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4D Printing: The Shape-Morphing in Additive Manufacturing

CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luis Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010009
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
3D printing of polymers can now be considered as a common processing technology for the development of biomaterials. These can be constituted out of polymeric abiotic material alone or can be co-printed with living cells. However, the adaptive and shape-morphing characteristics cannot be developed with the rigid, pre-determined structures obtained by 3D printing. In order to produce functional engineered biomaterials, the dynamic properties/characteristics of the living cells must be attained. 4D printing can be envisaged as a route to achieve these goals. This paper intends to give a brief review of the pioneer 4D printing research that has been developed and to present an insight into future research in this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4D printing; smart materials; adaptive biomaterials; additive manufacturing 4D printing; smart materials; adaptive biomaterials; additive manufacturing
MDPI and ACS Style

Piedade, A.P. 4D Printing: The Shape-Morphing in Additive Manufacturing. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 9.

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