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J. Clin. Med., Volume 12, Issue 24 (December-2 2023) – 265 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a cardiac rehabilitation program on LV MW in patients after CABG and with preserved LV ejection fraction, the potential correlation between baseline MW indices and change after cardiac rehabilitation, and the optimal cut-off values of baseline MW indices to predict the improvement through exercise training. The results suggested that cardiac rehabilitation improved MW indices as GWI and GCW in this type of population. Furthermore, the beneficial impact was also significant on functional capacity, and lower values of MW indices were associated with greater improvement after cardiac rehabilitation. Finally, optimal cut-off values of 1522.5 mmHg% for GWI and 1740.5 mmHg% for GCW predicted improvements of ≥26.32% and ≥25%, respectively. View this paper
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11 pages, 274 KiB  
Review
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Resistance: The Future of Antibiotic Therapy
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7767; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247767 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 773
Abstract
The growing threat of antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhea, presents a current public health challenge. Over the years, the pathogen has developed resistance to different antibiotics, leaving few effective treatment options. High-level resistance to key drugs, including ceftriaxone, has become a [...] Read more.
The growing threat of antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhea, presents a current public health challenge. Over the years, the pathogen has developed resistance to different antibiotics, leaving few effective treatment options. High-level resistance to key drugs, including ceftriaxone, has become a concerning reality. This article primarily focuses on the treatment of gonorrhea and the current clinical trials aimed at providing new antibiotic treatment options. We explore ongoing efforts to assess new antibiotics, including zoliflodacin, and gepotidacin. These drugs offer new effective treatment options, but their rapid availability remains uncertain. We delve into two ongoing clinical trials: one evaluating the efficacy and safety of gepotidacin compared to the standard ceftriaxone–azithromycin combination and the other assessing the non-inferiority of zoliflodacin versus the combination therapy of ceftriaxone–azithromycin. These trials represent crucial steps in the search for alternative treatments for uncomplicated gonorrhea. Notably, gonorrhea has been included in the “WHO Priority Pathogens List for Research and Development of New Antibiotics”. In conclusion, the urgent need for innovative treatment strategies is underscored by the rising threat of antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae; collaboration among researchers, industries, and healthcare authorities is therefore essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
17 pages, 8154 KiB  
Review
Review of Clinical Applications of Dual-Energy CT in Patients after Endovascular Aortic Repair
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7766; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247766 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a significant cause of mortality in developed countries. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is currently the leading treatment method for AAAs. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity of post-EVAR complication detection, CT angiography (CTA) is the reference method [...] Read more.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a significant cause of mortality in developed countries. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is currently the leading treatment method for AAAs. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity of post-EVAR complication detection, CT angiography (CTA) is the reference method for imaging surveillance in patients after EVAR. Many studies have shown the advantages of dual-energy CT (DECT) over standard polyenergetic CTA in vascular applications. In this article, the authors briefly discuss the technical principles and summarize the current body of literature regarding dual-energy computed tomography angiography (DECTA) in patients after EVAR. The authors point out the most useful applications of DECTA in this group of patients and its advantages over conventional CTA. To conduct this review, a search was performed using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Full article
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16 pages, 682 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evaluating the Impact of Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin on CMV Reactivation Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Literature Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7765; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247765 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) are two frequently utilised strategies in graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), currently approved for different recipient-donor settings. In addition, being efficacious in preventing GvHD owing to their T-cell depleting capacity, the [...] Read more.
Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) are two frequently utilised strategies in graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), currently approved for different recipient-donor settings. In addition, being efficacious in preventing GvHD owing to their T-cell depleting capacity, the employment of these two agents increases the risk of infections, including CMV reactivation, which stands as one of the most common and serious infections following allo-HCT. We performed a systematic literature review of articles published until 1 September 2023, through PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus, with the main endpoint being CMV reactivation after PTCy or ATG allo-HCT. The majority of the studies included in the analysis provide supporting evidence for a reduced risk of CMV reactivations following the use of PTCy compared to ATG, although not all findings reached statistical significance. Additionally, it appears that utilising a haploidentical donor leads to a higher incidence of CMV infections and clinically significant CMV infections (CS-CMVis) compared to other donor settings in PTCy allo-HCT. This study aims to compare the risk of CMV infections following allo-HCT in patients who have received either ATG or PTCy as GvHD prophylaxis and discuss other factors that could influence the infectious outcomes of patients who have undergone allo-HCT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hematologic Malignancies: Treatment Strategies and Future Challenges)
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9 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Surgically Resected Cardiac Angiosarcoma: Survival Analysis from the National Cancer Database
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7764; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247764 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Angiosarcoma is a rare type of soft-tissue sarcoma arising from endothelial cells. It is considered ‘high-grade’ by definition, reflecting its aggressive behavior. We sought to investigate the role of surgery in cardiac angiosarcoma, identify late mortality predictors, and identify interactions with other modalities [...] Read more.
Angiosarcoma is a rare type of soft-tissue sarcoma arising from endothelial cells. It is considered ‘high-grade’ by definition, reflecting its aggressive behavior. We sought to investigate the role of surgery in cardiac angiosarcoma, identify late mortality predictors, and identify interactions with other modalities in its treatment using a national dataset. The 2004–2017 National Cancer Database was reviewed for patients with primary cardiac angiosarcoma. Late mortality predictors were evaluated with Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression analysis. Surgery in primary cardiac angiosarcoma was performed in 130 patients (median age 50.5 years; female sex 36.9%). The median follow up was 72.02 months, with a median overall survival (OS) of 14.32 months. In patients treated with surgery in combination with other modalities compared with those treated with surgery alone, median OSs were 17.28 and 2.88 months, respectively (log-rank = 0.018). Older patients (age > 57 years) experienced lower OS compared to those with an age < 57 (log-rank = 0.012). This may be partially explained by the difference in treatment strategies among age groups: those with increasing age, less surgery (p = 0.037), and less chemotherapy (p < 0.001) were chosen. With multivariable Cox regression analysis, age and race other than white or black were identified to be significant independent predictors of late mortality. Cardiac angiosarcoma has poor overall survival, and our findings should further encourage the use of surgery in combination with other therapeutic modalities in treating such an aggressive disease whenever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
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11 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between General Movements and Risk Factors in Moderate-Late Preterm Infants: A Prospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7763; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247763 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Introduction: Moderate-late preterm infants constitute the largest segment of preterm births globally. While previously considered to have a low neurological risk, recent research has uncovered an elevated incidence of neurodevelopmental conditions in this group. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Moderate-late preterm infants constitute the largest segment of preterm births globally. While previously considered to have a low neurological risk, recent research has uncovered an elevated incidence of neurodevelopmental conditions in this group. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the general movement assessment and birth-related risk factor-based tools in moderate-late preterm infants. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 65 moderate-late preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit involved the evaluation of general movements, the Nursery Neurobiologic Risk Score, and the Perinatal Risk Inventory. Associations were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, Spearman’s correlation was used for ordinal variables, and backward stepwise logistic regression was used to identify predictor variables for the assessments. Results: The findings indicated a high prevalence of normal (41%) and poor (52%) repertoire patterns during the writhing period. While no significant associations were found between the three assessments, a slight approximation emerged between dysmorphic traits and patterns (p = 0.053). Furthermore, an extended period of ventilation correlated with a higher likelihood of developing a cramped synchronized pattern and there was a correlation between both risk factor-based tools (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This research enhances our understanding of the early impact on general movement assessments in moderate-late preterm infants. While no clear relationship emerged between general movement assessment and risk factor-based tools, there was a subtle connection noted with dysmorphic traits. A longer ventilation duration was linked to a higher risk of developing cramped synchronized patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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8 pages, 224 KiB  
Brief Report
Dietary Composition, Angiographic Coronary Disease, and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the WISE Study (Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation)
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7762; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247762 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Background: Studies relating diet to angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) and subsequent major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in women are limited. Information on diet was collected in the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE), a prospective cohort study of symptomatic women referred for coronary [...] Read more.
Background: Studies relating diet to angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) and subsequent major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in women are limited. Information on diet was collected in the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE), a prospective cohort study of symptomatic women referred for coronary angiography to evaluate suspected ischemic heart disease. Methods: A consecutive subgroup (n = 201 of 936) of enrolled women completed the modified Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data on outcomes were collected and adjudicated after 8-year follow-up. A set of logistic regression models were fitted for non-obstructive versus obstructive coronary stenosis (<50% versus ≥50%). Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted for outcomes, with each dietary composition variable adjusted for the degree of coronary stenosis. Results: At baseline, the subgroup cohort was 58 ± 12 years old with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 ± 7 kg/m2. An increased proportion of calories consumed from protein was associated with higher levels of baseline obstructive coronary stenosis. Those individuals who ate a higher amount of protein, carotene, and servings of vegetables and meat, however, were each associated with lower subsequent adverse outcomes, respectively. Conclusions: Among women undergoing coronary angiography for suspected CAD, a higher percentage of protein intake was associated with higher baseline stenosis severity; however, the amount of protein intake, vegetable, meat, and carotene intake, was conversely associated with subsequent lower adverse cardiovascular outcome risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
14 pages, 4405 KiB  
Article
Concomitant Immunotherapy and Metastasis-Directed Radiotherapy in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Biomarker-Driven, Original, Case-Based Proof-of-Concept Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7761; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247761 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (mUTUC) has a poor prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated efficacy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. However, data supporting the use of ICIs in patients with mUTUC are limited. A promising synergy between ICI and concomitant [...] Read more.
Metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (mUTUC) has a poor prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated efficacy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. However, data supporting the use of ICIs in patients with mUTUC are limited. A promising synergy between ICI and concomitant radiotherapy (RT) has been reported in patients with mUTUC. Our research involved a case-based investigation and emphasized the successful integration of different specialists’ skills. Observed after partial urethrectomy procedures for muscle-invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), the radiological detection of lung metastases prompted us to implement cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy and molecular characterization in the treatment process. We uncovered alterations in the ERBB2 and FGFR3 genes and mismatch repair deficiency at a molecular level. First-line chemotherapy treatment led to a stable disease, and the patient was started on maintenance immunotherapy with Avelumab. Subsequently, an increase in the size of the lung nodules was described, and the patient received radiotherapy for three lung lesions in combination with immunotherapy. After 3 months, a restaging CT scan reported a complete response, which is still ongoing. We discuss the mechanisms driving RT/ICI synergy and the molecular profile of mUTUC as factors that should be considered in therapeutic strategy planning. Molecular insight enhances the originality of our study, providing a nuanced understanding of the genetic landscape of mUTUC and paving the way for targeted therapeutic strategies. The therapeutic armamentarium expansion encourages the design of a multimodal and personalized approach for each mUTUC patient, taking into account tumor heterogeneity and molecular profiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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16 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Crucial Parameters in Diabesity-Related Liver Fibrosis: A Preliminary Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7760; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247760 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
Diabetes and obesity have been recognized as confirmed risk factors for the occurrence of liver fibrosis. Despite the long-standing acknowledgment of “diabesity”, the simultaneous existence of diabetes and obesity, scholarly literature has shown limited attention to this topic. The aim of this pilot [...] Read more.
Diabetes and obesity have been recognized as confirmed risk factors for the occurrence of liver fibrosis. Despite the long-standing acknowledgment of “diabesity”, the simultaneous existence of diabetes and obesity, scholarly literature has shown limited attention to this topic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prevalence of liver fibrosis among individuals with diabetes (specifically those who are obese) in order to identify the key factors associated with hepatofibrosis and determine the most important associations and differences between patients with and without liver fibrosis. The research included a total of 164 participants (48.17% had comorbid obesity). Liver elastography (Fibroscan) was performed on these individuals in addition to laboratory tests. Liver fibrosis was found in 34.76% of type 2 diabetes patients; male gender almost doubled the risk of hepatofibrosis (RR 1.81) and diabesity nearly tripled this risk (RR 2.81; however, in degree III of obesity, the risk was elevated to 3.65 times higher). Anisocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or elevated liver enzymes raised the incidence of liver fibrosis by 1.78 to 2.47 times. In these individuals, liver stiffness was negatively correlated with MCV, platelet count, and albumin concentration; GGTP activity and HbA1c percentage were positively correlated. The regression analysis results suggest that the concentration of albumin and the activity of GGTP are likely to have a substantial influence on the future management of liver fibrosis in patients with diabesity. The findings of this study can serve as the basis for subsequent investigations and actions focused on identifying potential therapeutic and diagnostic avenues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes Research)
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12 pages, 1172 KiB  
Article
Dolutegravir/Lamivudine versus Tenofovir Alafenamide/Emtricitabine/Bictegravir as a Switch Strategy in a Real-Life Cohort of Virogically Suppressed People Living with HIV
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7759; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247759 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of a two-drug regimen (2-DR) dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) versus a three-drug regimen (3-DR) tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine/bictegravir (TAF/FTC/BIC) in a real-life cohort of HIV-1 virologically suppressed treatment-experienced (TE) people living with HIV [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of a two-drug regimen (2-DR) dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) versus a three-drug regimen (3-DR) tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine/bictegravir (TAF/FTC/BIC) in a real-life cohort of HIV-1 virologically suppressed treatment-experienced (TE) people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective, observational study analyzing adult TE PLWH who started the 2-DR or 3-DR between January 2018 and January 2023. All PLWH with a viral load (VL) <50 copies/mL at the time of switching, and a follow-up of more than 6 months or interruption of treatment at any time, were included. Results: A total of 324 PLWH were included; of these, 110 (34%) were on the 2-DR and 214 (66%) were on the 3-DR. Most patients remained on therapy in both groups (93.6% 2-DR versus 90.2% 3-DR) and, at the last control, 99.1% achieved VL < 50 copies/mL with the 2-DR versus 97.2% with the 3-DR (p = 0.260). No virological failures occurred in either group. Adverse events occurred in a few cases: four (3.6%) in the 2-DR group and five (2.3%) in the 3-DR group (p = 0.500). The median follow-up-time was 19.6 months for the 2-DR and 27.5 months for the 3-DR. Conclusion: Our study shows a similar effectiveness and safety profile in virologically suppressed PLWH switching to DTG/3TC or TAF/FTC/BIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 4804 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Orthognathic Surgery: Leveraging the Average Skull as a Dynamic Template for Surgical Simulation and Planning in 30 Patient Cases
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7758; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247758 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Virtual planning has revolutionized orthognathic surgery (OGS), marking a significant advancement in the field. This study aims to showcase the practical application of our established 3D average skull template as a guiding framework for surgical planning, and to share valuable insights from our [...] Read more.
Virtual planning has revolutionized orthognathic surgery (OGS), marking a significant advancement in the field. This study aims to showcase the practical application of our established 3D average skull template as a guiding framework for surgical planning, and to share valuable insights from our clinical experience. We enrolled 30 consecutive Taiwanese patients (18 females and 12 males) who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery with surgical simulation, utilizing the average skull template for planning. Results indicate the method’s applicability and precision. By adhering to the surgical plan, post-operative outcomes closely aligned with the average skull template, showing negligible deviations of less than 2 mm. Moreover, patients expressed high satisfaction with post-surgery facial changes, with the chin appearance receiving the highest satisfaction scores, while the lowest scores were attributed to nose appearance. Notably, the substantial change in lower jaw position post-mandibular setback surgery contributed to increased satisfaction with the chin position. In conclusion, this study does not seek to replace established surgical planning methods, but underscores that utilizing an average skull as a surgical design template provides a viable, accurate, and efficient option for OGS patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Individualized Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
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12 pages, 538 KiB  
Article
Behavioural Parameters of Circadian Rhythm Are Not Correlated with Dim Light Melatonin Onset: An Observational Study on Healthy Volunteers
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7757; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247757 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is considered the most reliable marker of the circadian rhythm phase in humans. DLMO may moderately correlate with sleep onset and sleep offset time. There are no sufficient data about the correlations between DLMO and clinical scales assessing [...] Read more.
Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is considered the most reliable marker of the circadian rhythm phase in humans. DLMO may moderately correlate with sleep onset and sleep offset time. There are no sufficient data about the correlations between DLMO and clinical scales assessing sleep quality and daytime symptoms of poor night sleep. The aim of the study was to determine the association between DLMO and basic sleep parameters from actigraphy and sleep diaries, as well as the association between DLMO and the following insomnia clinical scales: the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and chronotype questionnaires: Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM). Participants of the study were healthy volunteers. Sleep parameters were measured by sleep diaries and actigraphy, and the following clinical scales: the AIS, ISI, and ESS, and chronotype questionnaires: MEQ and CSM. DLMO was calculated based on plasma melatonin concentration. The blood samples were collected hourly at five time points between 20:00 and 00:00 during the session in dim red light (<50 lux). Melatonin concertation was determined by LC-MS/MS. Twenty-one volunteers participated in the study. DLMO was calculated in 12 participants. There was a significant correlation between DLMO and ISI (r = 0.60, p = 0.038) and ESS (r = 0.61, p = 0.034). The correlation coefficient between the DLMO and the AIS was also high, however insignificant (r = 0.57, p = 0.054). There were no significant correlations between DLMO and chronotype scales MEQ and CSM. DLMO did not correlate with sleep onset and sleep offset; however, DLMO correlated with the Sleep Fragmentation Index (SFI) (r = 0.67, p = 0.017). DLMO is associated with poorer sleep maintenance, a stronger feeling of insomnia, and sleepiness during the day. Simultaneously, chronotype pattern and circadian rhythm parameters do not correlate with DLMO. Biological circadian rhythm does not reflect the real-life sleep–wake rhythm, indicating that the lifestyle is more often disconnected from the biological clock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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2 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Clinical Consequences of COVID-19”: Taking a Look at Complexity
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7756; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247756 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection are far from being fully understood or accounted for [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Consequences of COVID-19)
16 pages, 337 KiB  
Review
Mechanical Support Strategies for High-Risk Procedures in the Invasive Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory: A State-of-the-Art Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7755; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247755 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Thanks to advancements in percutaneous cardiac interventions, an expanding patient population now qualifies for treatment through percutaneous endovascular procedures. High-risk interventions far exceed coronary interventions and include transcatheter aortic valve replacement, endovascular management of acute pulmonary embolism and ventricular tachycardia ablation. Given the [...] Read more.
Thanks to advancements in percutaneous cardiac interventions, an expanding patient population now qualifies for treatment through percutaneous endovascular procedures. High-risk interventions far exceed coronary interventions and include transcatheter aortic valve replacement, endovascular management of acute pulmonary embolism and ventricular tachycardia ablation. Given the frequent impairment of ventricular function in these patients, frequently deteriorating during percutaneous interventions, it is hypothesized that mechanical ventricular support may improve periprocedural survival and subsequently patient outcome. In this narrative review, we aimed to provide the relevant evidence found for the clinical use of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (pMCS). We searched the Pubmed database for articles related to pMCS and to pMCS and invasive cath lab procedures. The articles and their references were evaluated for relevance. We provide an overview of the clinically relevant evidence for intra-aortic balloon pump, Impella, TandemHeart and ECMO and their role as pMCS in high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention, transcatheter valvular procedures, ablations and high-risk pulmonary embolism. We found that the right choice of periprocedural pMCS could provide a solution for the hemodynamic challenges during these procedures. However, to enhance the understanding of the safety and effectiveness of pMCS devices in an often high-risk population, more randomized research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
10 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Clinical Features and Response to Treatment in Elderly Subjects Affected by Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7754; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247754 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic-relapsing inflammatory skin disease. It usually appears in the second and third decades, but a smaller proportion of patients develop late-onset HS. Geriatric HS, defined as the persistence or the development of HS after the age of 65 [...] Read more.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic-relapsing inflammatory skin disease. It usually appears in the second and third decades, but a smaller proportion of patients develop late-onset HS. Geriatric HS, defined as the persistence or the development of HS after the age of 65 years, has been poorly explored. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features, treatment management and response to therapies of HS elderly subjects (≥65 years old). We designed a multicentric observational study, gathering data from seven Italian university hospitals. Demographic and clinical data of HS patients aged over 65 years were collected at baseline, week 12 and week 24. Overall, 57 elderly subjects suffering from HS were enrolled. At baseline, disease severity was predominantly moderate-to-severe, with 45.6% of patients classified as Hurley III. The gluteal phenotype was the most frequently observed; it also appeared to affect patients’ quality of life more than other phenotypes. Gluteal involvement was detected in about half (49.1%) of cases and associated with severe stages of the disease. In terms of therapeutic response, Hurley III patients showed the persistency of higher values of mean IHS4, DLQI, itch- and pain-NRS scores compared to Hurley I/II. In conclusion, disease severity in this subpopulation appears high and treatment is often challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): Current and Emerging Treatments)
12 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
The Role of Intraoperative and Early Postoperative Blood Pressure Variations, Fluid Balance and Inotropics in Fibula Free Flap Head and Neck Reconstruction: A Retrospective Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7753; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247753 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Background: In head and neck reconstructive surgery, postoperative complications are a well-known concern. Methods: We examined 46 patients who underwent ablative surgery and received fibula free flap reconstruction. The main focus was to assess the influence of intraoperative blood pressure fluctuations and the [...] Read more.
Background: In head and neck reconstructive surgery, postoperative complications are a well-known concern. Methods: We examined 46 patients who underwent ablative surgery and received fibula free flap reconstruction. The main focus was to assess the influence of intraoperative blood pressure fluctuations and the administration of inotropic drugs on complications, either related to the flap or systemic, serving as the primary endpoint. Results: Utilizing logistic regression models, we identified that intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) drops did not correlate with the occurrence of either flap-related complications (MAP < 70, p = 0.79; MAP < 65, p = 0.865; MAP < 60, p = 0.803; MAP < 55, p = 0.937) or systemic medical complications (MAP < 70, p = 0.559; MAP < 65, p = 0.396; MAP < 60, p = 0.211; MAP < 55, p = 0.936). The occurrence of flap-related complications significantly increased if a higher dosage of dobutamine was administered (median 27.5 (IQR 0–47.5) vs. 62 (38–109) mg, p = 0.019) but not if norepinephrine was administered (p = 0.493). This correlation was especially noticeable given the uptick in complications associated with fluid overload (3692 (3101–4388) vs. 4859 (3555–6216) mL, p = 0.026). Conclusion: Intraoperative and immediate postoperative blood pressure fluctuations are common but are not directly associated with flap-related complications; however, dobutamine application as well as fluid overload may impact flap-specific complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Craniofacial and Reconstructive Plastic Surgery)
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18 pages, 1585 KiB  
Review
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance as Risk Stratification Tool in Non-Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Referred for Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy—State of Art and Perspectives
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7752; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247752 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease characterized by left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction. Patients with DCM are at higher risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). According to current international guidelines, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% represents [...] Read more.
Non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease characterized by left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction. Patients with DCM are at higher risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). According to current international guidelines, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% represents the main indication for prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation in patients with DCM. However, LVEF lacks sensitivity and specificity as a risk marker for SCD. It has been seen that the majority of patients with DCM do not actually benefit from the ICD implantation and, on the contrary, that many patients at risk of SCD are not identified as they have preserved or mildly depressed LVEF. Therefore, the use of LVEF as unique decision parameter does not maximize the benefit of ICD therapy. Multiple risk factors used in combination could likely predict SCD risk better than any single risk parameter. Several predictors have been proposed including genetic variants, electric indexes, and volumetric parameters of LV. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can improve risk stratification thanks to tissue characterization sequences such as LGE sequence, parametric mapping, and feature tracking. This review evaluates the role of CMR as a risk stratification tool in DCM patients referred for ICD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancement and Challenges in Cardiac Arrhythmias)
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10 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
The Clinical Implications of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Levels in Patients with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Pulmonary Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7751; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247751 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels can increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), and the levels correlate with disease activity. We compared the clinical characteristics of NTM-PD patients with and without elevated CA19-9 levels and evaluated its association with antibiotic response in [...] Read more.
Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels can increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), and the levels correlate with disease activity. We compared the clinical characteristics of NTM-PD patients with and without elevated CA19-9 levels and evaluated its association with antibiotic response in a retrospective study of NTM-PD patients diagnosed between January 1994 and December 2020. We analyzed 1112 patients who had serum CA19-9 measured: 322 with elevated CA19-9 and 790 with normal CA19-9. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the elevated CA19-9 group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.029, respectively). The 1-year culture conversion rate after antibiotics did not differ between the elevated (n = 206) and normal (n = 377) CA19-9 groups (80% vs. 72%, p = 0.055). Analysis of a subset of 434 patients revealed that current smoking, bronchiectasis, acid-fast bacilli smear positivity, and the M. abscessus strain significantly reduced microbiological cure rates. Serum CA 19-9 levels did not have a significant association with microbiological cure in a multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that the role of serum CA19-9 in predicting antibiotic treatment outcomes is limited, and that elevated CA19-9 does not necessarily indicate a poor outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonology)
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8 pages, 2219 KiB  
Case Report
A Novel Approach to the Reconstruction of a Large Surgical Defect in the Cheek
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7750; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247750 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Background: Large lateral cheek defects can be challenging to reconstruct. Several approaches to reconstruction of these defects have been reported. In the case presented here, we describe an alternative reconstruction method for this type of surgical defect. Detailed Case Description: We present one [...] Read more.
Background: Large lateral cheek defects can be challenging to reconstruct. Several approaches to reconstruction of these defects have been reported. In the case presented here, we describe an alternative reconstruction method for this type of surgical defect. Detailed Case Description: We present one patient with a large basal cell carcinoma on his lateral left cheek who underwent a complete tumor removal by Mohs surgery and was left with a defect 6 × 6 cm in size. This large defect was closed by performing a double transposition flap under local anesthesia. Results: Both flaps survived with no loss. The immediate and long-term outcomes were satisfactory, preserving functionality with good cosmetic results. Conclusions: Cheek defect reconstruction with the double transposition flap is simple and reliable, with good aesthetic and functional outcomes. It may be considered as an alternative reconstructive method for this type of defect, in an appropriate context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update in Cutaneous Reconstruction: Flaps and Skin Grafting)
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11 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
Outcomes of Secondary Intracapsular Intraocular Lens Implantation in Patients following Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7749; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247749 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 548
Abstract
This study reports the outcomes of a secondary IOL implantation technique in patients that suffered from rhegmatogenous retinal detachment combined with a cataract, which included reopening the capsular bag, enabling secondary intracapsular intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. We included consecutive cases with rhegmatogenous retinal [...] Read more.
This study reports the outcomes of a secondary IOL implantation technique in patients that suffered from rhegmatogenous retinal detachment combined with a cataract, which included reopening the capsular bag, enabling secondary intracapsular intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. We included consecutive cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) treated with vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade, and subsequent secondary IOL implantation during silicone oil removal between September 2019 and June 2022. Demographics, pre- and postoperative clinical data, and complications were collected. Visual and refractive outcomes and IOL position were evaluated. Thirty eyes were included and followed up for a mean of 24.2 ± 5.06 months. Compared with the preoperative values, no significant changes were observed in the intraocular pressure (p = 0.170) and endothelial cell density (p = 0.336); however, the best-corrected visual acuity (Snellen: 20/83 vs. 20/38; logMAR: 0.66 ± 0.23 vs. 0.37 ± 0.32; p < 0.001) and spherical equivalent (p < 0.001) improved significantly. The mean prediction error (ME) was −0.45 ± 0.68 D (−1.9–0.54 D), and the mean absolute prediction error (MAE) was 0.62 ± 0.52 D (0.01–1.9 D). The macula-on subgroup demonstrated significantly better refractive outcomes than the macula-off subgroup (ME, p = 0.046; MAE, p = 0.008). The IOL was well positioned, with a mean horizontal and vertical tilt and decentration of 0.53 ± 0.49° and 0.21 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.54 ± 0.45° and 0.22 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. Secondary intracapsular IOL implantation provided a good and stable IOL position and satisfactory refractive outcomes, and is a feasible treatment option for patients with RRD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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13 pages, 2685 KiB  
Review
Current Usefulness of Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7748; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247748 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 816
Abstract
This review article describes in depth the current usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Pre-intervention, 3D-transesophageal echocardiography allows us to accurately evaluate the aortic valve morphology and to measure the valve annulus, helping us to choose the [...] Read more.
This review article describes in depth the current usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Pre-intervention, 3D-transesophageal echocardiography allows us to accurately evaluate the aortic valve morphology and to measure the valve annulus, helping us to choose the appropriate size of the prosthesis, especially useful in cases where the computed tomography is not of adequate quality. Although it is not currently used routinely during the intervention, it remains essential in those cases of greater complexity, such as for patients with greater calcification and bicuspid valve, mechanical mitral prosthesis, and “valve in valve” procedures. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography is the best technique to detect and quantify paravalvular regurgitation, a fundamental aspect to decide whether immediate valve postdilation is needed. It also allows to detect early any immediate complications such as cardiac tamponade, aortic hematoma or dissection, migration of the prosthesis, malfunction of the prosthetic leaflets, or the appearance of segmental contractility disorders due to compromise of the coronary arteries ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography is also very useful in follow-up, to check the proper functioning of the prosthesis and to rule out complications such as thrombosis of the leaflets, endocarditis, or prosthetic degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Expert Views on Aortic Valve Repair and Replacement)
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19 pages, 3563 KiB  
Article
Impact of Altered Body Composition on Clinical and Oncological Outcomes in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7747; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247747 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a common primary liver tumor with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Changes in body composition (BC) have been shown to affect the prognosis of various types of tumors. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the correlation between BC and [...] Read more.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a common primary liver tumor with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Changes in body composition (BC) have been shown to affect the prognosis of various types of tumors. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the correlation between BC and clinical and oncological outcomes in patients with iCCA. All patients with iCCA who had surgery from 2010 to 2022 at our institution were included. We used CT scans and 3D Slicer software to assess BC and conducted logistic regressions as well as Cox regressions and Kaplan–Meier analyses to investigate associations between BC and clinical variables with focus on postoperative complications and oncological outcomes. BC was frequently altered in iCCA (n = 162), with 53.1% of the patients showing obesity, 63.2% sarcopenia, 52.8% myosteatosis, 10.1% visceral obesity, and 15.3% sarcopenic obesity. The multivariate analysis showed no meaningful association between BC and perioperative complications. Myosteatosis was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) in iCCA patients (myosteatosis vs. non-myosteatosis, 7 vs. 18 months, p = 0.016 log rank). Further, the subgroup analysis revealed a notable effect in the subset of R0-resected patients (myosteatosis vs. non-myosteatosis, 18 vs. 32 months, p = 0.025) and patients with nodal metastases (myosteatosis vs. non-myosteatosis, 7 vs. 18 months, p = 0.016). While altered BC is not associated with perioperative outcomes in iCCA, myosteatosis emerges as a prognostic factor for reduced OS in the overall and sub-populations of resected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances in the Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Diseases)
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11 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Individualized Mean Perfusion Pressure Targets for the Prevention of Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury—The PrevHemAKI Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7746; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247746 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Background: Retrospective studies support that mean perfusion pressure (MPP) deficit in cardiac surgery patients is associated with a higher incidence of acute kidney injury (CS-AKI). The aim of our study was to apply an algorithm based on MPP in the postoperative period to [...] Read more.
Background: Retrospective studies support that mean perfusion pressure (MPP) deficit in cardiac surgery patients is associated with a higher incidence of acute kidney injury (CS-AKI). The aim of our study was to apply an algorithm based on MPP in the postoperative period to determine whether management with an individualized target reduces the incidence of CS-AKI. Methods: Randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Adult patients submitted to valve replacement and/or bypass surgery with a high risk of CS-AKI evaluated by a Leicester score >30 were randomized to follow a target MPP of >75% of the calculated baseline or a standard hemodynamic management during the first postoperative 24 h. Results: Ninety-eight patients with an eGFR of 54 mL/min were included. There were no differences in MAP and MPP in the first 24 h between the randomized groups, although a higher use of noradrenaline was found in the intervention arm (38.78 vs. 63.27, p = 0.026). The percentage of time with MPP < 75% of measured baseline was similar in both groups (10 vs. 12.7%, p = 0.811). MAP during surgery was higher in the intervention group (73 vs. 77 mmHg, p = 0.008). The global incidence of CS-AKI was 36.7%, being 38.6% in the intervention group and 34.6% in the control group (p = 0.40). There were no differences in extrarenal complications between groups as well. Conclusion: An individualized hemodynamic management based on MPP compared to standard treatment in cardiac surgery patients was safe but did not reduce the incidence of CS-AKI in our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiac Surgery)
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11 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Montelukast Sodium to Prevent and Treat Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Preterm Infants: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7745; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247745 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in preterm infants and lacks effective methods for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of montelukast in preventing or treating BPD in preterm infants. [...] Read more.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in preterm infants and lacks effective methods for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of montelukast in preventing or treating BPD in preterm infants. The preterm infants with BPD risk factors were divided randomly into a montelukast group and a control group. In the montelukast group, preterm infants were given 1 mg/kg of montelukast sodium daily. There was no placebo in the control group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of moderate or severe BPD between the two groups (31.8% vs. 35%). The duration of respiratory support in the montelukast group was shorter than that in the control group (36.4 ± 12.8 d vs. 43.1 ± 15.9 d, p = 0.037). The pulmonary severity score (PSS) at 21 days of life in the montelukast group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.56 ± 0.13 vs. 0.62 ± 0.14, p = 0.048). There were no significant differences in the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, hospitalization expenses, or incidence of adverse events. Although montelukast cannot alleviate the severity of BPD, it may shorten the duration of respiratory support and decrease the PSS in very preterm infants. There were no significant adverse drug events associated with montelukast treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intensive Care)
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10 pages, 718 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Multicenter Study of Risk Factors, Stratification, and Prognosis of Lymph Node Metastasis in T1 and T2 Colorectal Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7744; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247744 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Background. The objective of this study was to compare the long-term prognosis of patients with T1 and T2 colorectal cancer (CRC) according to lymph node metastasis (LNM) and to identify risk factors for LNM. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent curative resection [...] Read more.
Background. The objective of this study was to compare the long-term prognosis of patients with T1 and T2 colorectal cancer (CRC) according to lymph node metastasis (LNM) and to identify risk factors for LNM. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent curative resection for T1 or T2 CRC at five University-affiliated hospitals between January 2012 and December 2021. The patients were divided into several groups depending on the presence of LNM or the number of risk factors. Results. Of the total 765 patients, 87 (11.3%) patients had LNM. These patients had poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) than patients without LNM (72.6% vs. 88.6%). The multivariable analysis showed that high-grade tumors (p = 0.003), lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.001), and rectal location (p = 0.049) were independent predictors of LNM. When divided into groups according to the number of the three risk factors, the risk of LNM increased from 5.4% (ultralow-risk group; no risk factor) to 60.0% (high-risk group; all three risk factors) and the 5-year RFS rate decreased from 96.3% in the ultralow-risk group to 60% in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Radical surgery should be considered for T1 and T2 CRC patients with these risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment of Intestinal Cancer)
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15 pages, 928 KiB  
Article
Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training Using the 3/7 Resistance Training Method on Metabolic Stress in People with Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease: A Randomized Cross-Over Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7743; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247743 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 900
Abstract
The 3/7 resistance training (RT) method involves performing sets with increasing numbers of repetitions, and shorter rest periods than the 3x9 method. Therefore, it could induce more metabolic stress in people with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or coronary artery disease [...] Read more.
The 3/7 resistance training (RT) method involves performing sets with increasing numbers of repetitions, and shorter rest periods than the 3x9 method. Therefore, it could induce more metabolic stress in people with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or coronary artery disease (CAD). This randomized cross-over study tested this hypothesis. Eleven individuals with HFrEF and thirteen with CAD performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for 30 min, followed by 3x9 or 3/7 RT according to group allocation. pH, HCO3−, lactate, and growth hormone were measured at baseline, after HIIT, and after RT. pH and HCO3− decreased, and lactate increased after both RT methods. In the CAD group, lactate increased more (6.99 ± 2.37 vs. 9.20 ± 3.57 mmol/L, p = 0.025), pH tended to decrease more (7.29 ± 0.06 vs. 7.33 ± 0.04, p = 0.060), and HCO3− decreased more (18.6 ± 3.1 vs. 21.1 ± 2.5 mmol/L, p = 0.004) after 3/7 than 3x9 RT. In the HFrEF group, lactate, pH, and HCO3− concentrations did not differ between RT methods (all p > 0.248). RT did not increase growth hormone in either patient group. In conclusion, the 3/7 RT method induced more metabolic stress than the 3x9 method in people with CAD but not HFrEF. Full article
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19 pages, 1880 KiB  
Article
Classification of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Phenotypes and Serum Cytokines in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease before and after Glucocorticoid Therapy
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7742; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247742 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease (VKH) is an autoimmune disease, and glucocorticoid therapy (GC) is widely used for VKH. We provided a profile of leukocyte populations and serum cytokines in VKH patients under GC. A prospective observational study was conducted on three treatment-naïve VKH patients. Peripheral [...] Read more.
Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease (VKH) is an autoimmune disease, and glucocorticoid therapy (GC) is widely used for VKH. We provided a profile of leukocyte populations and serum cytokines in VKH patients under GC. A prospective observational study was conducted on three treatment-naïve VKH patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from the patients before GC (VKH-acute) and after 6 months (VKH-remission), and healthy individuals were used as controls. Proportions of 37-type leukocytes and levels of 27-kind cytokines were measured by mass cytometry and multiplex bead analysis. Property similarity was analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis. The leukocytes and cytokines were broadly classified into four and three clusters: (1) a cluster with high intensity in VKH-acute consisting of B cells, Th2-like, Th17-like, basophils, and IL-7 and IP-10; (2) a cluster with high intensity in VKH-remission composed of monocytes, neutrophils, IL-4, and TNFα; in leukocytes, (3) a cluster with low intensity in VKH-acute and -remission consisting of CD8+ T cells, Th1-like, and NKT cells; (4) a cluster with low intensity in VKH-remission composed of NK cells, Tregs, and DCs; and in cytokines, (5) a cluster with high intensities in VKH-acute and -remission comprising G-CSF, MCP-1, eotaxin, and IL-17A. These findings suggest that inflammatory composition in blood during the acute phase of VKH represents complex hyperimmune responses dominantly driven by Th and B cells. Full article
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11 pages, 1556 KiB  
Article
Systemic Sodium Thiosulfate as an Adjunct Treatment in Calcinosis: A Retrospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7741; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247741 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 725
Abstract
(1) Background: Calcinosis of the skin mainly appears in connective tissue disorders (dystrophic subtype). It may cause inflammation, ulceration, pain, and restricted joint mobility. Management is difficult; sodium thiosulfate is one potential therapeutic agent with promising data on intralesional and topical formulation for [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Calcinosis of the skin mainly appears in connective tissue disorders (dystrophic subtype). It may cause inflammation, ulceration, pain, and restricted joint mobility. Management is difficult; sodium thiosulfate is one potential therapeutic agent with promising data on intralesional and topical formulation for smaller calcified lesions. There are very limited data on systemic administration. (2) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at our department to assess the efficacy of oral and intravenous sodium thiosulfate in dystrophic calcinosis between 2003 and 2023. (3) Results: Seven patients were identified, who received systemic sodium thiosulfate (intravenous or oral). The mean duration of calcinosis at the time of administration was 3.8 ± 4 years (range 0–11). Intravenous sodium thiosulfate was administered in doses of 12.5–25 g two or three times during one week of the month for 4.5 ± 3.9 months on average. Orally, 1–8 g was administered daily for 29.1 ± 40.9 months on average. Four of seven patients had a partial response (57.1%). Despite no complete response, pain, ulceration and inflammation frequency decreased, and sodium thiosulfate prevented further progression in responsive patients. (4) Conclusions: Based on our experience and literature data, systemic sodium thiosulfate may be a potential adjunct therapy in calcinosis, especially if inflamed or ulcerating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dermatology)
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11 pages, 1512 KiB  
Article
Survival and Results after Resection and Reconstruction with Megaprosthesis at the Hip in Octogenarians
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7740; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247740 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Few data are available about results after procedures of resection and megaprosthesis at the hip in very elderly patients. The aim of our study was to ascertain survival and complications in patients aged 80 or older undergoing these major orthopedic procedures. A consecutive [...] Read more.
Few data are available about results after procedures of resection and megaprosthesis at the hip in very elderly patients. The aim of our study was to ascertain survival and complications in patients aged 80 or older undergoing these major orthopedic procedures. A consecutive series of 27 procedures in 26 patients aged 80–93 years was evaluated. In total, 15 procedures were performed due to oncological diseases, 6 were performed following joint arthroplasty failures or periprosthetic fractures, and 6 were performed after trauma or trauma sequelae. Survival of the patients ranged from 0 to 122 months. Overall survival was 56% at 3 years, 24% at 5 years, and 16% at 8 years. An early postoperative death during the first 3 months occurred in five patients (18.5%). The only preoperative parameter negatively affecting survival was preoperative hemoglobin lower than 11 g/dL. Local complications were similar to reported rates in all-age patients’ series. In our experience, resection and megaprosthetic reconstruction can also be a valid choice in very elderly patients, with 56% of patients living more than two years from surgery and 24% more than five. Nevertheless, early postoperative deaths are frequent. A multidisciplinary evaluation of frailty of the patient must be accomplished, and patients and relatives must be informed about the risks of the procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Hip Surgery)
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13 pages, 1880 KiB  
Article
SCAI Staging Application for Acute Myocardial Infarction-Related Cardiogenic Shock at a Single-Center Russian Registry
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7739; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247739 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Aim: To access the features of the course of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with different stages of MI complicated by cardiogenic shock (MI CS) according to the SCAI scale. Methods: We retrospectively described the portrait of CS MI (n = 117) [...] Read more.
Aim: To access the features of the course of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with different stages of MI complicated by cardiogenic shock (MI CS) according to the SCAI scale. Methods: We retrospectively described the portrait of CS MI (n = 117) at different stages of SCAI from the hospital MI registry (n = 1253). Results: Hospital mortality increased from stage to stage (p ≤ 0.001). Significant differences in biochemical parameters were found both for indicators characterizing intensive care measures, such as the presence of mechanical lung ventilation or an intra-aortic balloon pump, and for indicators of organ hypoperfusion such as lactate level, pHv (7.39 (7.36; 7.44) at stage A–B; 7.14 (7.06; 7.18) at stage E), creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate. Parameters related to MI characteristics, such as instrumental and laboratory data, anamnesis of ischemia, and performed treatment, did not differ between groups. Polynomial logistic regression showed that lactate level, mechanical ventilation, and monocyte count upon admission (1.15 (0.96; 1.23) at stage A–B; 0.78 (0.49; 0.94) at stage E, p = 0.005) correlated with CS severity. Conclusion: The characteristics of MI at different stages of SCAI do not have differences and do not determine the severity of shock. We revealed a high discriminatory potential of the pH level in predicting refractory shock. The value of monocytes at admission may be a promising predictor of the severity of MI CS. The question of the causes of heterogeneity of MI CS, taking into account the homogeneity of MI characteristics, remains open and promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Cardiogenic Shock and Cardiac Arrest)
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25 pages, 1106 KiB  
Review
Inflammation in Heart Failure—Future Perspectives
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7738; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247738 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Chronic heart failure is a terminal point of a vast majority of cardiac or extracardiac causes affecting around 1–2% of the global population and more than 10% of the people above the age of 65. Inflammation is persistently associated with chronic diseases, contributing [...] Read more.
Chronic heart failure is a terminal point of a vast majority of cardiac or extracardiac causes affecting around 1–2% of the global population and more than 10% of the people above the age of 65. Inflammation is persistently associated with chronic diseases, contributing in many cases to the progression of disease. Even in a low inflammatory state, past studies raised the question of whether inflammation is a constant condition, or if it is, rather, triggered in different amounts, according to the phenotype of heart failure. By evaluating the results of clinical studies which focused on proinflammatory cytokines, this review aims to identify the ones that are independent risk factors for heart failure decompensation or cardiovascular death. This review assessed the current evidence concerning the inflammatory activation cascade, but also future possible targets for inflammatory response modulation, which can further impact the course of heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiac Surgery)
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