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Oxidative Stress: Mechanistic Insights into Inherited Mitochondrial Disorders and Parkinson’s Disease

Neurometabolic Unit. National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
Department of Genetics and Genomic Medicine, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha 61481, Saudi Arabia
Chemical Pathology, Great Ormond Street for Children Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London WC1N 3JH, UK
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L2 2AZ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(11), 100;
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Oxidative stress arises when cellular antioxidant defences become overwhelmed by a surplus generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Once this occurs, many cellular biomolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins become susceptible to free radical-induced oxidative damage, and this may consequently lead to cellular and ultimately tissue and organ dysfunction. Mitochondria, as well as being a source of ROS, are vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage with a number of key biomolecules being the target of oxidative damage by free radicals, including membrane phospholipids, respiratory chain complexes, proteins, and mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA). As a result, a deficit in cellular energy status may occur along with increased electron leakage and partial reduction of oxygen. This in turn may lead to a further increase in ROS production. Oxidative damage to certain mitochondrial biomolecules has been associated with, and implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the impact of such oxidative stress and subsequent damage by reviewing our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of several inherited mitochondrial disorders together with our understanding of perturbations observed in the more commonly acquired neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, the potential use and feasibility of antioxidant therapies as an adjunct to lower the accumulation of damaging oxidative species and hence slow disease progression will also be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant mitochondria; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant
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Al Shahrani, M.; Heales, S.; Hargreaves, I.; Orford, M. Oxidative Stress: Mechanistic Insights into Inherited Mitochondrial Disorders and Parkinson’s Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 100.

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