Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

J. Clin. Med., Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Readisorb L-GSH has direct antimycobacterial effects on BCG and Erdman strain of M. tb. Readisorb [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-23
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Traumatic Brain Injury: At the Crossroads of Neuropathology and Common Metabolic Endocrinopathies
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030059
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
PDF Full-text (876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building on the seminal work by Geoffrey Harris in the 1970s, the neuroendocrinology field, having undergone spectacular growth, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of hormonal connectivity between the brain and the rest of the body. Given the fundamental role of the brain
[...] Read more.
Building on the seminal work by Geoffrey Harris in the 1970s, the neuroendocrinology field, having undergone spectacular growth, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of hormonal connectivity between the brain and the rest of the body. Given the fundamental role of the brain in the orchestration of endocrine processes through interactions among neurohormones, it is thus not surprising that the structural and/or functional alterations following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to endocrine changes affecting the whole organism. Taking into account that systemic hormones also act on the brain, modifying its structure and biochemistry, and can acutely and chronically affect several neurophysiological endpoints, the question is to what extent preexisting endocrine dysfunction may set the stage for an adverse outcome after TBI. In this review, we provide an overview of some aspects of three common metabolic endocrinopathies, e.g., diabetes mellitus, obesity, and thyroid dysfunction, and how these could be triggered by TBI. In addition, we discuss how the complex endocrine networks are woven into the responses to sudden changes after TBI, as well as some of the potential mechanisms that, separately or synergistically, can influence outcomes after TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Injury and Repair in the Nervous System)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Perceived Benefits and Barriers of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030058
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the perceptions of benefits of and barriers to participating in a community-based diabetes program to improve program effectiveness. The Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program was a twenty-two session, 1-year program, modeled after the evidence-based National Diabetes Prevention Program and
[...] Read more.
This study examined the perceptions of benefits of and barriers to participating in a community-based diabetes program to improve program effectiveness. The Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program was a twenty-two session, 1-year program, modeled after the evidence-based National Diabetes Prevention Program and AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors framework. Community-based participatory research approach was used to culturally tailor the curriculum. Participants included overweight or obese adults with dysglycemia. A benefits and barriers survey was developed to gather information on participants’ perception of the program, as well as information on demographics and health literacy levels. Eighty-nine adults participated in the DPM program (73% females; 62% diabetic; 77% had adequate health literacy); 79% of participants completed the benefits and barriers survey. Principal component analysis indicated two components representing benefits (Cronbach’s α = 0.83) and barriers (α = 0.65). The majority perceived high benefits and low barriers to program participation; benefits included helpful interaction with health coach or program leader (73%), improved lifestyle modification (65%) due to the program, and satisfaction with the program (75%). Open-ended questions confirmed themes related to benefits of program participation, suggestion for programmatic improvements as well as barriers to participation. Participant feedback could be used to guide interventions and tailor future program implementation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Long-Term Increase of Radiographic Damage and Disability in Patients with RA in Relation to Disease Duration in the Era of Biologics. Results from the SCQM Cohort
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030057
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
PDF Full-text (920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Objectives: There is little information on the relation between disease duration, disability and radiographic outcome since the introduction of biologics into the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). No long -term cohort studies have been conducted on this subject so far. To analyse radiographic
[...] Read more.
Objectives: There is little information on the relation between disease duration, disability and radiographic outcome since the introduction of biologics into the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). No long -term cohort studies have been conducted on this subject so far. To analyse radiographic damage, disability, and disease activity in RA-patients dependent on disease duration in the Swiss national RA cohort (SCQM). Methods: The primary outcome was the association between the radiographic destruction, assessed by Ratingen scores, and disease duration. All patients with at least one clinical visit were analysed with polynomial and multiple negative binomial models. Results: The disease duration in the 8678 patients with available radiographs analysed ranged between less than 1 and more than 65 years (median 8.3). Disease duration and radiographic destruction were significantly associated with an average increase of Ratingen scores by 8.3% per year. Apart from disease duration, positive rheumatoid factor was the strongest predictor for radiographic destruction. While DAS28-scores remained stable in patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years (median DAS28 2.8), HAQ-DI scores increased continuously by 0.018 for each additional year. Conclusion: In this RA cohort, patients show a continuous increase of articular destruction and physical disability in parallel with disease duration. Even when nowadays a satisfactory control of disease activity can be achieved in most patients, RA remains a destructive disease leading to joint destruction and physical disability in many patients. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cross-Sectional Associations of Environmental Perception with Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Screen Time among Older Adults
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030056
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated associations of perceived environmental factors with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and screen time (ST) among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted by administering computer-assisted telephone interviews to 1028 older Taiwanese adults in November 2016. Data on personal factors, perceived
[...] Read more.
This study investigated associations of perceived environmental factors with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and screen time (ST) among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted by administering computer-assisted telephone interviews to 1028 older Taiwanese adults in November 2016. Data on personal factors, perceived environmental factors, LTPA, and ST were included. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine associations of environmental perception with LTPA and ST by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that after adjusting for potential confounders, older adults who perceived their neighborhood with good access to shops (AS) and to public transportation (AT) were more likely to have sufficient LTPA (AS: OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.16–2.32; AT: OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.00–2.03) and less likely to have excessive ST (AS: OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.50–0.97; AT: OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46–0.90). Different perceived environmental factors were also associated with LTPA and ST, respectively. This study highlights environment perception as a crucial factor for LTPA and ST. These findings suggest that policy makers and physical activity intervention designers should develop both common and individual environmental strategies to improve and increase awareness of the neighborhood environment to promote LTPA and reduce ST among older adults. Full article
Open AccessReview A Challenge to Aging Society by microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles: microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles as Promising Biomarkers and Novel Therapeutic Targets in Multiple Myeloma
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030055
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
PDF Full-text (883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells and is the second most common hematological cancer. MM frequently occurs in the elderly population with the median age as the middle sixties. Over the last 10 years, the prognosis of MM
[...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells and is the second most common hematological cancer. MM frequently occurs in the elderly population with the median age as the middle sixties. Over the last 10 years, the prognosis of MM has been dramatically improved by new therapeutic drugs; however, MM is still incurable. The pathogenesis of MM is still unclear, thus greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MM malignancy is desirable. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to modulate the expression of genes critical for MM pathogenesis. In addition, miRNAs are secreted via extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are released from various cell types including MM cells, and these miRNAs are involved in multiple types of cell-cell interactions, which lead to the malignancy of MM. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of miRNA secretion via EVs and of EVs themselves in MM development. We also discuss the potential clinical applications of EVs as promising biomarkers and new therapeutic targets for improving the outcome of MM, resulting in a brighter future for aging societies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA biomarkers in Aging Society)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Cells of the Islets of Langerhans
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030054
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Islets of Langerhans are islands of endocrine cells scattered throughout the pancreas. A number of new studies have pointed to the potential for conversion of non-β islet cells in to insulin-producing β-cells to replenish β-cell mass as a means to treat diabetes. Understanding
[...] Read more.
Islets of Langerhans are islands of endocrine cells scattered throughout the pancreas. A number of new studies have pointed to the potential for conversion of non-β islet cells in to insulin-producing β-cells to replenish β-cell mass as a means to treat diabetes. Understanding normal islet cell mass and function is important to help advance such treatment modalities: what should be the target islet/β-cell mass, does islet architecture matter to energy homeostasis, and what may happen if we lose a particular population of islet cells in favour of β-cells? These are all questions to which we will need answers for islet replacement therapy by transdifferentiation of non-β islet cells to be a reality in humans. We know a fair amount about the biology of β-cells but not quite as much about the other islet cell types. Until recently, we have not had a good grasp of islet mass and distribution in the human pancreas. In this review, we will look at current data on islet cells, focussing more on non-β cells, and on human pancreatic islet mass and distribution. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Safety, Efficacy and Evidence Base for Use of the Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030053
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 11 March 2018
PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The trans-venous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (TV-ICD) is effective in treating life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia and reduces mortality in high-risk patients. However, there are significant short- and long-term complications that are associated with intravascular leads. These shortcomings are mostly relevant in young patients with long
[...] Read more.
The trans-venous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (TV-ICD) is effective in treating life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia and reduces mortality in high-risk patients. However, there are significant short- and long-term complications that are associated with intravascular leads. These shortcomings are mostly relevant in young patients with long life expectancy and low risk of death from non-arrhythmic causes. Drawbacks of trans-venous leads recently led to the development of the entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD). The S-ICD does not require vascular access or permanent intravascular defibrillation leads. Therefore, it is expected to overcome many complications associated with conventional ICDs. This review highlights data on safety and efficacy of the S-ICD and is envisioned to help in identifying the role of this device in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Interventional Cardiology and Vascular Medicine)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Socioeconomic Status and 30-Day and One-Year All-Cause Mortality after Surgery in South Korea
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030052
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Preoperative socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with outcomes after surgery, although the effect on mortality may vary according to region. This retrospective study evaluated patients who underwent elective surgery at a tertiary hospital from 2011 to 2015 in South Korea. Preoperative SES factors
[...] Read more.
Preoperative socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with outcomes after surgery, although the effect on mortality may vary according to region. This retrospective study evaluated patients who underwent elective surgery at a tertiary hospital from 2011 to 2015 in South Korea. Preoperative SES factors (education, religion, marital status, and occupation) were evaluated for their association with 30-day and one-year all-cause mortality. The final analysis included 80,969 patients who were ≥30 years old, with 30-day mortality detected in 339 cases (0.4%) and one-year mortality detected in 2687 cases (3.3%). As compared to never-married patients, those who were married or cohabitating (odds ratio (OR): 0.678, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.462–0.995) and those divorced or separated (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.359–0.917) had a lower risk of 30-day mortality after surgery. Similarly, the risk of one-year mortality after surgery was lower among married or cohabitating patients (OR: 0.857, 95% CI: 0.746–0.983) than it was for those who had never married. Moreover, as compared to nonreligious patients, Protestant patients had a decreased risk of 30-day mortality after surgery (OR: 0.642, 95% CI: 0.476–0.866). The present study revealed that marital status and religious affiliation are associated with risk of 30-day and one-year all-cause mortality after surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Postoperative Pain)
Open AccessArticle Disease and Treatment-Related Sequelae in Patients with Complex Jugulotympanic Paraganglioma
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030051
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
PDF Full-text (5300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Jugulotympanic paraganglioma (JTP) are benign, high-vascularized lesions that frequently invade the jugular foramen, temporal bone, the upper neck, and the posterior fossa cavity, resulting in a wide variety of clinical symptoms. Methods: In this retrospective study, we assess the clinical symptoms and
[...] Read more.
Background: Jugulotympanic paraganglioma (JTP) are benign, high-vascularized lesions that frequently invade the jugular foramen, temporal bone, the upper neck, and the posterior fossa cavity, resulting in a wide variety of clinical symptoms. Methods: In this retrospective study, we assess the clinical symptoms and discuss the individual multidisciplinary treatment and outcome of 22 patients with JTP. Results: In 12 patients, a hearing deficit was the presenting symptom, whereas pulsatile tinnitus and otalgia were present in six and four patients respectively. Facial nerve involvement was seen in six patients (three HB Grade 1–2 and three HB Grade 4–6). Four patients presented with lower cranial nerve impairment. Rare symptoms were ataxia caused by brainstem compression and papilledema due to cerebral sinus obstruction. A new or worsening of the preoperative facial nerve or lower cranial nerve function occurred in two and four patients respectively. Conclusion: The treatment strategy and the surgical approach for JTP should be tailored to the tumor extension and the patient’s clinical symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Research Update)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Outcomes for Women with Gestational Diabetes Treated with Metformin: A Retrospective, Case-Control Study
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030050
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metformin is increasingly being used a therapeutic option for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to compare the maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes of women with GDM treated with metformin (with or without supplemental insulin) with
[...] Read more.
Metformin is increasingly being used a therapeutic option for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to compare the maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes of women with GDM treated with metformin (with or without supplemental insulin) with those receiving other management approaches. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out and 83 women taking metformin were matched 1:1 with women receiving insulin or diet and lifestyle modification alone. Women managed with diet and lifestyle modification had a significantly lower fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.001) and HbA1c (p < 0.01) at diagnosis of GDM. Furthermore, women managed with metformin had a higher early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) compared to those receiving insulin or diet and lifestyle modification (p < 0.001). There was no difference in mode of delivery, birth weight or incidence of large- or small-for-gestational-age neonates between groups. Women receiving glucose lowering therapies had a higher rate of neonatal hypoglycaemia (p < 0.05). The incidence of other adverse perinatal outcomes was similar between groups. Despite their greater BMI, women with metformin-treated GDM did not have an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Metformin is a useful alternative to insulin in the management of GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Strategies for Diabetes in Pregnancy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report Once Daily High Dose Tigecycline Is Optimal: Tigecycline PK/PD Parameters Predict Clinical Effectiveness
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030049
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: The clinical effectiveness of tigecycline depends on appropriate use, and PK/PD (pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic) parameters related to dose and dosing interval. Methods: In our 600-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital, we conducted a tigecycline efficacy review over a three-month period in 34 evaluable patients. Parameters assessed
[...] Read more.
Objective: The clinical effectiveness of tigecycline depends on appropriate use, and PK/PD (pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic) parameters related to dose and dosing interval. Methods: In our 600-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital, we conducted a tigecycline efficacy review over a three-month period in 34 evaluable patients. Parameters assessed included clinical response, cure or treatment failure, once daily as q12h dosing, maintenance dosing, high dose vs. standard loading regimens, adverse effects, and the effect of infectious disease consultation on outcomes. Results: We found once daily high dose tigecycline (HDT) was highly effective in treating serious systemic infections due to MDR Gram-positive/negative pathogens as well as C. difficile colitis. Adverse effects were infrequent and limited to mild nausea/vomiting. Once daily HDT was highly effective, and the few treatment failures were related to suboptimal/split dosing regimens. Conclusion: Once daily HDT was highly effective when used to treat susceptible pathogens and when optimally dosed, i.e., 200–400 mg (IV) loading dose ×1, followed by a once daily maintenance dose of 100–200 mg (IV) q24h. Full article
Open AccessCase Report Facial Nerve Paralysis after Onyx Embolization of a Jugular Paraganglioma: A Case Report with a Long-Term Follow Up
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030048
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jugular paragangliomas are slow growing highly vascular tumors arising from jugular paraganglia. The gold standard of treatment is complete surgical resection. Pre-operative embolization of these highly vascular tumors is essential to reduce intra-operative bleeding, allow safe dissection, and decrease operative time and post-operative
[...] Read more.
Jugular paragangliomas are slow growing highly vascular tumors arising from jugular paraganglia. The gold standard of treatment is complete surgical resection. Pre-operative embolization of these highly vascular tumors is essential to reduce intra-operative bleeding, allow safe dissection, and decrease operative time and post-operative complications. Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer) has been widely used as permanent occluding material for vascular tumors of skull base because of its unique physical properties. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman who had left-sided facial nerve paralysis after Onyx embolization of jugular paraganglioma. The tumor was resected on the next day of embolization. The patient was followed up for 30 months with serial imaging studies and facial nerve assessment. The facial verve function improved from House–Brackmann grade V to grade II at the last visit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Research Update)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperCorrection Correction: Cooper, A.; Abbass, A.; Town, J. Implementing a Psychotherapy Service for Medically Unexplained Symptoms in a Primary Care Setting. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2017, 6, 109–141
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030047
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1].[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Amiloride Promotes Oligodendrocyte Survival and Remyelination after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030046
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After spinal cord injury (SCI), secondary injury results in an expanding area of glial cell apoptosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) actively proliferate after SCI, but many of these cells undergo apoptosis. One of the factors that exacerbates secondary injury is endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
[...] Read more.
After spinal cord injury (SCI), secondary injury results in an expanding area of glial cell apoptosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) actively proliferate after SCI, but many of these cells undergo apoptosis. One of the factors that exacerbates secondary injury is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we tested the effects of amiloride treatment on the fate of OPCs during secondary injury in rats. Amiloride is an FDA-approved diuretic for treating hypertension, which in rats enhances ER stress response and suppresses the apoptosis of glial cells after SCI. A severe contusive SCI was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using an infinite horizon (IH)-impactor (200 kdyne). Beginning 24 h after SCI, 10 mg/kg of amiloride or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was intraperitoneally administered daily for a period of 14 days. At 7, 14, 28, and 56 days after SCI, animals were subsequently euthanized in order to analyze the injured spinal cord. We labeled proliferating OPCs and demonstrated that amiloride treatment led to greater numbers of OPCs and oligodendrocytes in the injured spinal cord. Increased myelin basic protein (MBP) expression levels were observed, suggesting that increased numbers of mature oligodendrocytes led to improved remyelination, significantly improving motor function recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Injury and Repair in the Nervous System)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Organ Transplantation in Iran; Current State and Challenges with a View on Ethical Consideration
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030045
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have
[...] Read more.
Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues. Ethical issues in organ transplantation are very complicated due to many social factors such as religion, culture, and traditions of the affected communities. The ethical and legal points of removing organs from the body of a living or cadaveric source, the definition of brain death, the moral and legal conditions of the donor and the recipient, and the financial relationship between them and many others, are all critical issues in organ transplantation. While there may be no available explicit solution to these issues, they should be rigorously considered by the experts. Efforts to systematically eliminate barriers and solve problems in organ transplantation, can not only reduce the costs of maintaining brain-dead patients and encourage patients that need organ transplantation but can also prevent immoral and illegal activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the most important and current challenges in organ transplantation with a view to the ethical considerations, and we have suggested some strategies to extend it in Iran. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Helicobacter Pylori Serology in Relation to Hepatitis C Virus Infection and IL28B Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030044
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
PDF Full-text (787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the serological rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and determine any correlations with liver damage and IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). One hundred eighty-nine
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the serological rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and determine any correlations with liver damage and IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). One hundred eighty-nine patients with chronic HCV infection were included in the study, and H. pylori status was defined based on anti-H. pylori-IgG or anti-CagA-IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Liver damage was assessed using histology or transient elastography. IL28B C/T polymorphism (rs12979860) was evaluated in circulating blood cells using a PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Overall H. pylori serology was positive in 38.1% of our HCV-infected subjects. Among those, the anti-CagA-IgG positivity rate was 43.1% and was within the range of previously described populations of the same region. Highest prevalence of H. pylori was found in patients between 31 and 40 years compared to other age subgroups. The seropositivity rate was higher in the non-cirrhotic group than the cirrhotic one (45.4% vs. 20.0%, p < 0.05). No difference was found in IL28B genotype between H. pylori-positive and -negative cohorts. However, we observed a trend for the lower anti-CagA-IgG expression level in relation to the IL28B T-allele. Our results do not support an association between HCV and H. pylori infection. Whether IL28B SNP has a functional role in modulation of serological response to H. pylori CagA needs further investigation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting the Success Rate of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Paediatric Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030043
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to determine factors affecting the success rate of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in children. The series consisted of 41 consecutive children operated on by the same surgical team for renal calculi with PNL between June 2002 and May 2015
[...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to determine factors affecting the success rate of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in children. The series consisted of 41 consecutive children operated on by the same surgical team for renal calculi with PNL between June 2002 and May 2015 in our institution. A single calyx or pelvic stone was described as simple, while calculi located in more than one location (calyx and pelvis or more than one calices) or staghorn stones were described as complex. The procedure was deemed successful if the patient was completely stone-free (SF) or had residual fragments <4 mm. Thirty-four patients were found to be SF or had residual fragments <4 mm on the postoperative first day, thus the success rate was 82.9%. In complex stones, the success rate was significantly lower (45.5%) than simple stones (96.7%) (p < 0.001). The grade of hydronephrosis (Grade 0–1 vs. Grade 2–3) also had a negative impact on the success, with rates of 92.6% vs. 64.3%, respectively (p = 0.022). Previous urological procedure history on the same side yielded a success rate of 58.3%, whereas the success rate in the primary patients was 93.1% (p < 0.001). The localization of the stone (complex vs. simple), degree of hydronephrosis, and history of previous urological procedures were found to be the factors that affected the success of the paediatric PNL. Full article
Open AccessReview Virtual Reality Exercise for Anxiety and Depression: A Preliminary Review of Current Research in an Emerging Field
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030042
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: Although current evidence supports the use of virtual reality (VR) in the treatment of mental disorders, it is unknown whether VR exercise would be beneficial to mental health. This review synthesized literature concerning the effect of VR exercise on anxiety and depression
[...] Read more.
Objective: Although current evidence supports the use of virtual reality (VR) in the treatment of mental disorders, it is unknown whether VR exercise would be beneficial to mental health. This review synthesized literature concerning the effect of VR exercise on anxiety and depression among various populations. Methods: Ten electronic databases were searched for studies on this topic from January 2000 through October 2017. Studies were eligible if the article: (1) was peer-reviewed; (2) was published in English; and (3) used quantitative measures in assessing anxiety- and depression-related outcomes. Results: A total of five empirical studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies included two randomized clinical trials, one control trial, and two cross-sectional studies. Four studies reported significant improvements in anxiety- and depression-related measures following VR exercise, including reduced tiredness and tension, in addition to increased energy and enjoyment. Nonetheless, one study failed to support the effectiveness of VR exercise over traditional exercise alone on depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Findings favor VR exercise in alleviating anxiety and depression symptomology. However, existing evidence is insufficient to support the advantages of VR exercise as a standalone treatment over traditional therapy in the alleviation of anxiety and depression given the paucity of studies, small sample sizes, and lack of high-quality research designs. Future studies may build upon these limitations to discern the optimal manner by which to employ VR exercise in clinical settings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Using PDX for Preclinical Cancer Drug Discovery: The Evolving Field
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030041
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability to create patient derived xenografts (PDXs) has evolved considerably from the breakthrough of the development of immune compromised mice. How researchers in drug discovery have utilized PDX of certain cancer types has also changed from traditionally selecting a few models to
[...] Read more.
The ability to create patient derived xenografts (PDXs) has evolved considerably from the breakthrough of the development of immune compromised mice. How researchers in drug discovery have utilized PDX of certain cancer types has also changed from traditionally selecting a few models to profile a drug, to opting to assess inter-tumor response heterogeneity by screening across a broad range of tumor models, and subsequently to enable clinical stratification strategies. As with all models and methodologies, imperfections with this approach are apparent, and our understanding of the fidelity of these models continues to expand. To date though, they are still viewed as one of the most faithful modeling systems in oncology. Currently, there are many efforts ongoing to increase the utility and translatability of PDXs, including introducing a human immune component to enable immunotherapy studies. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of ReadiSorb L-GSH in Altering Granulomatous Responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030040
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
PDF Full-text (8270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), a rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium, is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). TB remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Additionally, approximately one-third of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) as a
[...] Read more.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), a rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium, is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). TB remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Additionally, approximately one-third of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) as a result of the body’s primary mechanism of defense against M. tb infection, the formation of a granuloma. A granuloma is the aggregation of immune cells that encapsulate the bacteria to keep them localized to prevent further infection and thus the bacteria become quiescent. However, if an individual becomes immunocompromised, they become more susceptible to M. tb, which may lead to bacterial reactivation and an active infection, because the host is no longer able to generate adequate immune responses. In this study, we examined liposomal glutathione’s (L-GSH) effectiveness in promoting the formation of solid, stable granulomas. We assessed this ability by generating in vitro human granulomas constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were derived from healthy subjects and testing their granulomatous effector responses against both M. bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) and the highly virulent Erdman strain of M. tb. Additionally, we measured the survival and immune characteristics of the Erdman strain of M. tb in THP-1 originated macrophages as well as in vitro granulomas generated from individuals from type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Our results demonstrate that L-GSH treatment can decrease the intracellular survival of both BCG and virulent M. tb, as well as downregulate the levels of overexpressed proinflammatory cytokines delegated from the granulomas derived from not only healthy subjects but also individuals with T2DM. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio Predicts 30-Day and 1-Year Mortality in Postoperative Patients after Admission to the Intensive Care Unit
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030039
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
C-reactive protein and albumin are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. This study aimed to investigate the significance of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio as a novel prognostic factor for 30-day or 1-year mortality after admission to the postoperative intensive care
[...] Read more.
C-reactive protein and albumin are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. This study aimed to investigate the significance of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio as a novel prognostic factor for 30-day or 1-year mortality after admission to the postoperative intensive care unit (ICU). This retrospective study was conducted by examining the medical records of postoperative patients aged 19 years or older admitted to the ICU at a tertiary care hospital from January 2007 to July 2016. This study included data on 11,832 postoperative patients in the analysis. The cut-off value of the CRP/ALB ratio was set at 1.75 and 1.58 for 30-day and 1-year mortality after ICU admission, respectively. In postoperative patients with a high CRP/ALB ratio (>1.75 or >1.58), the probability of death within 30 days or 1 year after ICU admission were 30% or 43% higher than that in the group with the least CRP/ALB ratio, respectively (≤1.75 or ≤1.58)(p < 0.05). This study found the CRP/ALB ratio measured immediately after ICU admission to be an independent risk factor for 30-day and 1-year mortality in postoperative patients admitted to the ICU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Postoperative Pain)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030038
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to
[...] Read more.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts) and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting) exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Role of Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinism on the Rising Trend of Thyroid and Adrenal Nodular Disease in the Current Environment
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030037
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thyroid follicular cells, as well as adrenocortical cells, are endowed by an intrinsic heterogeneity regarding their growth potential, in response to various stimuli. This heterogeneity appears to constitute the underlying cause for the focal cell hyperplasia and eventually the formation of thyroid and
[...] Read more.
Thyroid follicular cells, as well as adrenocortical cells, are endowed by an intrinsic heterogeneity regarding their growth potential, in response to various stimuli. This heterogeneity appears to constitute the underlying cause for the focal cell hyperplasia and eventually the formation of thyroid and adrenal nodules, under the influence of growth stimulatory factors. Among the main stimulatory factors are the pituitary tropic hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulate the growth and function of their respective target cells, and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system, that, through its mitogenic effects, can stimulate the proliferation of these cells. The predominance of one or the other of these growth stimulatory factors appears to determine the natural history of thyroid and adrenal nodular disease. Thus, iodine deficiency was, in the past, the main pathogenic factor responsible, through a transient rise in TSH secretion, for the endemic nodular goiter with the characteristic colloid thyroid nodules among the inhabitants in iodine deficient areas. The correction of iodine deficiency was followed by the elimination of endemic colloid goiter and the emergence of thyroid autoimmunity. The recent epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS), or insulin resistance syndrome, has been associated with the re-emergence of nodular thyroid disease. A parallel rise in the incidence of benign, nonfunctional adrenocortical tumors, known as adrenal incidentalomas, has also been reported in association with the manifestations of the MS. It is likely that the compensatory to insulin resistance hyperinsulinemia may be responsible for the rising trend of thyroid and adrenal nodular disease in the current environment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top