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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 10, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Brushite (DCPD) is among the possible precursors of the inorganic phase of the hard tissues of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
The Regenerative Applicability of Bioactive Glass and Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate in Bone Tissue Engineering: A Transformation Perspective
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010016
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The conventional applicability of biomaterials in the field of bone tissue engineering takes into consideration several key parameters to achieve desired results for prospective translational use. Hence, several engineering strategies have been developed to model in the regenerative parameters of different forms of [...] Read more.
The conventional applicability of biomaterials in the field of bone tissue engineering takes into consideration several key parameters to achieve desired results for prospective translational use. Hence, several engineering strategies have been developed to model in the regenerative parameters of different forms of biomaterials, including bioactive glass and β-tricalcium phosphate. This review examines the different ways these two materials are transformed and assembled with other regenerative factors to improve their application for bone tissue engineering. We discuss the role of the engineering strategy used and the regenerative responses and mechanisms associated with them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Porous Bone Scaffolds Using Alginate and Bioactive Glass
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010015
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Porous composite scaffold using an alginate and bioactive glass ICIE16M was synthesized by a simple freeze-drying technique. The scaffold was characterized using compression testing, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray microtomography (XMT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). [...] Read more.
Porous composite scaffold using an alginate and bioactive glass ICIE16M was synthesized by a simple freeze-drying technique. The scaffold was characterized using compression testing, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray microtomography (XMT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bioactivity of the scaffold was evaluated by its ability to form apatite on its surface in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data collected showed evidence that the novel material produced had an appropriate pore size for osteoconduction, with an average pore size of 110 µm and maximum pore size of 309 µm. Statistical analysis confirmed that the glass filler significantly (P < 0.05) increased the collapse yield of the scaffolds compared with pure alginate scaffolds. The ICIE16M glass had an amorphous structure, favorable for bioactivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Six-Month Color Stability Assessment of Two Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Used in Regenerative Endodontic Procedures
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010014
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
Aim: The purpose of the present study is to assess the color stability of two calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) used in regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Methods: A total of 40 acrylic single-rooted transparent teeth, with immature apex, were used. Root canals were filled [...] Read more.
Aim: The purpose of the present study is to assess the color stability of two calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) used in regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Methods: A total of 40 acrylic single-rooted transparent teeth, with immature apex, were used. Root canals were filled up to 3 mm below the level of the cementoenamel junction, with either saline solution (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA)/saline and Biodentine/saline) or blood (MTA/blood and Biodentine/blood). Subsequently, ProRoot MTA® or BiodentineTM was placed in the root canal to create a cervical barrier. Color measurement was carried out at four different evaluation periods (3 h, 72 h, 7 days, and 6 months). Shade analysis within the L* a* b* color space was performed and color variation (∆E) calculated. The significance level for statistical analysis was set at p < 0.05. Results: The four groups showed a significant decrease in L* values over time. The ΔE value increased over time for all groups but was not statistically significant for the Biodentine/blood group. Two-way ANOVA showed no interaction between the CSC and treatment (contact with saline solution or blood). CSC used was the factor responsible for ΔE over time, inducing statistically significant color variations from T3H to T7D (p = 0.04) and T3H to T6M (p < 0.01). After 6 months, MTA/saline had 5.08 (p = 0.001) higher ΔE than Biodentine/Saline and the MTA/blood had 3.65 (p = 0.009) higher than Biodentine/blood. Conclusions: After 6 months, regardless of blood exposure, Biodentine exhibits superior color stability compared to MTA. Biodentine might be a suitable alternative to MTA as a cervical barrier material in REPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Calcium Precursor on the Bioactivity and Biocompatibility of Sol-Gel-Derived Glasses
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010013
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated the impact of different calcium reagents on the morphology, composition, bioactivity and biocompatibility of two-component (CaO-SiO2) glasses produced by the Stöber process with respect to their potential application in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes for periodontal repair. The [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of different calcium reagents on the morphology, composition, bioactivity and biocompatibility of two-component (CaO-SiO2) glasses produced by the Stöber process with respect to their potential application in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes for periodontal repair. The properties of the binary glasses were compared with those of pure silica Stöber particles. The direct addition of calcium chloride (CC), calcium nitrate (CN), calcium methoxide (CM) or calcium ethoxide (CE) at 5 mol % with respect to tetraethyl orthosilicate in the reagent mixture gave rise to textured, micron-sized aggregates rather than monodispersed ~500 nm spheres obtained from the pure silica Stöber synthesis. The broadening of the Si-O-Si band at ~1100 cm−1 in the infrared spectra of the calcium-doped glasses indicated that the silicate network was depolymerised by the incorporation of Ca2+ ions and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed that, in all cases, the Ca:Si ratios were significantly lower than the nominal value of 0.05. The distribution of Ca2+ ions was also found to be highly inhomogeneous in the methoxide-derived glass. All samples released soluble silica species on exposure to simulated body fluid, although only calcium-doped glasses exhibited in vitro bioactivity via the formation of hydroxyapatite. The biocompatibilities of model chitosan-glass GTR membranes were assessed using human MG63 osteosarcoma cells and were found to be of the order: CN < pure silica ≈ CC << CM ≈ CE. Calcium nitrate is the most commonly reported precursor for the sol-gel synthesis of bioactive glasses; however, the incomplete removal of nitrate ions during washing compromised the cytocompatibility of the resulting glass. The superior bioactivity and biocompatibility of the alkoxide-derived glasses is attributed to their ease of dissolution and lack of residual toxic anions. Overall, calcium ethoxide was found to be the preferred precursor with respect to extent of calcium-incorporation, homogeneity, bioactivity and biocompatibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards the Development of Artificial Bone Grafts: Combining Synthetic Biomineralisation with 3D Printing
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010012
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
A synthetic technique inspired by the biomineralisation process in nacre has been previously reported to be effective in replicating the nanostructural elements of nacre in 2D chitosan hydrogel films. Here we evaluate the applicability of this synthetic biomineralisation technique, herein called the McGrath [...] Read more.
A synthetic technique inspired by the biomineralisation process in nacre has been previously reported to be effective in replicating the nanostructural elements of nacre in 2D chitosan hydrogel films. Here we evaluate the applicability of this synthetic biomineralisation technique, herein called the McGrath method, in replicating the flat tabular morphology of calcium carbonate and other nanostructural elements obtained when 2D chitosan hydrogel films were used, on a 3D porous chitosan hydrogel-based scaffold, hence developing 3D chitosan-calcium carbonate composites. Nozzle extrusion-based 3D printing technology was used to develop 3D porous scaffolds using chitosan hydrogel as the printing ink in a custom-designed 3D printer. The rheology of the printing ink and print parameters were optimised in order to fabricate 3D cylindrical structures with a cubic lattice-based internal structure. The effects of various dehydration techniques, including air-drying, critical point-drying and freeze-drying, on the structural integrity of the as-printed scaffolds from the nano to macroscale, were evaluated. The final 3D composite materials were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The study has shown that McGrath method can be used to develop chitosan-calcium carbonate composites wherein the mineral and matrix are in intimate association with each other at the nanoscale. This process can be successfully integrated with 3D printing technology to develop 3D compartmentalised polymer-mineral composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Aspartic and Polyaspartic Acid on the Synthesis and Hydrolysis of Brushite
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010011
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is one of the mineral phases indicated as possible precursors of biological apatites and it is widely employed in the preparation of calcium phosphate bone cements. Herein, we investigated the possibility to functionalize DCPD with aspartic acid (ASP) and [...] Read more.
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is one of the mineral phases indicated as possible precursors of biological apatites and it is widely employed in the preparation of calcium phosphate bone cements. Herein, we investigated the possibility to functionalize DCPD with aspartic acid (ASP) and poly-aspartic acid (PASP), as models of the acidic macromolecules of biomineralized tissues, and studied their influence on DCPD hydrolysis. To this aim, the synthesis of DCPD was performed in aqueous solution in the presence of increasing concentrations of PASP and ASP, whereas the hydrolysis reaction was carried out in physiological solution up to three days. The results indicate that it is possible to prepare DCPD functionalized with PASP up to a polyelectrolyte content of about 2.3 wt%. The increase of PASP content induces crystal aggregation, reduction of the yield of the reaction and of the thermal stability of the synthesized DCPD. Moreover, DCPD samples functionalized with PASP display a slower hydrolysis than pure DCPD. On the other hand, in the explored range of concentrations (up to 10 mM) ASP is not incorporated into DCPD and does not influence its crystallization nor its hydrolysis. At variance, when present in the hydrolysis solution, ASP, and even more PASP, delays the conversion into the more stable phases, octacalcium phosphate and/or hydroxyapatite. The greater influence of PASP on the synthesis and hydrolysis of DCPD can be ascribed to the cooperative action of the carboxylate groups and to its good fit with DCPD structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Biomaterial Enhanced Regeneration Design Research for Skin and Load Bearing Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010010
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
Biomaterial enhanced regeneration (BER) falls mostly under the broad heading of Tissue Engineering: the use of materials (synthetic and natural) usually in conjunction with cells (both native and genetically modified as well as stem cells) and/or biological response modifiers (growth factors and cytokines [...] Read more.
Biomaterial enhanced regeneration (BER) falls mostly under the broad heading of Tissue Engineering: the use of materials (synthetic and natural) usually in conjunction with cells (both native and genetically modified as well as stem cells) and/or biological response modifiers (growth factors and cytokines as well as other stimuli, which alter cellular activity). Although the emphasis is on the biomaterial as a scaffold it is also the use of additive bioactivity to enhance the healing and regenerative properties of the scaffold. Enhancing regeneration is both moving more toward regeneration but also speeding up the process. The review covers principles of design for BER as well as strategies to select the best designs. This is first general design principles, followed by types of design options, and then specific strategies for applications in skin and load bearing applications. The last section, surveys current clinical practice (for skin and load bearing applications) including limitations of these approaches. This is followed by future directions with an attempt to prioritize strategies. Although the review is geared toward design optimization, prioritization also includes the commercializability of the devices. This means a device must meet both the clinical performance design constraints as well as the commercializability design constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterial Enhanced Regeneration)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
4D Printing: The Shape-Morphing in Additive Manufacturing
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010009
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
3D printing of polymers can now be considered as a common processing technology for the development of biomaterials. These can be constituted out of polymeric abiotic material alone or can be co-printed with living cells. However, the adaptive and shape-morphing characteristics cannot be [...] Read more.
3D printing of polymers can now be considered as a common processing technology for the development of biomaterials. These can be constituted out of polymeric abiotic material alone or can be co-printed with living cells. However, the adaptive and shape-morphing characteristics cannot be developed with the rigid, pre-determined structures obtained by 3D printing. In order to produce functional engineered biomaterials, the dynamic properties/characteristics of the living cells must be attained. 4D printing can be envisaged as a route to achieve these goals. This paper intends to give a brief review of the pioneer 4D printing research that has been developed and to present an insight into future research in this field. Full article
Open AccessRetraction
Retraction: Bruder, L. et al. Transcatheter Decellularized Tissue-Engineered Heart Valve (dTEHV) Grown on Polyglycolic Acid (PGA) Scaffold Coated with P4HB Shows Improved Functionality over 52 Weeks due to Polyether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK) Insert. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(4), 64
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010008
Received: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
Due to human error, the authors included some of the experimental data in this article [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Osteoconduction of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramic in the Calvaria of Rats: Microscopic and Histometric Analysis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010007
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Evaluate the osteoconduction capability of a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic composed of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate 60%/40% in a rat model. (2) Methods: In the calvarial bone of 54 adult male rats, 7-mm diameter critical size defects were performed. The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Evaluate the osteoconduction capability of a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic composed of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate 60%/40% in a rat model. (2) Methods: In the calvarial bone of 54 adult male rats, 7-mm diameter critical size defects were performed. The animals were randomly allocated to three experimental groups according to the type of material: blood clot (BCG), blood clot covered with a bovine-derived collagen membrane (MBCG), and BCP ceramic covered with a bovine-derived collagen membrane (BCPG). In each group, 6 animals were euthanatized at post-operative days 7, 30, and 60 for histological and histometric analysis. (3) Results: The qualitative analysis revealed the persistence of the collagen membrane at seven days, with no relevant newly bone formation in all groups. At 30 days, centripetal bone formation was observed residual particles of the biomaterial surrounded by fibroblasts noted in the BCPG. At 60 days, while BCG and MBCG showed a partial maturation with the central part of the defect populated by a fibrous connective tissue, in the BCPG the critical area was entirely occupied by newly formed bone. In the intra groups analysis was noted a significant increase in new bone formation during the experimental period (p < 0.05). At 60 days, BCPG showed a higher percentage area of new bone formation (p < 0.05). (4) Conclusion: BCP promoted a new bone formation by osteoconduction and might be considered a valid alternative in bone regeneration procedures. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Biomaterials in 2018
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010006
Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Dental Implants with Modified Calcium-Phosphate Surface in a Multicenter, Prospective, Non-Interventional Study: Results up to 50 Months of Follow-Up
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010005
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Prescription of implant treatments is very widespread at present, mainly due to the low rate of annual loss and, to date, few studies have assessed their survival in the routine clinical practice of dentistry. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Prescription of implant treatments is very widespread at present, mainly due to the low rate of annual loss and, to date, few studies have assessed their survival in the routine clinical practice of dentistry. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dental implants with a calcium-phosphate surface in the daily practice of dental clinics. A multicenter, prospective, non-interventional, observational study was performed, in which three experienced practitioners (one maxillofacial and two oral surgeons) inserted implants using standard external and internal hexagon connections in adult patients requiring ≥1 osseointegrated implants to replace missing teeth. Follow-up was performed for 24 months after implant loading. Two hundred and twelve subjects were included (51.5% men), with a mean age of 51.2 ± 11.90 years, in whom 544 implants were inserted. 87.2% of the patients received 1–4 implants. The preferred connection system was internal hexagon (73.5%). There were nine failures, with an interval survival rate (ISR) at 24 months of 100% and a cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 98.3%. In conclusion, implants with a modified calcium-phosphate surface are associated with a high rate of survival and may be considered a method of choice in clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biocompatible Polymer Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Disorder Therapies
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010004
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Polymer nanoparticles (NPs) represent one of the most innovative non-invasive approaches for drug delivery applications. NPs main objective is to convey the therapeutic molecule be they drugs, proteins, or nucleic acids directly into the target organ or tissue. Many polymers are used for [...] Read more.
Polymer nanoparticles (NPs) represent one of the most innovative non-invasive approaches for drug delivery applications. NPs main objective is to convey the therapeutic molecule be they drugs, proteins, or nucleic acids directly into the target organ or tissue. Many polymers are used for the synthesis of NPs and among the currently most employed materials several biocompatible synthetic polymers, namely polylactic acid (PLA), poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), can be cited. These molecules are made of simple monomers which are naturally present in the body and therefore easily excreted without being toxic. The present review addresses the different approaches that are most commonly adopted to synthetize biocompatible NPs to date, as well as the experimental strategies designed to load them with therapeutic agents. In fact, drugs may be internalized in the NPs or physically dispersed therein. In this paper the various types of biodegradable polymer NPs will be discussed with emphasis on their applications in drug delivery. Close attention will be devoted to the treatment of cancer, where both active and passive targeting is used to enhance efficacy and reduce systemic toxicity, and to diseases affecting the central nervous system, inasmuch as NPs can be modified to target specific cells or cross membrane barriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanobiomaterials)
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Open AccessReview
Biomaterials, Current Strategies, and Novel Nano-Technological Approaches for Periodontal Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010003
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
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Abstract
Periodontal diseases involve injuries to the supporting structures of the tooth and, if left untreated, can lead to the loss of the tooth. Regenerative periodontal therapies aim, ideally, at healing all the damaged periodontal tissues and represent a significant clinical and societal challenge [...] Read more.
Periodontal diseases involve injuries to the supporting structures of the tooth and, if left untreated, can lead to the loss of the tooth. Regenerative periodontal therapies aim, ideally, at healing all the damaged periodontal tissues and represent a significant clinical and societal challenge for the current ageing population. This review provides a picture of the currently-used biomaterials for periodontal regeneration, including natural and synthetic polymers, bioceramics (e.g., calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses), and composites. Bioactive materials aim at promoting the regeneration of new healthy tissue. Polymers are often used as barrier materials in guided tissue regeneration strategies and are suitable both to exclude epithelial down-growth and to allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. The problems related to the barrier postoperative collapse can be solved by using a combination of polymeric membranes and grafting materials. Advantages and drawbacks associated with the incorporation of growth factors and nanomaterials in periodontal scaffolds are also discussed, along with the development of multifunctional and multilayer implants. Tissue-engineering strategies based on functionally-graded scaffolds are expected to play an ever-increasing role in the management of periodontal defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanobiomaterials)
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Open AccessReview
A Critical Review on Selected External Physical Cues and Modulation of Cell Behavior: Magnetic Nanoparticles, Non-thermal Plasma and Lasers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010002
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Physics-based biomedical approaches have proved their importance for the advancement of medical sciences and especially in medical diagnostics and treatments. Thus, the expectations regarding development of novel promising physics-based technologies and tools are very high. This review describes the latest research advances in [...] Read more.
Physics-based biomedical approaches have proved their importance for the advancement of medical sciences and especially in medical diagnostics and treatments. Thus, the expectations regarding development of novel promising physics-based technologies and tools are very high. This review describes the latest research advances in biomedical applications of external physical cues. We overview three distinct topics: using high-gradient magnetic fields in nanoparticle-mediated cell responses; non-thermal plasma as a novel bactericidal agent; highlights in understanding of cellular mechanisms of laser irradiation. Furthermore, we summarize the progress, challenges and opportunities in those directions. We also discuss some of the fundamental physical principles involved in the application of each cue. Considerable technological success has been achieved in those fields. However, for the successful clinical translation we have to understand the limitations of technologies. Importantly, we identify the misconceptions pervasive in the discussed fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) End Groups on Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Albumin System Properties as a Potential Degradable Tissue Scaffold
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010001
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Chronic dermal lesions, such as pressure ulcers, are difficult to heal. Degradable tissue scaffold systems can be employed to serve as a provisional matrix for cellular ingrowth and facilitate regenerative healing during degradation. Degradable regenerative tissue scaffold matrices can be created by crosslinking [...] Read more.
Chronic dermal lesions, such as pressure ulcers, are difficult to heal. Degradable tissue scaffold systems can be employed to serve as a provisional matrix for cellular ingrowth and facilitate regenerative healing during degradation. Degradable regenerative tissue scaffold matrices can be created by crosslinking albumin with functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of PEG-albumin scaffold systems formed using PEG polymers with three different functionalized end chemistries by quantifying in vitro system swellability to determine the most promising PEG crosslinking polymer for wound healing applications. Of the three polymers evaluated, PEG-succinimidyl glutarate (SG) exhibited consistent gelation and handling characteristics when used as the crosslinking agent with albumin. PEG-SG polymers were identified as an appropriate synthetic crosslinking moiety in a PEG-albumin scaffold system, and further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of this scaffold system is merited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterial Enhanced Regeneration)
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J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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