration. The results showed partial regeneration of cartilage in groups treated with hydrogels only and satisfactory cartilage repair in groups of cell-seeded hydrogels, indicating the necessity of additional seeding cells in hydro-gel-based cartilage treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that the GelMA/SF IPN hydrogels may be a potential functional material in cartilage repair and regeneration. Full article
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13 pages, 53815 KiB  
Article
Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Augmented Anticancer Activity of ZrO2 Doped ZnO/rGO Nanocomposite
by Maqusood Ahamed, Rashid Lateef, M. A. Majeed Khan, Pavan Rajanahalli and Mohd Javed Akhtar
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010038 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) via green process has received enormous attention for its application in biomedicine. Here, a simple and cost-effective green route is reported for the synthesis of ZrO2-doped ZnO/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs) exploiting ginger [...] Read more.
Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) via green process has received enormous attention for its application in biomedicine. Here, a simple and cost-effective green route is reported for the synthesis of ZrO2-doped ZnO/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs) exploiting ginger rhizome extract. Our aim was to improve the anticancer performance of ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs without toxicity to normal cells. The preparation of pure ZnO NPs, ZnO/ZrO2 NCs, and ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). XRD spectra of ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs exhibited two distinct sets of diffraction peaks, ZnO wurtzite structure, and ZrO2 phases (monoclinic + tetragonal). The SEM and TEM data show that ZrO2-doped ZnO particles were uniformly distributed on rGO sheets with the excellent quality of lattice fringes without alterations. PL spectra intensity and particle size of ZnO decreased after ZrO2-doping and rGO addition. DLS data demonstrated that green prepared samples show excellent colloidal stability in aqueous suspension. Biological results showed that ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs display around 3.5-fold higher anticancer efficacy in human lung cancer (A549) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells than ZnO NPs. A mechanistic approach suggested that the anticancer response of ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs was mediated via oxidative stress evident by the induction of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and the reduction of the glutathione level. Moreover, green prepared nanostructures display good cytocompatibility in normal cell lines; human lung fibroblasts (IMR90) and breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells. However, the cytocompatibility of ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs in normal cells was better than those of pure ZnO NPs and ZnO/ZrO2 NCs. Augmented anticancer potential and improved cytocompatibility of ZnO/ZrO2/rGO NCs was due to ginger extract mediated beneficial synergism between ZnO, ZrO2, and rGO. This novel investigation emphasizes the significance of medicinal herb mediated ZnO-based NCs synthesis for biomedical research. Full article
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11 pages, 2495 KiB  
Article
Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ba0.94Sr0.06Sn0.09Ti0.91O3/PDMS Composite for Self-Powered Human Motion Monitoring
by Lin Deng, Weili Deng, Tao Yang, Guo Tian, Long Jin, Hongrui Zhang, Boling Lan, Shenglong Wang, Yong Ao, Bo Wu and Weiqing Yang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010037 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3887
Abstract
Piezoelectric wearable electronics, which can sense external pressure, have attracted widespread attention. However, the enhancement of electromechanical coupling performance remains a great challenge. Here, a new solid solution of Ba1−xSrxSn0.09Ti0.91O3 (x = [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric wearable electronics, which can sense external pressure, have attracted widespread attention. However, the enhancement of electromechanical coupling performance remains a great challenge. Here, a new solid solution of Ba1−xSrxSn0.09Ti0.91O3 (x = 0.00~0.08) is prepared to explore potential high-performance, lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. The coexistence of the rhombohedral phase, orthorhombic phase and tetragonal phase is determined in a ceramic with x = 0.06, showing enhanced electrical performance with a piezoelectric coefficient of d33~650 pC/N. Furthermore, Ba0.94Sr0.06Sn0.09Ti0.91O3 (BSST) is co-blended with PDMS to prepare flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) and their performance is explored. The effects of inorganic particle concentration and distribution on the piezoelectric output of the composite are systematically analyzed by experimental tests and computational simulations. As a result, the optimal VOC and ISC of the PENG (40 wt%) can reach 3.05 V and 44.5 nA, respectively, at 138.89 kPa, and the optimal sensitivity of the device is up to 21.09 mV/kPa. Due to the flexibility of the device, the prepared PENG can be attached to the surface of human skin as a sensor to monitor vital movements of the neck, fingers, elbows, spine, knees and feet of people, thus warning of dangerous behavior or incorrect posture and providing support for sports rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Wearable Movement Sensors)
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10 pages, 2254 KiB  
Review
Role of FGF-18 in Bone Regeneration
by Kavipriya Murugaiyan, Sivashanmugam Amirthalingam, Nathaniel Suk-Yeon Hwang and Rangasamy Jayakumar
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010036 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2792
Abstract
In tissue engineering, three key components are cells, biological/mechanical cues, and scaffolds. Biological cues are normally proteins such as growth factors and their derivatives, bioactive molecules, and the regulators of a gene. Numerous growth factors such as VEGF, FGF, and TGF-β are being [...] Read more.
In tissue engineering, three key components are cells, biological/mechanical cues, and scaffolds. Biological cues are normally proteins such as growth factors and their derivatives, bioactive molecules, and the regulators of a gene. Numerous growth factors such as VEGF, FGF, and TGF-β are being studied and applied in different studies. The carriers used to release these growth factors also play an important role in their functioning. From the early part of the 1990s, more research has beenconductedon the role of fibroblast growth factors on the various physiological functions in our body. The fibroblast growth factor family contains 22 members. Fibroblast growth factors such as 2, 9, and 18 are mainly associated with the differentiation of osteoblasts and in bone regeneration. FGF-18 stimulates the PI3K/ERK pathway and smad1/5/8 pathway mediated via BMP-2 by blocking its antagonist, which is essential for bone formation. FGF-18 incorporated hydrogel and scaffolds had showed enhanced bone regeneration. This review highlights these functions and current trends using this growth factor and potential outcomes in the field of bone regeneration. Full article
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24 pages, 6361 KiB  
Review
Functional Two-Dimensional Materials for Bioelectronic Neural Interfacing
by Mohammad Karbalaei Akbari, Nasrin Siraj Lopa, Marina Shahriari, Aliasghar Najafzadehkhoee, Dušan Galusek and Serge Zhuiykov
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010035 - 7 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6150
Abstract
Realizing the neurological information processing by analyzing the complex data transferring behavior of populations and individual neurons is one of the fast-growing fields of neuroscience and bioelectronic technologies. This field is anticipated to cover a wide range of advanced applications, including neural dynamic [...] Read more.
Realizing the neurological information processing by analyzing the complex data transferring behavior of populations and individual neurons is one of the fast-growing fields of neuroscience and bioelectronic technologies. This field is anticipated to cover a wide range of advanced applications, including neural dynamic monitoring, understanding the neurological disorders, human brain–machine communications and even ambitious mind-controlled prosthetic implant systems. To fulfill the requirements of high spatial and temporal resolution recording of neural activities, electrical, optical and biosensing technologies are combined to develop multifunctional bioelectronic and neuro-signal probes. Advanced two-dimensional (2D) layered materials such as graphene, graphene oxide, transition metal dichalcogenides and MXenes with their atomic-layer thickness and multifunctional capabilities show bio-stimulation and multiple sensing properties. These characteristics are beneficial factors for development of ultrathin-film electrodes for flexible neural interfacing with minimum invasive chronic interfaces to the brain cells and cortex. The combination of incredible properties of 2D nanostructure places them in a unique position, as the main materials of choice, for multifunctional reception of neural activities. The current review highlights the recent achievements in 2D-based bioelectronic systems for monitoring of biophysiological indicators and biosignals at neural interfaces. Full article
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25 pages, 28701 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Anodized Titanium Surface for Transgingival Dental Implant Elements—Preliminary Report
by Jakub Hadzik, Paweł Kubasiewicz-Ross, Tomasz Gębarowski, Natalia Waloszczyk, Artur Maciej, Agnieszka Stolarczyk, Tomasz Gedrange, Marzena Dominiak, Ernest Szajna and Wojciech Simka
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010034 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5618
Abstract
The characteristics such as microtopography, physical and chemical properties influence the behavior of an implant in a soft tissue. Anodization—as a potent method of titanium alloy surface modification—of the transgingival abutment or healing screw, has achieved some improvement. One of the possible surface [...] Read more.
The characteristics such as microtopography, physical and chemical properties influence the behavior of an implant in a soft tissue. Anodization—as a potent method of titanium alloy surface modification—of the transgingival abutment or healing screw, has achieved some improvement. One of the possible surface treatment method is low-pressure radiofrequency oxygen plasma treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical properties and cytocompatibility of the experimental surface. Titanium discs made of grade-23 titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) anodized (A sample) with different voltage parameters (28, 67, 78, and 98 V) were included in the study. Half of the samples regarded as the “S” group were additionally treated with low-pressure radiofrequency oxygen plasma treatment. The surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemically investigated via a corrosion test. Furthermore, two cell lines were used, including the CHO-compatible reference line and a primary human fibroblast line for the MTT assay; direct (contact) cytotoxicity of the materials was tested with the cells, and the growth of fibroblasts on the surfaces of the different materials was tested. The morphology of the “S”-treated samples did not differ from the morphology of only-anodized samples. However, the oxygen concentration on the surface in that group slightly increased by about 1% as a result of post-trial treatment. The highest corrosion resistance was observed for both A-78 V and S-78 V samples. The cytotoxicity assay revealed no changes in cell morphology or vitality. The MTT test proved comparable culture viability among all groups; however, the “S” samples showed statistically significantly higher fibroblast proliferation and adhesion scores compared to the “A” samples. Through the in vitro study, the low-pressure radiofrequency oxygen plasma treatment of the anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy presented itself as an auspicious option in the field of transgingival element surface modification of implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioengineering in Dentistry)
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29 pages, 1649 KiB  
Systematic Review
Four-Dimensional Superimposition Techniques to Compose Dental Dynamic Virtual Patients: A Systematic Review
by Ying Yuan, Qian Liu, Shuo Yang and Wulin He
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010033 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Four-dimensional virtual patient is a simulation model integrating multiple dynamic data. This study aimed to review the techniques in virtual four-dimensional dental patients. Searches up to November 2022 were performed using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. The studies included [...] Read more.
Four-dimensional virtual patient is a simulation model integrating multiple dynamic data. This study aimed to review the techniques in virtual four-dimensional dental patients. Searches up to November 2022 were performed using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. The studies included were based on the superimposition of two or more digital information types involving at least one dynamic technique. Methodological assessment of the risk of bias was performed according to the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist. Methods, programs, information, registration techniques, applications, outcomes, and limitations of the virtual patients were analyzed. Twenty-seven full texts were reviewed, including 17 case reports, 10 non-randomized controlled experimental studies, 75 patients, and 3 phantoms. Few studies showed a low risk of bias. Dynamic data included real-time jaw motion, simulated jaw position, and dynamic facial information. Three to five types of information were integrated to create virtual patients based on diverse superimposition methods. Thirteen studies showed acceptable dynamic techniques/models/registration accuracy, whereas 14 studies only introduced the feasibility. The superimposition of stomatognathic data from different information collection devices is feasible for creating dynamic virtual patients. Further studies should focus on analyzing the accuracy of four-dimensional virtual patients and developing a comprehensive system. Full article
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14 pages, 3420 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Direct Composite Veneers via Injectable Resin Composite and Silicone Matrices in Comparison to Diagnostic Wax-Up
by Vasiliki Kouri, Domna Moldovani and Efstratios Papazoglou
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010032 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5063
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the discrepancy between the diagnostic wax-up and the resulting direct veneers using different matrices. Materials and method: A total of 48 identical misaligned models, 12 wax-up models and one ‘every other tooth’ wax-up model were 3D printed. Group 1: Transparent [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate the discrepancy between the diagnostic wax-up and the resulting direct veneers using different matrices. Materials and method: A total of 48 identical misaligned models, 12 wax-up models and one ‘every other tooth’ wax-up model were 3D printed. Group 1: Transparent silicone matrices with holes for the injection of the flowable composite. Group 2: The same procedure as group 1, but the first three teeth were restored using the matrix constructed from the ‘every other tooth’ wax-up model. Group 3: Transparent silicone matrices cut for each tooth and preheated resin composite. Group 4: The same procedure as group 3, but the loaded matrix was placed first in the clear plastic tray, which was used for the matrix’s fabrication. Group 5: Wax-up models (control group). Scans from the veneers were superimposed with the scans from the wax-up and compared using the Patient Monitoring software. Measurements were made at the incisal, middle and cervical third. Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn post-hoc test (p < 0.05) were used to analyze the results. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2 and the control. Group 3 was different from the control in the incisal and middle third, and group 4 was different in the cervical third. Conclusions: (1) Use of one or two matrices and the injection of flowable composite were accurate techniques. (2) Use of a matrix for each tooth combined with a pre-heated composite was the most inaccurate technique, but the use of the clear tray in combination with the matrix improved the accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 14250 KiB  
Article
Sequential Release of Panax Notoginseng Saponins and Osteopractic Total Flavone from Poly (L-Lactic Acid) Scaffold for Treating Glucocorticoid-Associated Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head
by Guiyu Feng, Pingxin Zhang, Jian Huang, Yao Yu, Fenghe Yang, Xueqian Zhao, Wei Wang, Dongyang Li, Song Sun, Xufeng Niu, Limin Chai and Jinyu Li
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010031 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Glucocorticoids inhibit angiogenesis in the femoral head, which fails to nourish the bone tissue and leads to osteonecrosis. Restoring angiogenesis is not only essential for vessel formation, but also crucial for osteogenesis. Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is commonly used in the [...] Read more.
Glucocorticoids inhibit angiogenesis in the femoral head, which fails to nourish the bone tissue and leads to osteonecrosis. Restoring angiogenesis is not only essential for vessel formation, but also crucial for osteogenesis. Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is commonly used in the bone tissue engineering field. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and osteopractic total flavone (OTF) promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, respectively. We designed a sequentially releasing PLLA scaffold including PLLA loaded with OTF (inner layer) and PLLA loaded with PNS (outer layer). We assessed the osteogenic effect of angiogenesis in this scaffold by comparing it with the one-layered scaffold (PLLA embedded with OTF and PNS) in vivo. Results from the micro-CT showed that the data of bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume (BV), and percent bone volume (BV/TV) in the PO-PP group were significantly higher than those in the POP group (p < 0.01). Histological analyses show that the PO-PP scaffold exhibits better angiogenic and osteogenic effects compared with the one-layered scaffold. These might result from the different structures between them, where the sequential release of a bi-layer scaffold achieves the osteogenic effect of vascularization by initially releasing PNS in the outer layer. We further explored the possible mechanism by an immunohistochemistry analysis and an immunofluorescence assay. The results showed that the protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1(CD31) in the PO-PP scaffold were significantly higher than those in the POP scaffold (p < 0.01); the protein expressions of osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the PO-PP scaffold were significantly higher than those in the POP scaffold (p < 0.05). Upregulating the expressions of angiogenic and osteogenic proteins might be the possible mechanism. Full article
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16 pages, 3405 KiB  
Article
Increased UHMWPE Particle-Induced Osteolysis in Fetuin-A-Deficient Mice
by Christina Polan, Christina Brenner, Monika Herten, Gero Hilken, Florian Grabellus, Heinz-Lothar Meyer, Manuel Burggraf, Marcel Dudda, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Christian Wedemeyer and Max Daniel Kauther
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010030 - 4 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic prosthetic loosening. Implant wear particles stimulate tissue macrophages inducing an aseptic inflammatory reaction, which ultimately results in bone loss. Fetuin-A is a key regulator of calcified matrix metabolism and an acute phase protein. We studied [...] Read more.
Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic prosthetic loosening. Implant wear particles stimulate tissue macrophages inducing an aseptic inflammatory reaction, which ultimately results in bone loss. Fetuin-A is a key regulator of calcified matrix metabolism and an acute phase protein. We studied the influence of fetuin-A on particle-induced osteolysis in an established mouse model using fetuin-A-deficient mice. Ten fetuin-A-deficient (Ahsg−/−) mice and ten wild-type animals (Ahsg+/+) were assigned to test group receiving ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particle implantation or to control group (sham surgery). After 14 days, bone metabolism parameters RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, phosphate, and desoxypyridinoline (DPD) were examined. Bone volume was determined by microcomputed tomography (μCT); osteolytic regions and osteoclasts were histomorphometrically analyzed. After particle treatment, bone resorption was significantly increased in Ahsg−/− mice compared with corresponding Ahsg+/+ wild-type mice (p = 0.007). Eroded surface areas in Ahsg−/− mice were significantly increased (p = 0.002) compared with Ahsg+/+ mice, as well as the number of osteoclasts compared with control (p = 0.039). Fetuin-A deficiency revealed increased OPG (p = 0.002), and decreased levels of DPD (p = 0.038), OC (p = 0.036), ALP (p < 0.001), and Ca (p = 0.001) compared with wild-type animals. Under osteolytic conditions in Ahsg−/− mice, OPG was increased (p = 0.013), ALP (p = 0.015) and DPD (p = 0.012) were decreased compared with the Ahsg+/+ group. Osteolytic conditions lead to greater bone loss in fetuin-A-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Reduced fetuin-A serum levels may be a risk factor for particle-induced osteolysis while the protective effect of fetuin-A might be a future pathway for prophylaxis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffolds and Implants for Bone Regeneration)
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14 pages, 3145 KiB  
Article
Full Skin Equivalent Models for Simulation of Burn Wound Healing, Exploring Skin Regeneration and Cytokine Response
by Patrick P. G. Mulder, Rajiv S. Raktoe, Marcel Vlig, Anouk Elgersma, Esther Middelkoop and Bouke K. H. L. Boekema
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010029 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
Healing of burn injury is a complex process that often leads to the development of functional and aesthetic complications. To study skin regeneration in more detail, organotypic skin models, such as full skin equivalents (FSEs) generated from dermal matrices, can be used. Here, [...] Read more.
Healing of burn injury is a complex process that often leads to the development of functional and aesthetic complications. To study skin regeneration in more detail, organotypic skin models, such as full skin equivalents (FSEs) generated from dermal matrices, can be used. Here, FSEs were generated using de-epidermalized dermis (DED) and collagen matrices MatriDerm® and Mucomaix®. Our aim was to validate the MatriDerm- and Mucomaix-based FSEs for the use as in vitro models of wound healing. Therefore, we first characterized the FSEs in terms of skin development and cell proliferation. Proper dermal and epidermal morphogenesis was established in all FSEs and was comparable to ex vivo human skin models. Extension of culture time improved the organization of the epidermal layers and the basement membrane in MatriDerm-based FSE but resulted in rapid degradation of the Mucomaix-based FSE. After applying a standardized burn injury to the models, re-epithelization occurred in the DED- and MatriDerm-based FSEs at 2 weeks after injury, similar to ex vivo human skin. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in the culture media of all models, but no significant differences were observed between models. We anticipate that these animal-free in vitro models can facilitate research on skin regeneration and can be used to test therapeutic interventions in a preclinical setting to improve wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Biomaterials and Skin Wound Healing)
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21 pages, 7146 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Compressive and Permeability Behaviors of Trabecular-Like Porous Structure with Mixed Porosity Based on Mechanical Topology
by Long Chao, Yangdong He, Jiasen Gu, Deqiao Xie, Youwen Yang, Lida Shen, Guofeng Wu, Lin Wang and Zongjun Tian
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010028 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
The mechanical properties and permeability properties of artificial bone implants have high-level requirements. A method for the design of trabecular-like porous structure (TLPS) with mixed porosity is proposed based on the study of the mechanical and permeability characteristics of natural bone. With this [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties and permeability properties of artificial bone implants have high-level requirements. A method for the design of trabecular-like porous structure (TLPS) with mixed porosity is proposed based on the study of the mechanical and permeability characteristics of natural bone. With this technique, the morphology and density of internal porous structures can be adjusted, depending on the implantation requirements, to meet the mechanical and permeability requirements of natural bone. The design parameters mainly include the seed points, topology optimization coefficient, load value, irregularity, and scaling factor. Characteristic parameters primarily include porosity and pore size distribution. Statistical methods are used to analyze the relationship between design parameters and characteristic parameters for precise TLPS design and thereby provide a theoretical basis and guidance. TLPS scaffolds were prepared by selective laser melting technology. First, TLPS under different design parameters were analyzed using the finite element method and permeability simulation. The results were then verified by quasistatic compression and cell experiments. The scaling factor and topology optimization coefficient were found to largely affect the mechanical and permeability properties of the TLPS. The corresponding compressive strength reached 270–580 MPa; the elastic modulus ranged between 6.43 and 9.716 GPa, and permeability was 0.6 × 10−9–21 × 10−9; these results were better than the mechanical properties and permeability of natural bone. Thus, TLPS can effectively improve the success rate of bone implantation, which provides an effective theory and application basis for bone implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced 3D Printing Biomaterials)
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32 pages, 4316 KiB  
Review
Green Carbon Dots: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties and Biomedical Applications
by Hong Hui Jing, Fevzi Bardakci, Sinan Akgöl, Kevser Kusat, Mohd Adnan, Mohammad Jahoor Alam, Reena Gupta, Sumaira Sahreen, Yeng Chen, Subash C. B. Gopinath and Sreenivasan Sasidharan
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010027 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 14853
Abstract
Carbon dots (CDs) are a new category of crystalline, quasi-spherical fluorescence, “zero-dimensional” carbon nanomaterials with a spatial size between 1 nm to 10 nm and have gained widespread attention in recent years. Green CDs are carbon dots synthesised from renewable biomass such as [...] Read more.
Carbon dots (CDs) are a new category of crystalline, quasi-spherical fluorescence, “zero-dimensional” carbon nanomaterials with a spatial size between 1 nm to 10 nm and have gained widespread attention in recent years. Green CDs are carbon dots synthesised from renewable biomass such as agro-waste, plants or medicinal plants and other organic biomaterials. Plant-mediated synthesis of CDs is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with the green synthesis of CDs. Notably, CDs made with green technology are economical and far superior to those manufactured with physicochemical methods due to their exclusive benefits, such as being affordable, having high stability, having a simple protocol, and being safer and eco-benign. Green CDs can be synthesized by using ultrasonic strategy, chemical oxidation, carbonization, solvothermal and hydrothermal processes, and microwave irradiation using various plant-based organic resources. CDs made by green technology have diverse applications in biomedical fields such as bioimaging, biosensing and nanomedicine, which are ascribed to their unique properties, including excellent luminescence effect, strong stability and good biocompatibility. This review mainly focuses on green CDs synthesis, characterization techniques, beneficial properties of plant resource-based green CDs and their biomedical applications. This review article also looks at the research gaps and future research directions for the continuous deepening of the exploration of green CDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 5095 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds Coated with Hyaluronic Acid–Fatty Acid Conjugates: A Feasibility Study
by Stefania De Luca, Valentina Verdoliva, Saeid Kargozar and Francesco Baino
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010026 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Promoting bone healing is a key challenge in our society that can be tackled by developing new implantable biomaterials provided with regenerative properties. In this work, the coating of three-dimensional porous glass-derived scaffolds with hyaluronic acid (HA)-fatty acids was investigated for the first [...] Read more.
Promoting bone healing is a key challenge in our society that can be tackled by developing new implantable biomaterials provided with regenerative properties. In this work, the coating of three-dimensional porous glass-derived scaffolds with hyaluronic acid (HA)-fatty acids was investigated for the first time. The starting scaffolds, based on bioactive silicate glass, were produced by foam replication followed by sintering; then, HA-palmitate and HA-oleate conjugate coatings were deposited on the scaffold struts through a dipping procedure. FT-IR analysis confirmed the successful deposition of the coatings on the surface and struts of the scaffolds, the foam-like architecture of which was maintained as assessed by SEM investigations. The in vitro bioactivity of the HA–fatty-acid-coated scaffolds was studied by immersion tests in simulated body fluid and the subsequent evaluation of hydroxyapatite formation. The deposition of the polymeric coating did not inhibit the apatite-forming ability of scaffolds, as revealed by the formation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite agglomerates 48 h from immersion. These promising results motivate further investigation of these novel bioactive systems, which are expected to combine the bone-bonding properties of the glass with the wound-healing promotion carried out by the polymeric conjugates. Full article
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14 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
Laccase-Carrying Polylactic Acid Electrospun Fibers, Advantages and Limitations in Bio-Oxidation of Amines and Alcohols
by Valentina Giraldi, Maria Letizia Focarete and Daria Giacomini
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010025 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Laccases are oxidative enzymes that could be good candidates for the functionalization of biopolymers with several applications as biosensors for the determination of bioactive amine and alcohols, for bioremediation of industrial wastewater, and for greener catalysts in oxidation reactions in organic synthesis, especially [...] Read more.
Laccases are oxidative enzymes that could be good candidates for the functionalization of biopolymers with several applications as biosensors for the determination of bioactive amine and alcohols, for bioremediation of industrial wastewater, and for greener catalysts in oxidation reactions in organic synthesis, especially used for non-phenolic compounds in combination with redox mediators in the so-called Laccase Mediator System (LMS). In this work, we describe the immobilization of Laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTv) in poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) nanofibers and its application in LMS oxidation reactions. The PLLA-LTv catalysts were successfully produced by electrospinning of a water-in-oil emulsion with an optimized method. Different enzyme loadings (1.6, 3.2, and 5.1% w/w) were explored, and the obtained mats were thoroughly characterized. The actual amount of the enzyme in the fibers and the eventual enzyme leaching in different solvents were evaluated. Finally, the PLLA-LTv mats were successfully applied as such in the oxidation reaction of catechol, and in the LMS method with TEMPO as mediator in the oxidation of amines with the advantage of easier work-up procedures by the immobilized enzyme. However, the PLLA-LTv failed the oxidation of alcohols with respect to the free enzyme. A tentative explanation was provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Functional Biomaterials in Italy)
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32 pages, 20336 KiB  
Article
Pepper-Mediated Green Synthesis of Selenium and Tellurium Nanoparticles with Antibacterial and Anticancer Potential
by Veer Shah, David Medina-Cruz, Ada Vernet-Crua, Linh B. Truong, Eduardo Sotelo, Ebrahim Mostafavi, María Ujué González, José Miguel García-Martín, Jorge L. Cholula-Díaz and Thomas J. Webster
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010024 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3681
Abstract
The production of nanoparticles for biomedical applications (namely with antimicrobial and anticancer properties) has been significantly hampered using traditional physicochemical approaches, which often produce nanostructures with poor biocompatibility properties requiring post-synthesis functionalization to implement features that such biomedical applications require. As an alternative, [...] Read more.
The production of nanoparticles for biomedical applications (namely with antimicrobial and anticancer properties) has been significantly hampered using traditional physicochemical approaches, which often produce nanostructures with poor biocompatibility properties requiring post-synthesis functionalization to implement features that such biomedical applications require. As an alternative, green nanotechnology and the synthesis of environmentally friendly nanomaterials have been gaining attention over the last few decades, using living organisms or biomolecules derived from them, as the main raw materials to produce cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and ready-to-be-used nanomaterials. In this article and building upon previous knowledge, we have designed and implemented the synthesis of selenium and tellurium nanoparticles using extracts from fresh jalapeño and habanero peppers. After characterization, in this study, the nanoparticles were tested for both their antimicrobial and anticancer features against isolates of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and skin cancer cell lines, respectively. The nanosystems produced nanoparticles via a fast, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method showing different antimicrobial profiles between elements. While selenium nanoparticles lacked an antimicrobial effect at the concentrations tested, those made of tellurium produced a significant antibacterial effect even at the lowest concentration tested. These effects were correlated when the nanoparticles were tested for their cytocompatibility and anticancer properties. While selenium nanoparticles were biocompatible and had a dose-dependent anticancer effect, tellurium-based nanoparticles lacked such biocompatibility while exerting a powerful anti-cancer effect. Further, this study demonstrated a suitable mechanism of action for killing bacteria and cancer cells involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In summary, this study introduces a new green nanomedicine synthesis approach to create novel selenium and tellurium nanoparticles with attractive properties for numerous biomedical applications. Full article
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37 pages, 6271 KiB  
Review
Gelatin and Bioactive Glass Composites for Tissue Engineering: A Review
by Maria E. V. Barreto, Rebeca P. Medeiros, Adam Shearer, Marcus V. L. Fook, Maziar Montazerian and John C. Mauro
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010023 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4612
Abstract
Nano-/micron-sized bioactive glass (BG) particles are attractive candidates for both soft and hard tissue engineering. They can chemically bond to the host tissues, enhance new tissue formation, activate cell proliferation, stimulate the genetic expression of proteins, and trigger unique anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer [...] Read more.
Nano-/micron-sized bioactive glass (BG) particles are attractive candidates for both soft and hard tissue engineering. They can chemically bond to the host tissues, enhance new tissue formation, activate cell proliferation, stimulate the genetic expression of proteins, and trigger unique anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer functionalities. Recently, composites based on biopolymers and BG particles have been developed with various state-of-the-art techniques for tissue engineering. Gelatin, a semi-synthetic biopolymer, has attracted the attention of researchers because it is derived from the most abundant protein in the body, viz., collagen. It is a polymer that can be dissolved in water and processed to acquire different configurations, such as hydrogels, fibers, films, and scaffolds. Searching “bioactive glass gelatin” in the tile on Scopus renders 80 highly relevant articles published in the last ~10 years, which signifies the importance of such composites. First, this review addresses the basic concepts of soft and hard tissue engineering, including the healing mechanisms and limitations ahead. Then, current knowledge on gelatin/BG composites including composition, processing and properties is summarized and discussed both for soft and hard tissue applications. This review explores physical, chemical and mechanical features and ion-release effects of such composites concerning osteogenic and angiogenic responses in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, recent developments of BG/gelatin composites using 3D/4D printing for tissue engineering are presented. Finally, the perspectives and current challenges in developing desirable composites for the regeneration of different tissues are outlined. Full article
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14 pages, 3764 KiB  
Article
Improved Bone Regeneration Using Biodegradable Polybutylene Succinate Artificial Scaffold in a Rabbit Model
by Giulio Edoardo Vigni, Giovanni Cassata, Giusj Caldarella, Roberta Cirincione, Mariano Licciardi, Giovanni Carlo Miceli, Roberto Puleio, Lorenzo D’Itri, Roberta Lo Coco, Lawrence Camarda and Luca Cicero
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010022 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
The treatment of extensive bone loss represents a great challenge for orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. Most of the time, those treatments consist of multiple-stage surgeries over a prolonged period, pose significant infectious risks and carry the possibility of rejection. In this study, we [...] Read more.
The treatment of extensive bone loss represents a great challenge for orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. Most of the time, those treatments consist of multiple-stage surgeries over a prolonged period, pose significant infectious risks and carry the possibility of rejection. In this study, we investigated if the use of a polybutylene succinate (PBS) micro-fibrillar scaffold may improve bone regeneration in these procedures. In an in vivo rabbit model, the healing of two calvarial bone defects was studied. One defect was left to heal spontaneously while the other was treated with a PBS scaffold. Computed tomography (CT) scans, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed at 4, 12 and 24 weeks. CT examination showed a significantly larger area of mineralised tissue in the treated defect. Histological examination confirmed a greater presence of active osteoblasts and mineralised tissue in the scaffold-treated defect, with no evidence of inflammatory infiltrates around it. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for CD56 at the transition point between healthy bone and the fracture zone. This study demonstrates that the use of a PBS microfibrillar scaffold in critical bone defects on a rabbit model is a potentially effective technique to improve bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanosciences in Regenerative Medicine and Cancer Treatment)
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29 pages, 2378 KiB  
Review
Updated Perspectives on Direct Vascular Cellular Reprogramming and Their Potential Applications in Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts
by Saneth Gavishka Sellahewa, Jojo Yijiao Li and Qingzhong Xiao
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010021 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is a globally prevalent disease with far-reaching medical and socio-economic consequences. Although improvements in treatment pathways and revascularisation therapies have slowed disease progression, contemporary management fails to modulate the underlying atherosclerotic process and sustainably replace damaged arterial tissue. Direct cellular reprogramming [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is a globally prevalent disease with far-reaching medical and socio-economic consequences. Although improvements in treatment pathways and revascularisation therapies have slowed disease progression, contemporary management fails to modulate the underlying atherosclerotic process and sustainably replace damaged arterial tissue. Direct cellular reprogramming is a rapidly evolving and innovative tissue regenerative approach that holds promise to restore functional vasculature and restore blood perfusion. The approach utilises cell plasticity to directly convert somatic cells to another cell fate without a pluripotent stage. In this narrative literature review, we comprehensively analyse and compare direct reprogramming protocols to generate endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular progenitors. Specifically, we carefully examine the reprogramming factors, their molecular mechanisms, conversion efficacies and therapeutic benefits for each induced vascular cell. Attention is given to the application of these novel approaches with tissue engineered vascular grafts as a therapeutic and disease-modelling platform for cardiovascular diseases. We conclude with a discussion on the ethics of direct reprogramming, its current challenges, and future perspectives. Full article
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