Next Article in Journal
Using PDX for Preclinical Cancer Drug Discovery: The Evolving Field
Previous Article in Journal
C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio Predicts 30-Day and 1-Year Mortality in Postoperative Patients after Admission to the Intensive Care Unit
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030040

Effects of ReadiSorb L-GSH in Altering Granulomatous Responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

1
Department of Biological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768, USA
2
College of life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding 071000, China
3
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
4
Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
5
College of Dental Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
6
Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine/Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [8270 KB, uploaded 6 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), a rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium, is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). TB remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Additionally, approximately one-third of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) as a result of the body’s primary mechanism of defense against M. tb infection, the formation of a granuloma. A granuloma is the aggregation of immune cells that encapsulate the bacteria to keep them localized to prevent further infection and thus the bacteria become quiescent. However, if an individual becomes immunocompromised, they become more susceptible to M. tb, which may lead to bacterial reactivation and an active infection, because the host is no longer able to generate adequate immune responses. In this study, we examined liposomal glutathione’s (L-GSH) effectiveness in promoting the formation of solid, stable granulomas. We assessed this ability by generating in vitro human granulomas constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were derived from healthy subjects and testing their granulomatous effector responses against both M. bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) and the highly virulent Erdman strain of M. tb. Additionally, we measured the survival and immune characteristics of the Erdman strain of M. tb in THP-1 originated macrophages as well as in vitro granulomas generated from individuals from type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Our results demonstrate that L-GSH treatment can decrease the intracellular survival of both BCG and virulent M. tb, as well as downregulate the levels of overexpressed proinflammatory cytokines delegated from the granulomas derived from not only healthy subjects but also individuals with T2DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: M. tb; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; cytokines; glutathione; granuloma M. tb; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; cytokines; glutathione; granuloma
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Islamoglu, H.; Cao, R.; Teskey, G.; Gyurjian, K.; Lucar, S.; Fraix, M.P.; Sathananthan, A.; Chan, J.K.; Venketaraman, V. Effects of ReadiSorb L-GSH in Altering Granulomatous Responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top