Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment of Intestinal Cancer

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Oncology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 23 June 2024 | Viewed by 5302

Special Issue Editors

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel
Interests: radiology; deep learning; artificial intelligence; natural language processing; large language models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Gastroenterology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Affiliated to Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Interests: gastroenterology; inflammatory bowel disease; diverticular disease; patient health; endoscopy; CRC screening
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Intestinal cancer, also known as colorectal cancer, is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease have improved patient outcomes and increased survival rates.

The early detection of intestinal cancer is crucial for successful treatment, and there have been significant developments in screening and diagnostic techniques.

Treatment options for intestinal cancer have also expanded, with a greater emphasis on personalized and targeted therapies. Surgery remains the primary treatment for early-stage disease, but advancements in surgical techniques, such as laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery, have improved outcomes and reduced recovery times. For more advanced disease, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have become more effective and better tolerated, and targeted therapies that inhibit specific molecular pathways have shown promising results in clinical trials.

In addition to these clinical advances, there have been significant strides in understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal cancer. Identifying specific genetic mutations and alterations in signaling pathways has led to the development of targeted therapies and the potential for personalized treatment approaches. Furthermore, advances in immunotherapy, particularly the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have shown promise in treating intestinal cancer.

Overall, the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of intestinal cancer have significantly improved patient outcomes and hold promise for continued progress in the field. However, challenges remain, particularly in the areas of early detection and developing effective treatments for advanced disease.

The current Special Issue will focus on updated research that will address the existing challenges in the field, in order to further improve outcomes for patients with intestinal cancer.

Dr. Eyal Klang
Dr. Adi Lahat
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • colorectal cancer
  • early detection
  • treatment
  • immune therapy
  • radiation therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • risk factors
  • improved prognosis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3692 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Tumor Budding and Tumor Deposits in Patients with Stage III Colorectal Carcinoma
by Zdenko Bilić, Mario Zovak, Goran Glavčić, Dubravka Mužina, Amir Ibukić, Andro Košec, Davor Tomas and Alma Demirović
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2583; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092583 - 27 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background/Objectives: Recently, some new morphological features of colorectal cancer have been discovered as important prognostic factors; in this paper, we study the relationship between tumor budding (TB) and tumor deposits (TDs). Methods: The retrospective cohort study included 90 patients with pathohistologically confirmed stage [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Recently, some new morphological features of colorectal cancer have been discovered as important prognostic factors; in this paper, we study the relationship between tumor budding (TB) and tumor deposits (TDs). Methods: The retrospective cohort study included 90 patients with pathohistologically confirmed stage III CRC who were treated with radical surgical resection. All hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)-stained slides from each patient were reviewed, and histological parameters were recorded. The samples were divided into two groups with similar sizes: a group without TDs (N = 51) and a control group with TDs (N = 39). The presence and TB grade were further analyzed in these groups and compared with other clinical and histological features. Results: The prevalence of TB in the investigated cohort was unexpectedly high (94.4%). Overall, there were 23 (25.6%) Bd1, 20 (22.2%) Bd2, and 47 (52.2%) Bd3 cases. The presence of TDs was significantly associated with a higher number of TB (p < 0.001, OR 16.3) and, consequently, with a higher TB grade (p = 0.004, OR 11.04). A higher TB grade (p = 0.001, HR 2.28; 95% CI 1.93–4.76) and a growing number of TDs (p = 0.014, HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.09–2.1) were statistically significantly associated with shorter survival. Conclusions: TDs appear more often in patients with higher TB grades in stage III CRC. A higher TB grade and a growing number of TDs were statistically significantly associated with shorter overall survival. These results could give additional emphasis to the importance of TB as an adverse prognostic factor since a strong relationship with TDs has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment of Intestinal Cancer)
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12 pages, 539 KiB  
Article
MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism (rs1801133) and Susceptibility to Colorectal Polyps in an Azerbaijani Population
by Hazi Aslanov, Bayram Bayramov, Christoph Reissfelder, Shams Abdullayeva, Zeynab Mammadova, Fikrat Aliyev, Michael Keese, Javahir Hajibabazade and Vugar Yagublu
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010219 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Background: Understanding the relationships between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism, colorectal polyps, and CRC risk can aid in advancing personalized medicine approaches in CRC prevention. The aim of the current study is to identify the association of C677T polymorphism of [...] Read more.
Background: Understanding the relationships between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism, colorectal polyps, and CRC risk can aid in advancing personalized medicine approaches in CRC prevention. The aim of the current study is to identify the association of C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene with the risk of colorectal polyps in the Azerbaijani population. Methods: This study included 125 patients with colon polyps and 155 healthy individuals as a control group. DNA was extracted from venous blood samples obtained from patients and healthy individuals, and the results were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Wild-type, heterozygote, and homozygous mutant were revealed within 69 (55.2%), 49 (39.2%), and 7 (5.6%) patients and within 100 (64.5%), 45 (29%), and 10 (6.5%) healthy controls, respectively. However, no significant statistical associations were observed between CT and TT genotypes, dominant (CC vs. CT + TT) and recessive (CC + CT vs. TT) models, and the mutant T allele and disease risk. There were also no significant differences between patients and controls regarding age, sex, smoking and alcohol use. Conclusion: Our research did not reveal any significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal polyps in the Azerbaijan population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment of Intestinal Cancer)
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14 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Study of Trifluridine/Tipiracil with Fruquintinib in Patients with Chemorefractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
by Jiayun Zou, Yuanyuan Wang, Jiayu Xu, Jinna Li, Tianzhuo Wang, Ying Zhang and Yibo Bai
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010057 - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Introduction: Trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) and fruquintinib are novel antitumor agents for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a retrospective study to explore the clinical efficacy and drug toxicities of combination therapy with TAS-102 and fruquintinib in real-life clinical practice. Methods: Between [...] Read more.
Introduction: Trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) and fruquintinib are novel antitumor agents for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a retrospective study to explore the clinical efficacy and drug toxicities of combination therapy with TAS-102 and fruquintinib in real-life clinical practice. Methods: Between March 2021 and February 2023, patients at two different centers with mCRC who failed two or more lines of prior therapy and received TAS-102 in combination with fruquintinib were recruited. Results: In total, 32 mCRC patients were included in the analysis. The objective response rate (ORR) and the disease control rate (DCR) were 9.4% and 75%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6.3 (95% CI: 5.3–7.3) and 13.5 (95% CI: 9.5–17.5) months, respectively. Patients without liver metastasis or peritoneal metastasis obtained better median PFS (7.1 m vs. 5.6 m, p = 0.03 and 6.3 m vs. 3.4 m, p = 0.04), and OS (15.2 m vs. 10.4 m, p = 0.01 and 13.6 m vs. 7.1 m, p = 0.03), respectively. Other clinicopathological features, including age, tumor site, KRAS status, dosage of fruquintinib, and treatment line, did not affect the clinical efficacy of TAS-102 combined with fruquintinib. The most common grade three–four toxicities were neutropenia (46.9%), anemia (21.9%), diarrhea (15.6%), nausea (12.5%), and hand–foot syndrome rash (12.5%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that TAS-102 combined with fruquintinib has promising clinical efficacy and manageable safety for refractory mCRC patients in a real-world clinical setting. Further prospective trials are warranted to confirm our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment of Intestinal Cancer)
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10 pages, 718 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Multicenter Study of Risk Factors, Stratification, and Prognosis of Lymph Node Metastasis in T1 and T2 Colorectal Cancer
by Eui Myung Kim, Il Tae Son, Byung Chun Kim, Jun Ho Park, Byung Mo Kang and Jong Wan Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7744; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247744 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Background. The objective of this study was to compare the long-term prognosis of patients with T1 and T2 colorectal cancer (CRC) according to lymph node metastasis (LNM) and to identify risk factors for LNM. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent curative resection [...] Read more.
Background. The objective of this study was to compare the long-term prognosis of patients with T1 and T2 colorectal cancer (CRC) according to lymph node metastasis (LNM) and to identify risk factors for LNM. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent curative resection for T1 or T2 CRC at five University-affiliated hospitals between January 2012 and December 2021. The patients were divided into several groups depending on the presence of LNM or the number of risk factors. Results. Of the total 765 patients, 87 (11.3%) patients had LNM. These patients had poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) than patients without LNM (72.6% vs. 88.6%). The multivariable analysis showed that high-grade tumors (p = 0.003), lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.001), and rectal location (p = 0.049) were independent predictors of LNM. When divided into groups according to the number of the three risk factors, the risk of LNM increased from 5.4% (ultralow-risk group; no risk factor) to 60.0% (high-risk group; all three risk factors) and the 5-year RFS rate decreased from 96.3% in the ultralow-risk group to 60% in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Radical surgery should be considered for T1 and T2 CRC patients with these risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment of Intestinal Cancer)
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11 pages, 559 KiB  
Article
A Novel Approach to Staging and Detection of Colorectal Cancer in Early Stages
by Monika Zajkowska and Barbara Mroczko
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(10), 3530; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12103530 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant problem affecting patients all over the world. Since it is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths, many scientists aim to expand their knowledge on the detection in early stages and treatment of this disease. Chemokines, [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant problem affecting patients all over the world. Since it is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths, many scientists aim to expand their knowledge on the detection in early stages and treatment of this disease. Chemokines, as protein parameters involved in many processes accompanying the development of cancer, constitute a group of potential biomarkers that could also be useful in the detection of CRC. For this purpose, our research team used the results of thirteen parameters (nine chemokines, one chemokine receptor and three comparative markers, i.e., CEA, CA19-9 and CRP) to calculate one hundred and fifty indexes. Moreover, for the first time, the relationship between these parameters during the ongoing cancer process and in comparison to a control group are presented. As a result of statistical analyses using patients’ clinical data and the obtained indexes, it was established that several of the indexes have a diagnostic utility that is much higher than the tumor marker that is currently the most commonly used (CEA) currently. Furthermore, two of the indexes (CXCL14/CEA and CXCL16/CEA) showed not only extremely high usefulness in the detection of CRC in its early stages, but also the ability to determine whether the stage is low (stage I and II) or high (stage III and IV). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment of Intestinal Cancer)
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