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J. Clin. Med., Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2017) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We have not infrequently found water retention and hyponatremia in non-endocrine disorders. Sustained elevation of arginine vasopressin is profoundly involved in pathogenesis of impaired water excretion. If hyponatremia is a consequence of water retention in edematous diseases, hyponatremia predicts their long-term outcome. The present review summarizes recent understanding of pathological role of exaggerated release of arginine vasopressin in non-endocrine disorders. View this paper
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170 KiB  
Review
Knee and Ankle Arthroplasty in Hemophilia
by Luigi Piero Solimeno and Gianluigi Pasta
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110107 - 22 Nov 2017
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4712
Abstract
Today, major surgical procedures can be safely performed in hemophilic patients with chronic arthropathy, using available factor concentrates. In this setting, total knee replacement is considered the “gold standard”, while the use of total ankle replacement is still debated. Indeed, the unsatisfactory results [...] Read more.
Today, major surgical procedures can be safely performed in hemophilic patients with chronic arthropathy, using available factor concentrates. In this setting, total knee replacement is considered the “gold standard”, while the use of total ankle replacement is still debated. Indeed, the unsatisfactory results obtained with the previous available design of implants did not raise enthusiasm as knee or hip replacement. Recently, the introduction of new implant designs and better reported outcomes have renewed the interest in total ankle replacement in people with hemophilia. In this review, the role of replacement surgery in the treatment of chronic hemophilic arthropathy will be described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Advances in Hemophilia Therapies)
126 KiB  
Correction
Takamatsu, H. Comparison of Minimal Residual Disease Detection by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry, ASO-qPCR, Droplet Digital PCR, and Deep Sequencing in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Who Underwent Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 91
by Hiroyuki Takamatsu
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110106 - 20 Nov 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3139
Abstract
The author wishes to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
917 KiB  
Article
Inter-Rater Reliability of Provider Interpretations of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Food and Symptom Journals
by Jasmine Zia, Chia-Fang Chung, Kaiyuan Xu, Yi Dong, Jeanette M. Schenk, Kevin Cain, Sean Munson and Margaret M. Heitkemper
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110105 - 4 Nov 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5360
Abstract
There are currently no standardized methods for identifying trigger food(s) from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) food and symptom journals. The primary aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of providers’ interpretations of IBS journals. A second aim was to describe [...] Read more.
There are currently no standardized methods for identifying trigger food(s) from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) food and symptom journals. The primary aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of providers’ interpretations of IBS journals. A second aim was to describe whether these interpretations varied for each patient. Eight providers reviewed 17 IBS journals and rated how likely key food groups (fermentable oligo-di-monosaccharides and polyols, high-calorie, gluten, caffeine, high-fiber) were to trigger IBS symptoms for each patient. Agreement of trigger food ratings was calculated using Krippendorff’s α-reliability estimate. Providers were also asked to write down recommendations they would give to each patient. Estimates of agreement of trigger food likelihood ratings were poor (average α = 0.07). Most providers gave similar trigger food likelihood ratings for over half the food groups. Four providers gave the exact same written recommendation(s) (range 3–7) to over half the patients. Inter-rater reliability of provider interpretations of IBS food and symptom journals was poor. Providers favored certain trigger food likelihood ratings and written recommendations. This supports the need for a more standardized method for interpreting these journals and/or more rigorous techniques to accurately identify personalized IBS food triggers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
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212 KiB  
Review
Adenosine A2B Receptors: An Optional Target for the Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea?
by Teita Asano and Mitsuko Takenaga
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110104 - 3 Nov 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3942
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with the characteristic symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation, or both). IBS is a highly prevalent condition, which negatively affects quality of life and is a significant burden on [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with the characteristic symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation, or both). IBS is a highly prevalent condition, which negatively affects quality of life and is a significant burden on global healthcare costs. Although many pharmacological medicines have been proposed to treat IBS, including those targeting receptors, channels, and chemical mediators related to visceral hypersensitivity, successful pharmacotherapy for the disease has not been established. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in IBS pathogenesis. Immune activation is observed in diarrhea-predominant patients with IBS and contributes to the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Adenosine is a chemical mediator that regulates many physiological processes, including inflammation and nociception. Among its receptors, the adenosine A2B receptor regulates intestinal secretion, motor function, and the immune response. We recently demonstrated that the adenosine A2B receptor is involved in visceral hypersensitivity in animal models of IBS. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the adenosine A2B receptor as a novel therapeutic target for IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
238 KiB  
Article
Gender and Weight Influence Quality of Life in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
by LeeAnne B. Sherwin, Onyinyechi M. Ozoji, Christina M. Boulineaux, Paule V. Joseph, Nicolaas H. Fourie, Sarah K. Abey, Xuemin Zhang and Wendy A. Henderson
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110103 - 1 Nov 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5079
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and bowel dysfunction in the absence of structural abnormality. Diagnosis can be challenging and often leads to extensive medical tests, non-effective therapeutic modalities, and reduced quality of life (QOL). Identifying [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and bowel dysfunction in the absence of structural abnormality. Diagnosis can be challenging and often leads to extensive medical tests, non-effective therapeutic modalities, and reduced quality of life (QOL). Identifying factors associated with dysfunction have the potential to enhance outcomes. Participants with IBS (n = 41) and healthy volunteers (n = 74) were recruited into this cross-sectional, descriptive, natural history protocol at the National Institute of Health, Clinical Center. Demographic characteristics were self-reported. QOL was assessed with the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) questionnaire. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, factorial ANOVA, and multiple regression. Individuals with IBS reported lower QOL scores across all QOL-subscales compared to healthy controls. Normal-weight women and overweight men with IBS reported the greatest QOL impairment. Body fat percent had confounding effects on the relationship between IBS and QOL. The disparity between QOL scores in participants with IBS by both gender and weight groups may reflect different social pressures perceived by normal and overweight women and men. These findings enhance the recognition of the disparities in patients with chronic symptoms and thereby lead to personalized assessment and interventions to improve their QOL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
595 KiB  
Review
Is Exaggerated Release of Arginine Vasopressin an Endocrine Disorder? Pathophysiology and Treatment
by San-e Ishikawa
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110102 - 31 Oct 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5189
Abstract
Exaggerated release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) is profoundly involved in impaired water excretion and related hyponatremia. Such disorders underlie syndromes of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and edematous diseases, such as congestive heart failure and decompensated liver cirrhosis. All the causes are [...] Read more.
Exaggerated release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) is profoundly involved in impaired water excretion and related hyponatremia. Such disorders underlie syndromes of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and edematous diseases, such as congestive heart failure and decompensated liver cirrhosis. All the causes are fundamentally from non-endocrine diseases. AVP-induced water retention could produce hyponatremia, and further accelerate poor long-term outcome of edematous diseases. Administration of AVP V2 receptor antagonists verifies how much AVP is involved in the pathogenesis of the impaired water excretion. The present paper demonstrated that exaggerated release of AVP plays a crucial role as an accessory endocrine disorder in pathological states of water retention and dilutional hyponatremia in non-endocrine disorders. Full article
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553 KiB  
Review
Pharmacotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome
by Michael Camilleri and Alexander C. Ford
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110101 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 15720
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the brain-gut axis; the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered colonic motility, bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier and secretory properties of the gut. This article reviews the mechanisms, efficacy, and [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the brain-gut axis; the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered colonic motility, bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier and secretory properties of the gut. This article reviews the mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of current pharmacotherapy, and medications that are in phase III trials for the treatment of IBS. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments—particularly for the pain component of IBS—although the introduction of drugs directed at secretion, motility and a non-absorbable antibiotic provide options for the bowel dysfunction in IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
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2939 KiB  
Review
Oxidative Stress: Mechanistic Insights into Inherited Mitochondrial Disorders and Parkinson’s Disease
by Mesfer Al Shahrani, Simon Heales, Iain Hargreaves and Michael Orford
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110100 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 9608
Abstract
Oxidative stress arises when cellular antioxidant defences become overwhelmed by a surplus generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Once this occurs, many cellular biomolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins become susceptible to free radical-induced oxidative damage, and this may consequently lead to [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress arises when cellular antioxidant defences become overwhelmed by a surplus generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Once this occurs, many cellular biomolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins become susceptible to free radical-induced oxidative damage, and this may consequently lead to cellular and ultimately tissue and organ dysfunction. Mitochondria, as well as being a source of ROS, are vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage with a number of key biomolecules being the target of oxidative damage by free radicals, including membrane phospholipids, respiratory chain complexes, proteins, and mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA). As a result, a deficit in cellular energy status may occur along with increased electron leakage and partial reduction of oxygen. This in turn may lead to a further increase in ROS production. Oxidative damage to certain mitochondrial biomolecules has been associated with, and implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the impact of such oxidative stress and subsequent damage by reviewing our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of several inherited mitochondrial disorders together with our understanding of perturbations observed in the more commonly acquired neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, the potential use and feasibility of antioxidant therapies as an adjunct to lower the accumulation of damaging oxidative species and hence slow disease progression will also be discussed. Full article
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178 KiB  
Review
Rome Criteria and a Diagnostic Approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome
by Brian E. Lacy and Nihal K. Patel
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6110099 - 26 Oct 2017
Cited by 288 | Viewed by 24996
Abstract
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) account for at least 40% of all referrals to gastroenterologists. Of the 33 recognized adult FGIDs, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent, with a worldwide prevalence estimated at 12%. IBS is an important health care concern as [...] Read more.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) account for at least 40% of all referrals to gastroenterologists. Of the 33 recognized adult FGIDs, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent, with a worldwide prevalence estimated at 12%. IBS is an important health care concern as it greatly affects patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the health care system. Cardinal symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. The absence of abdominal pain makes the diagnosis of IBS untenable. The diagnosis of IBS can be made by performing a careful review of the patient’s symptoms, taking a thoughtful history (e.g., diet, medication, medical, surgical, and psychological history), evaluating the patient for the presence of warning signs (e.g., “red flags” of anemia, hematochezia, unintentional weight loss, or a family history of colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease), performing a guided physical examination, and using the Rome IV criteria. The Rome criteria were developed by a panel of international experts in the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although initially developed to guide researchers, these criteria have undergone several revisions with the intent of making them clinically useful and relevant. This monograph provides a brief overview on the development of the Rome criteria, discusses the utility of the Rome IV criteria, and reviews how the criteria can be applied clinically to diagnose IBS. In addition, a diagnostic strategy for the cost-effective diagnosis of IBS will be reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
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