The ability to create patient derived xenografts (PDXs) has evolved considerably from the breakthrough of the development of immune compromised mice. How researchers in drug discovery have utilized PDX of certain cancer types has also changed from traditionally selecting a few models to profile a drug, to opting to assess inter-tumor response heterogeneity by screening across a broad range of tumor models, and subsequently to enable clinical stratification strategies. As with all models and methodologies, imperfections with this approach are apparent, and our understanding of the fidelity of these models continues to expand. To date though, they are still viewed as one of the most faithful modeling systems in oncology. Currently, there are many efforts ongoing to increase the utility and translatability of PDXs, including introducing a human immune component to enable immunotherapy studies.
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