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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 44 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Family and Child Characteristics Associated with Foster Care Breakdown
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120160 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Studies examining the experience of children returned from foster care can reveal its causes and the severity of the psychological consequences, as well as the positive effect of psychological support on family functioning. Our research was aimed at the features of children and [...] Read more.
Studies examining the experience of children returned from foster care can reveal its causes and the severity of the psychological consequences, as well as the positive effect of psychological support on family functioning. Our research was aimed at the features of children and characteristics of foster families who refuse to continue parenting foster children. The study participants were comprised of families raising a foster child (Group One—182 families), and families who refused to continue parenting and returned the child (Group Two—19 families). The study was conducted using the “standardized interview for parents” and the “list of traumatic experiences of the child.” The results show that the strongest contributor to foster family breakdown was the degree of the child’s traumatic experience before placement (for Group One, 3.9 (1.15); Group Two, 6.1 (1.31), U = 395.0, p < 0.001) and the minimal participation of the family in an intervention program (the total number of program activities the family did not participate in; for Group One, 48.5 (28.27)%, Group Two, 95.5 (2.58)%, U = 67.5, p < 0.001). Our data expand ideas about the functioning of foster families who have taken children with significant traumatic experience and indicate the need to improve the quality of psychological and social support to foster families as an important factor in preventing secondary returns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Strategies of Speech Interaction between Adults and Preschool Children with Typical and Atypical Development
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120159 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The goal of this research is to study the speech strategies of adults’ interactions with 4–7-year-old children. The participants are “mother–child” dyads with typically developing (TD, n = 40) children, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, n = 20), Down syndrome (DS, n [...] Read more.
The goal of this research is to study the speech strategies of adults’ interactions with 4–7-year-old children. The participants are “mother–child” dyads with typically developing (TD, n = 40) children, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, n = 20), Down syndrome (DS, n = 10), and “experimenter–orphan” pairs (n = 20). Spectrographic, linguistic, phonetic, and perceptual analyses (n = 465 listeners) of children’s speech and mothers’ speech (MS) are executed. The analysis of audio records by listeners (n = 10) and the elements of nonverbal behavior on the basis of video records by experts (n = 5) are made. Differences in the speech behavior strategies of mothers during interactions with TD children, children with ASD, and children with DS are revealed. The different strategies of “mother–child” interactions depending on the severity of the child’s developmental disorders and the child’s age are described. The same features of MS addressed to TD children with low levels of speech formation are used in MS directed to children with atypical development. The acoustic features of MS correlated with a high level of TD child speech development do not lead to a similar correlation in dyads with ASD and DS children. The perceptual and phonetic features of the speech of children of all groups are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Research into Conscious Self-Regulation in First-Graders with Developmental Delay
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120158 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The underdeveloped conscious self-regulation of actions plays a primary role in the disorder-related character of children with developmental delay (DD). This study aimed to analyze and systematize specific occurrences of conscious self-regulation in children’s DD-affected cognitive activity. Children aged 7–8 years were involved [...] Read more.
The underdeveloped conscious self-regulation of actions plays a primary role in the disorder-related character of children with developmental delay (DD). This study aimed to analyze and systematize specific occurrences of conscious self-regulation in children’s DD-affected cognitive activity. Children aged 7–8 years were involved in the study (n = 60), including children with DD (n = 40) and school children displaying typical development (n = 20). The dotting test, visual pattern test, and Toulouse–Pieron attention test are the practical methods used in the study. Mathematical methods of statistics were applied to analyze the study outcome. The experimental research identified and described four levels of conscious self-regulation development in the cognitive activity of children with different learning capacities. The findings proved that children of 7–8 years with DD have an underdeveloped level of conscious self-regulation of actions in terms of their cognitive activity, and that they differ from their peers regarding typical development in terms of their conscious self-regulation level and skills. Special intervention programs that develop conscious self-regulation in the performance and behavior of children with DD are required to realize their cognitive and personal capacities and provide them with high-quality education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Designing a Scale to Assess Dialectical Thinking: Link to ECERS-R Items
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120157 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Dialectical thinking is gaining wide circulation as part of personal and social preschool child development in modern society, which makes all the more urgent the task of designing a tool to evaluate the extent to which the educational environment in a pre-school establishment [...] Read more.
Dialectical thinking is gaining wide circulation as part of personal and social preschool child development in modern society, which makes all the more urgent the task of designing a tool to evaluate the extent to which the educational environment in a pre-school establishment supports the development of dialectical thinking in preschoolers. To implement this task, the researchers analyzed the ECERS-R as a means for assessing the quality of preschool education and concluded that this tool fails to focus on rating the environment in terms of the development of dialectical thinking. N.Ye. Veraksa and E.V. Sviridova designed a tool for assessing how well the educational environment supports dialectical thinking in preschoolers (the scale of dialectical thinking support (DTS scale). The research into the use of the DTS scale was conducted in 18 preparatory groups of three educational complexes in Moscow in February–April 2019. The comparison of the results on the DTS scale and those on the ECERS-R scale made it possible to conclude that the ECERS-R scale does not differentiate between the stimulation of dialectical thinking and formally logical thinking in preschool age children. The use of the newly designed tool was justified statistically. It is noted that the teacher activity in line with the ECERS-R scale scores of “Stimulating Communication with Children”, “Books and Illustrations”, “Using Speech to Develop Cognitive Skills” may be associated with decreased levels of support for children’s dialectical thinking in preschool educational institutions. In addition, a positive relationship was found to exist between the ECERS-R score of “Care-Giver and Children Interaction” and DTS scale. The results obtained make it possible to hypothesize that there are interrelations between the development of dialectic thinking in children, on the one hand, and voluntariness and the emotional sphere, on the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Examining the Convergent Validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure Using a Sample of Incarcerated and on Probation Lithuanian Juveniles
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120156 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) is based on the triarchic psychopathy model proposed by Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger in 2009. This paper assesses the convergent validity of TriPM using a number of measures for a sample of adolescents who are either incarcerated or [...] Read more.
The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) is based on the triarchic psychopathy model proposed by Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger in 2009. This paper assesses the convergent validity of TriPM using a number of measures for a sample of adolescents who are either incarcerated or on probation. These included the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START: AV); the Subtypes of Antisocial Behavior Questionnaire (STAB); the Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M); and the Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI). The results showed significant differences between groups that are incarcerated and those on probation, with the incarcerated sample of juveniles exhibiting higher ratings in terms of Disinhibition and lower ratings for Boldness. The TriPM measures examined also show expected positive correlations with concurrent measures related to criminal behavior in both of the aforementioned samples of juveniles. A different pattern of correlations was observed between Boldness and STAB scales, with a large positive correlation found in the incarcerated sample, while no significant correlations were detected in the probation sample. The results support the usefulness of TriPM in assessing the psychopathy in samples of the juvenile offenders chosen for our research purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Classification of Participants Based on Increase–Decrease Rate Model of Reaction Time to Personality Trait Words
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120155 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 555
Abstract
In this experiment, we tried to measure personality by reaction time (RT) to stimuli of personality trait words. There were interindividual and intraindividual differences in the factors that caused the reaction time to fluctuate. The intraindividual differences for personality trait words were caused [...] Read more.
In this experiment, we tried to measure personality by reaction time (RT) to stimuli of personality trait words. There were interindividual and intraindividual differences in the factors that caused the reaction time to fluctuate. The intraindividual differences for personality trait words were caused by changes due to circumstances for the same participant. The increased stimulus reaction time (sRT) model for simple reaction time was used as an index to indicate personality traits. As a result, participants could be classified into two major hierarchical clusters. The participants in Cluster 1 showed innovative dominance. The participants in Cluster 2 were obedient and conservative. The independent variable was measured by the physiological index using sRT for classify the participants. Participants in Cluster 2 had a reduced stress response to the experiment and showed a tendency to be compliant. Moreover, immediately after the RT measurement session with a laptop computer started, participants in Cluster 1 showed decreased HEG and increased amylase values and had a somewhat negative attitude. The physiological dependent variable were measured by using salivary amylase and hemoencephalography (HEG). And, the psychological dependent variable was the Big Five personality inventory. All of them ware using to verify the participant’s classification. Participants in Cluster 2 had significantly higher conscientiousness than those in Cluster 1. Therefore, we suggest that it is possible to classify personality traits from RT by using sRT based on intraindividual differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
How Decisiveness, Self-Efficacy, Curiosity and Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals Are Related to Future Hopefulness among Senior Students
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120154 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Hope is a future-oriented reasoning that influences psychological assets of individuals. A hopeful standing towards the future can positively influence individual well-being. Different standings in terms of hopefulness may create variations in psychological assets of people. In the current study, we examined the [...] Read more.
Hope is a future-oriented reasoning that influences psychological assets of individuals. A hopeful standing towards the future can positively influence individual well-being. Different standings in terms of hopefulness may create variations in psychological assets of people. In the current study, we examined the associations of decisiveness, self-efficacy, curiosity and self-construals with hopefulness. A total of 278 senior university students were recruited for the study from Eastern Mediterranean University in Famagusta, North Cyprus. Participants filled six questionnaires; the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Independent and Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, Multi-Domain Decisiveness Scale, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory II, the Dispositional Hope Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The data was analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression analysis on SPSS 23 software program. The results indicated that self-efficacy and decisiveness significantly predicted hopefulness, while curiosity did not predict hopefulness and only independent self-construal had the predictive effect on hopefulness. Based on these findings, the emerging adulthood nature of the study sample was discussed, and further recommendations were presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Parents’ Personality, Marriage Satisfaction, Stress, and Punishment of Children in the Family
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120153 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The objective of the research is to ascertain whether emotional and volitional characteristics of the individual affect the frequency of punishment in the family (for example, prohibition to watch TY for some time, pocket money reduction, request for an apology). These types of [...] Read more.
The objective of the research is to ascertain whether emotional and volitional characteristics of the individual affect the frequency of punishment in the family (for example, prohibition to watch TY for some time, pocket money reduction, request for an apology). These types of punishments are legal in Russia. The research method is Perrez’s, Schoebi’s questionnaire on punishing behavior in education, and Chumakov’s questionnaire on volitional and emotional characteristics of a person (VEC). The data were divided into two groups (high or low level of development of volitional powers). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to compare groups. The dependent variables were marriage satisfaction, emotional stress, and frequency of punishment of children in the family. Results and conclusions found that the gaps between the groups were significant for marriage satisfaction F (1,105) = 17.77, p < 0.001 and emotional stress F (1,105) = 23.53, p < 0.001 but were not significant for the frequency of punishment. Marriage satisfaction in a group with high VEC parameters is higher than in the group with low parameters. The stress in the group with high VEC parameters is lower than in the group with low parameters. There is a correlation between marriage satisfaction and frequency of punishment as well as between stress and frequency of punishment. Thus, the emotional and volitional qualities of the parents’ personality indirectly influence the frequency of punishment of children in the family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Profession Loss Crisis at an Old Age: Specific Features, Factors, and Mechanisms of Coping
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120152 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 524
Abstract
This article discusses the specific characteristics of profession loss crisis at an old age. Profession loss crisis is the last normative crisis of personal professional development that is caused by the completion of one’s professional biography after reaching a certain age. The research [...] Read more.
This article discusses the specific characteristics of profession loss crisis at an old age. Profession loss crisis is the last normative crisis of personal professional development that is caused by the completion of one’s professional biography after reaching a certain age. The research employs a psychobiographic method and a critical events method. These methods are based on the use of a formalized biographical questionnaire worked out by Norakidze V.G. and reconstructed by Zeer E.F. The authors have identified and provided a detailed description of the main factors that cause profession loss crisis: random events, adverse circumstances while implementing professional plans, etc. The article outlines the main strategies for coping with this crisis: changing jobs, re-training, the assistance of colleagues and administration, etc. The authors suggest technologies to minimize the effects of these factors and overcome profession loss crisis effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Professional Longevity as a Problem of the Value-Semantic Regulation of Teacher Activity
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120151 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 489
Abstract
The aim of this research is to establish proper external and internal conditions for conducting pedagogical activity that reveal the value basis of professional education. The research justifies the need to analyse the guidelines of a person’s professional self-identity, contents of professional activity [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to establish proper external and internal conditions for conducting pedagogical activity that reveal the value basis of professional education. The research justifies the need to analyse the guidelines of a person’s professional self-identity, contents of professional activity motivation, peculiarities of maintaining the mental and physical health of a person, and the capacity of an educational institution’s organisational culture. A number of indicators of value mechanisms of a teacher’s professional longevity is revealed. A diagnostic program of the project, aimed at studying the value content of a teacher’s behaviour strategies during the process of professional activity, was designed. The content of the hypothesis is connected with the assumption of value-semantic inter-conditionality of professional longevity. The research revealed significant interrelations of professional longevity with some psychological factors of value-semantic nature. Analysis of the organisational culture of an educational institution as a factor providing (preventing) the professional longevity of a teacher was carried out. The dominant tendency of describing the interconnection between an educational institution’s organisational culture and the level of emotional burnout syndrome of teachers working within certain cultural models is revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Learning Styles Determine Different Immigrant Students’ Results in Testing Settings: Relationship Between Nationality of Children and the Stimuli of Tasks
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120150 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Background: Literature presents little examination on the learning styles and sensorial preferences of immigrants during decoding of different tasks in testing contexts. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, non-native children (between 2nd and 12th grade) were divided into six groups determined by country of [...] Read more.
Background: Literature presents little examination on the learning styles and sensorial preferences of immigrants during decoding of different tasks in testing contexts. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, non-native children (between 2nd and 12th grade) were divided into six groups determined by country of origin and examined on different stimuli, visual and auditory, associated with four tasks that measure cognitive and linguistic specific abilities. Results: The multivariate analysis confirmed that the children’s nationality significantly explained achievement variability regarding picture recognition and auditory discrimination. η2 values indicated that there were moderate to larger effects for the nationality as a factor that explains the variance of performance. Conclusions: Results indicate that tasks’ stimuli can effectively assess and differentiate specific young minority groups in order to understand their actual level of preparation and their needs for further learning. The listening input, on the one hand, should be established as the main differentiator for all groups at the time of school entry, but, on the other hand, it should be avoided in Asian groups and Eastern European students during the first stages of second language (L2) learning in European contexts with romance languages as the target learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
To Use or Not to Use: No Consensus on Whether and How to Apply Genetic Information in the Justice System
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120149 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Little is known about the public’s attitudes towards applying genetic information in the justice system. This study aimed to extend previous research to explore this among the general public and those with training in law. Data were collected from over 10,000 participants, including [...] Read more.
Little is known about the public’s attitudes towards applying genetic information in the justice system. This study aimed to extend previous research to explore this among the general public and those with training in law. Data were collected from over 10,000 participants, including 486 lawyers and law students. We analysed eight available relevant items from the International Genetic Literacy and Attitudes Survey (iGLAS). The majority of participants viewed genetic information as relevant to justice. For example, 65% believed that we should make provisions (legal and policy) to buffer the effects of genetic disadvantage on individuals, and almost 60% believed that genetic information should be taken into account in sentencing. At the same time, many participants (70%) disagreed that genetic influences on behaviour negate free will. The results of the correlational analyses suggest that people who consider genetic information relevant in one context tend to consider it relevant across all aspects of the justice system, including in sentencing, crime prevention and access to justice. Overall, the results suggest that views on the use of genetics by justice systems are complex and widely varied. Further research is needed to understand these complex views. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Parental Communication and Emotional Intelligence in Child-to-Parent Violence
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120148 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 669
Abstract
In recent years, cases of child-to-parent violence (CPV) have increased significantly, prompting greater scientific interest in clarifying its causes. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between styles of family communication (open, offensive and avoidant), emotional intelligence or EI (attention, [...] Read more.
In recent years, cases of child-to-parent violence (CPV) have increased significantly, prompting greater scientific interest in clarifying its causes. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between styles of family communication (open, offensive and avoidant), emotional intelligence or EI (attention, repair and perceived emotional clarity) and CPV, taking into account the gender of the aggressors. The participants of the study were 1200 adolescents (46.86% boys) between the ages of 12 and 18 enrolled at secondary schools in the Autonomous Communities of Andalusia and Valencia (M = 13.88, SD = 1.32). A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, 3 × 2) was performed with CPV and gender as independent variables and family communication styles and EI as dependent variables. The results showed that the adolescents with low CPV obtained lower scores for offensive and avoidant family communication and higher scores for both positive family communication and emotional repair. The girls scored higher than the boys in both offensive communication and perceived emotional attention. The results highlight the importance of encouraging positive communication, as well as the need to strengthen perceived emotional repair to prevent future cases of CPV. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Digital Storytelling in Language Education
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120147 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Modern technology provides lots of opportunities in order to connect classrooms with the world. Technology provides a greater and better source of information, yet solutions are needed to be mediated through the appropriate remedy. The emergence of new technology and digital resources during [...] Read more.
Modern technology provides lots of opportunities in order to connect classrooms with the world. Technology provides a greater and better source of information, yet solutions are needed to be mediated through the appropriate remedy. The emergence of new technology and digital resources during the past few decades has significantly influenced the learning environment and educational prospects. However, one of the challenges of practitioners and researchers is preparing learners with the required skills for the effective use of modern technology in the process of learning. Researchers proposed that a combination of societal constructivism and technology-integrated learning is crucial for obtaining and accomplishing present-day academic goals. The present paper highlights the significance and intricacy of modern technology, specifically digital storytelling (DST), in education. It elaborates the most salient aspects of DST application in language education, considering phases and elements of effective digital stories, steps of composing a digital story, and a critical description on the implementation of DST and fosterage of academic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Security or Safety: Quantitative and Comparative Analysis of Usage in Research Works Published in 2004–2019
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120146 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 583
Abstract
This article is devoted to the statistical analysis of security and safety frequency in the context of categories connected with social institutions and personality features in research works from 2004–2019. Research was based on the following methods: quantitative analysis of safety frequency in [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the statistical analysis of security and safety frequency in the context of categories connected with social institutions and personality features in research works from 2004–2019. Research was based on the following methods: quantitative analysis of safety frequency in the context with coded “categories” related to social institutions and personality features; analysis was conducted with computer-assisted content analysis QDA Miner Lite v. 1.4 and Fisher’s F-test. An analysis of 1157 works showed that the terms “security” and “safety” were quantitatively more frequent when used with concepts related to social institutions than with concepts related to personality features. In our opinion, this qualitative trend shows the prevailing significance of social aspects of security over its personal (psychological) traits for research analysis and practical social aspects. The priority usage of the terms “security” and “safety” can be related to the securitization of society, (i.e., to the increased role and significance of social ways of providing security and protection from threats), primarily with the help of external law-enforcing actors such as the state, police, and army. Securitization counterweights the development of social and psychological mechanisms of security—developing motivation for safe behavior, personal self-regulation, and self-production of security as an internal feeling of protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Bulgarian Version of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory: Psychometric Properties
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120145 - 08 Dec 2019
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Road safety is one of the main priorities for the European Union. Different strategies and policies strive to increase the level of road safety across Europe and although this level has increased in the last couple of years the number of injuries and [...] Read more.
Road safety is one of the main priorities for the European Union. Different strategies and policies strive to increase the level of road safety across Europe and although this level has increased in the last couple of years the number of injuries and fatalities resulting from traffic accidents is still very high. The multidimensional driving style inventory (MDSI) is a self-reported instrument for the assessment of a person’s habitual driving style and its connection to risky driving behaviour and involvement in different traffic accidents. The instrument was originally developed in Israel and there are several previous adaptations in different countries such as Argentina and Romania. The main objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable version of the MDSI in Bulgaria. A study was conducted to evaluate the construction validity of the instrument and to test the validity of the factors in a Bulgarian sample (n = 456, male = 204; female = 252; average age = 37). Eight factors representing a specific driving style—dissociative, anxious, risky, angry, high-velocity, distress reduction, patient and careful and irrational—identified by previous versions of the MDSI are included in this study. The overall number of items in the inventory is 57 with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78. The current study in Bulgaria confirmed the structural organization of the initial version of the inventory. The results of the conducted study supported the reliability and validity of the Bulgarian version of the MDSI. The possible implementation of the instrument for the development of different programs for preventions and interventions is discussed here within. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessReview
Effectiveness and Characterization of Severely Energy-Restricted Diets in People with Class III Obesity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120144 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Severely energy-restricted diets are used in obesity management, but their efficacy in people with class III obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m2) is uncertain. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of severely [...] Read more.
Severely energy-restricted diets are used in obesity management, but their efficacy in people with class III obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m2) is uncertain. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of severely energy-restricted diets in people with class III obesity. As there was a lack of publications reporting long-term dietary interventions and randomised controlled trial designs, our original publication inclusion criteria were broadened to include uncontrolled study designs and a higher upper limit of energy intake. Eligible publications reported studies including adults with class III obesity and that assessed a diet with daily energy intake ≤5000 kJ for ≥4 weeks. Among 572 unique publications from 4 databases, 11 were eligible and 10 were suitable for meta-analysis. Our original intention was to classify comparison arms into short-term (<6 months) and long-term (>1 year) interventions. Due to the lack of long-term data found, comparison arms were classified according to the commonalities in dietary intervention length among the included publications, namely dietary interventions of 4 weeks’ duration and those of ≥6 weeks’ duration. After a 4-week severely energy-restricted diet intervention, the pooled average weight loss was 9.81 (95% confidence interval 10.80, 8.83) kg, with a 95% prediction interval of 6.38 to 13.25 kg, representing a loss of approximately 4.1 to 8.6% of initial body weight. Diets ≥6 weeks’ duration produced 25.78 (29.42, 22.15) kg pooled average weight loss, with a 95% prediction interval of 13.77 to 37.80 kg, representing approximately 10.2 to 28.0% weight loss. Daily dietary prescriptions ranged from 330 to 5000 kJ (mean ± standard deviation 2260 ± 1400 kJ), and had wide variations in macronutrient composition. The diets were administered mostly via liquid meal replacement products. While the included publications had a moderate risk of bias score, which may inflate reported weight loss outcomes, the published data to date suggest that severely energy-restricted diets, delivered via diets of varying composition, effectively produce clinically relevant weight loss (≥10% of initial body weight) when used for 6 weeks or more in people with class III obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sport Activity as Risk or Protective Factor in Feeding and Eating Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120143 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests controversial results on the associations between sport activity and eating disorders (EDs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sport activity in general, weight-dependent/independent sport activity particularly, and risk or protective factors in feeding and [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests controversial results on the associations between sport activity and eating disorders (EDs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sport activity in general, weight-dependent/independent sport activity particularly, and risk or protective factors in feeding and eating disorder (FED). The sample (n = 282, divided into two successive groups), included competitive athletes in the first analysis, non-competitive athletes, and sedentary peers; in the second analysis it has been divided into weight-dependent athletes, weight-independent athletes, non-competitive athletes, and sedentary peers. The participants were tested with Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). The results show higher levels of self-esteem among athletes in general and particularly in weight-independent athletes (p = 0.0210). We found higher levels of image and body dissatisfaction among sedentary peers and weight-dependent athletes (0.0005 < p < 0.0015). Sedentary peers also reported higher levels of tension/anxiety, depression/dejection, confusion/bewilderment and fatigue/inertia (0.0001 < p < 0.0331). Dieting and oral control were found to be higher among weight-dependent athletes (0.0337 < p < 0.0400). The findings suggest that sedentary condition is associated with higher levels of body-image discomfort and higher level of psychological distress, whereas weight-dependent athletes may report dietary issues and bodily concerns. Sport activity should be promoted and specific trainings on diet and body-consciousness encouraged among athletes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mother Schema, Obstetric Dilemma, and the Origin of Behavioral Modernity
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120142 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 577
Abstract
What triggered the emergence of uniquely human behaviors (language, religion, music) some 100,000 years ago? A non-circular, speculative theory based on the mother-infant relationship is presented. Infant “cuteness” evokes the infant schema and motivates nurturing; the analogous mother schema (MS) is a multimodal [...] Read more.
What triggered the emergence of uniquely human behaviors (language, religion, music) some 100,000 years ago? A non-circular, speculative theory based on the mother-infant relationship is presented. Infant “cuteness” evokes the infant schema and motivates nurturing; the analogous mother schema (MS) is a multimodal representation of the carer from the fetal/infant perspective, motivating fearless trust. Prenatal MS organizes auditory, proprioceptive, and biochemical stimuli (voice, heartbeat, footsteps, digestion, body movements, biochemicals) that depend on maternal physical/emotional state. In human evolution, bipedalism and encephalization led to earlier births and more fragile infants. Cognitively more advanced infants survived by better communicating with and motivating (manipulating) mothers and carers. The ability to link arbitrary sound patterns to complex meanings improved (proto-language). Later in life, MS and associated emotions were triggered in ritual settings by repetitive sounds and movements (early song, chant, rhythm, dance), subdued light, dull auditory timbre, psychoactive substances, unusual tastes/smells and postures, and/or a feeling of enclosure. Operant conditioning can explain why such actions were repeated. Reflective consciousness emerged as infant-mother dyads playfully explored intentionality (theory of mind, agent detection) and carers predicted and prevented fatal infant accidents (mental time travel). The theory is consistent with cross-cultural commonalities in altered states (out-of-body, possessing, floating, fusing), spiritual beings (large, moving, powerful, emotional, wise, loving), and reports of strong musical experiences and divine encounters. Evidence is circumstantial and cumulative; falsification is problematic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Psychotherapy: The Therapeutic Process in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120141 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Dynamic Psychotherapy (DP) was developed to overcome the limitations of traditional psychoanalysis, responding to a broader demand of patients who seek help to cope with specific problems in the short term, such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is a chronic disabling mental disorder [...] Read more.
Dynamic Psychotherapy (DP) was developed to overcome the limitations of traditional psychoanalysis, responding to a broader demand of patients who seek help to cope with specific problems in the short term, such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is a chronic disabling mental disorder that leads to substantial distress, functional disability and severe occupational and social impairments. Recognizing the literature gap in this field, and the improvements reported by dynamic therapists who have dealt with patients suffering from OCD, a study on the treatment of these patients was conducted in order to discuss the effects of this technique. The method involved a narrative literature review and the analysis of two clinical cases to discuss therapeutic processes, which include the specificities of OCD patients and the mechanisms adopted in the treatment through DP. The therapist’s active stance seemed to be essential to encourage the patient to face feared situations and identify the core conflict. Both patients who were treated through DP presented similarities, such as high anxiety, feelings of guilt and inhibition of aggressive and sexual impulses. Through emotional exploration, confrontation of defensive functioning and interpretative interventions of inner conflicts, patients had reached awareness of their hidden feelings and experiences, and their symptoms and feelings of guilt decreased. They also showed significant improvements in their interpersonal relationships. Although both treatments do not fit into short-term therapies, this technique has led to long-term results, providing evidence that DP may produce favorable outcomes in the treatment of OCD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Creating Positive Work Experiences Through Task Self-Redesign
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120140 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Complementing the traditional focus in work design on “top-down” organizational interventions, research into proactive work behavior suggests that “bottom-up” processes, based on the “micro-emancipatory” actions employees engage in, create more rewarding and meaningful work experiences. Based on current theorizing, this study tests a [...] Read more.
Complementing the traditional focus in work design on “top-down” organizational interventions, research into proactive work behavior suggests that “bottom-up” processes, based on the “micro-emancipatory” actions employees engage in, create more rewarding and meaningful work experiences. Based on current theorizing, this study tests a tripartite model of task self-redesign and positive work-related states of meaning, affective commitment, and work–home enrichment. The interactive effects of three modes of task influence are postulated: (a) the active use of existing potentials for task autonomy; (b) job crafting, as unauthorized and self-organized modifications of task features; (c) the individual renegotiation of tasks through idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) with superiors. Survey data from an occupationally heterogeneous convenience sample of N = 279 German-speaking employees were analyzed, using confirmatory factor analysis and moderated linear regression. The regression results confirmed that task i-deals consistently related to positive experiences, whereas autonomy only related to one, and task crafting had no significant main effect. A significant two-way interaction between i-deals and crafting was found only in relation to affective commitment. Supporting the suggested tripartite model, significant (synergistic) three-way interactions explained the additional variance in all three examined outcomes. These results offer some preliminary insights into the interplay of organizationally designed, individually crafted, and interpersonally negotiated work activities. Task autonomy, task-directed job crafting, and task i-deals appear to fulfill complementary roles in the self-directed creation of positive work experiences. Methodological limitations and further research needs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Socio-Psychological Safety of Schools in the Context of the Settlement Type and Socio-Economic Status of the Region
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120139 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Under current conditions, the scientific request for the study of both internal and external factors of socio-psychological safety becomes important. In the literature there are very contradictory data on the role of contextual factors in ensuring the socio-psychological safety of schools. In our [...] Read more.
Under current conditions, the scientific request for the study of both internal and external factors of socio-psychological safety becomes important. In the literature there are very contradictory data on the role of contextual factors in ensuring the socio-psychological safety of schools. In our work, we consider the role of socio-economic and geographical conditions in ensuring the socio-psychological safety of the educational environment of the school from the standpoint of environmental psychology. Research questions: How does the social and economic status of the region affect the subject level of the school’s socio-psychological safety? How does the type of settlement affect the personal level of the school’s socio-psychological safety? The economic, social, and geographical status of the region affects the socio-psychological safety of the school. Therefore, contextual factors influence, but do not determine the socio-psychological safety of the educational environment of the school. Multilevel approaches, which are intended for individual, psychosocial, and contextual factors, can contribute to the promotion of the theme of the socio-psychological safety of the school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Social-Psychological Satiety: Empirical Study of a New Phenomenon
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120138 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 587
Abstract
This article is devoted to the development of a new phenomenon in the field of social psychology of the city—satiety with living conditions in a metropolis. The study involved 87 people aged 18–30 years. The aim of the study was to identify and [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the development of a new phenomenon in the field of social psychology of the city—satiety with living conditions in a metropolis. The study involved 87 people aged 18–30 years. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the expression of the satiety of young Moscovites with living conditions in the metropolis, and its dependence on the sources of experience of this state. It was shown that satiety as a state of the human psyche performs the function of a protective mechanism from an overabundance of various stimuli from the surrounding world. The satiety with living conditions in the metropolis is a complex state that is caused by a variety of phenomena of social life in the urban environment: Excessive communication, an abundance of information, overpopulation, forced informatization of the urban environment, high rate of life, etc. It was found that satiety with living conditions in a metropolis has different forms of expression, such as emotional experiences and behavioral reactions. The article outlines perspectives for further research on the phenomenon of satiety in living conditions in a megacity in the direction of types, factors, and mechanisms of satiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Change & Grow® Therapeutic Model for Addiction: Preliminary Results of an Interventional Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120137 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 607
Abstract
The last years have seen a paradigm shift concerning addictive disorders, indicating the necessity to study alternative therapeutic models. In this longitudinal study, the objective was to explore the impact of the Change & Grow® therapeutic model developed and used by VillaRamadas [...] Read more.
The last years have seen a paradigm shift concerning addictive disorders, indicating the necessity to study alternative therapeutic models. In this longitudinal study, the objective was to explore the impact of the Change & Grow® therapeutic model developed and used by VillaRamadas on certain psychological variables that frequently appear associated with addiction. A repeated measures (first and last weeks of treatment) design was used, and the psychological measurements were Beck’s Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Suicide Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results include 26 (16 male and 10 female) patients. Age varied between 17 and 64 years (M = 35.62, SD = 12.60) and duration of treatment between 91 and 193 days (M = 147.35, SD = 27.05). The MoCA total result was significantly higher in the last week of treatment. The results of BDI-II, SIQ, and STAI (both state and trait) were all significantly lower. Neither duration of treatment nor self-reported motivation presented significant correlation values with the difference between measures for any of the variables. The Change & Grow® therapeutic model appears to have an impact on relevant psychological variables in patients admitted into treatment for addictive disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Crafting Task and Cognitive Job Boundaries to Enhance Self-Determination, Impact, Meaning and Competence at Work
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120136 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Job crafting refers to physical and cognitive changes in task or relational work boundaries, enacted by individuals to recreate their work experience in a more motivating and rewarding way, and to realize self-actualization, growth, and meaning at work. This study tests a model [...] Read more.
Job crafting refers to physical and cognitive changes in task or relational work boundaries, enacted by individuals to recreate their work experience in a more motivating and rewarding way, and to realize self-actualization, growth, and meaning at work. This study tests a model of individual, interpersonal, and organizational antecedents and motivational outcomes of situation-directed task and self-directed cognitive job crafting. Employee survey data (N = 1196) from a Chinese telecommunications company permitted confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Antecedents were each measured with three-item versions of established scales, a two-dimensional scale on task and cognitive job crafting was newly developed, and a four-dimensional model of psychological empowerment captured motivational effects. Structural modeling confirmed a partial mediating role of job crafting between antecedents and empowerment. Individual growth requires strength and intellectual stimulation from one’s leader that is positively related to both tasks and cognitive crafting, while exposure to organizational constraints triggered task crafting only. Confirming differential motivational effects, task crafting predicted control-oriented empowerment dimensions of self-determination and impact, whereas cognitive crafting affected person-oriented dimensions of meaning and competence. Interpreted as a micro-emancipatory form of self-management, job crafting offers some new insights into leadership, coping, work design, work orientations, and motivation. Practical and research implications of this are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Intolerance of Uncertainty and Mindfulness as Determinants of Anxiety and Depression in Female Students
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120135 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 871
Abstract
Bearing in mind the characteristics of an academic setting, as well as the developmental tasks young people inevitably face, there is a need to identify and study the factors that play an important role in the development and maintenance of psychological distress among [...] Read more.
Bearing in mind the characteristics of an academic setting, as well as the developmental tasks young people inevitably face, there is a need to identify and study the factors that play an important role in the development and maintenance of psychological distress among college students. One factor that has emerged as crucial for the development of both anxiety and depression is the intolerance of uncertainty. On the other hand, there appears to be mounting evidence that mindfulness is an important factor that can be beneficial for the psychological health of college students. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of the current study was to determine the contribution of the intolerance of uncertainty and mindfulness in explaining the symptoms of depression and anxiety in a sample of female college students (n = 282) whose average age was 21. The results indicated that students had moderate levels of anxiety and depression. Additionally, they were, on average, intolerant of uncertainty and mindfulness. Two hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the intolerance of uncertainty and mindfulness significantly predict both anxiety and depression in female students, and that mindfulness partially mediates the relationship between the intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety/depression. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies, and its clinical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Attachment and Adulthood in a Sample of Southeastern Mexico
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120134 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 588
Abstract
The main purpose of this research is to analyze the attachment styles of men and women from 20 to 40 years old (early adulthood) and from 40 to 65 years old (middle adulthood) who are in a romantic relationship and live in the [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this research is to analyze the attachment styles of men and women from 20 to 40 years old (early adulthood) and from 40 to 65 years old (middle adulthood) who are in a romantic relationship and live in the City of San Francisco Campeche. A sample of 50 men and 50 women in early adulthood and 50 men and 50 women in middle adulthood was selected, and the questionnaire “Styles of Attachment” was applied. For the data analysis, we used the SPSS version 23 program along with student’s “t” and X2 (Chi2) tests. The results show no significant differences in attachment styles between male and female relationships. However, with respect to the stages analyzed, significant differences are found in attachment styles. In addition, there are significant differences with respect to the type of relationship: single people have secure attachment while married people display anxious attachment. We conclude that in early adulthood, secure attachment predominates, while in middle adulthood anxious attachment predominates. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Problem of Psychological Rehabilitation of Persons with Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System Acquired in Adulthood
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120133 - 30 Nov 2019
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The problem of improving the quality of life of people with lesions of the musculoskeletal system is relevant to modern society. However, the circumstances of disabled people in modern Russia are characterized by the presence of many problems, including psychological ones. The aim [...] Read more.
The problem of improving the quality of life of people with lesions of the musculoskeletal system is relevant to modern society. However, the circumstances of disabled people in modern Russia are characterized by the presence of many problems, including psychological ones. The aim of this study was to study the psychological characteristics of persons with acquired disorders of the musculoskeletal system and to determine the direction and content of psychological rehabilitation. In this study, we studied the characteristics of the emotional-volitional sphere of persons with musculoskeletal disorders (n = 30) acquired in adulthood, as well as scientific approaches to the study of rehabilitation and the main directions of rehabilitation of persons with musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical, psychological, and psychodiagnostic methods, alongside statistical methods of empirical data analysis, were used. It was found that persons with acquired disorders of the musculoskeletal system have a low adaptive capacity, a high level of neuropsychic stress, a low level of self-actualization and self-regulation and are not capable of the conscious planning of activities. The personal factors that intensify the manifestation of maladjustment are isolation and emotional stress when interacting with others. The article presents the main directions for rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Synchronization of Independent Neural Ensembles in Human EEG during Choice Tasks
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120132 - 28 Nov 2019
Viewed by 520
Abstract
During behavioral experiments, humans placed in a situation of having to choose between a more valuable but risky reward and a less valuable but guaranteed reward make their decisions in accordance with external situational factors and individual characteristics, such as inclination to risk [...] Read more.
During behavioral experiments, humans placed in a situation of having to choose between a more valuable but risky reward and a less valuable but guaranteed reward make their decisions in accordance with external situational factors and individual characteristics, such as inclination to risk or caution. In such situations, humans can be divided into “risk-inclined” and “risk-averse” (or “cautious”) subjects. In this work, characteristics of EEG rhythms, such as phase–phase relationships and time lags between rhythms, were studied in pairs of alpha–beta and theta–beta rhythms. Phase difference can also be expressed as a time lag. It has been suggested that statistically significant time lags between rhythms are due to the combined neural activity of anatomically separate, independent (in activation/inhibition processes) ensembles. The extents of synchronicity between rhythms were compared as percentages between risk-inclined and risk-averse subjects. The results showed that synchronicity in response to stimuli was more often observed in pairs of alpha–beta rhythms of risk-averse subjects compared with risk-inclined subjects during the choice of a more valuable but less probable reward. In addition, significant differences in the percentage ratio of alpha and beta rhythms were revealed between (i) cases of synchronization without long time lags and (ii) cases with long time lags between rhythms (from 0.08 to 0.1 s). Full article
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Visual Perception of Facial Emotional Expressions during Saccades
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120131 - 27 Nov 2019
Viewed by 615
Abstract
The regularities of visual perception of both complex and ecologically valid objects during extremely short photo expositions are studied. Images of a person experiencing basic emotions were displayed for as low as 14 ms amidst a saccade spanning 10 degrees of visual angle. [...] Read more.
The regularities of visual perception of both complex and ecologically valid objects during extremely short photo expositions are studied. Images of a person experiencing basic emotions were displayed for as low as 14 ms amidst a saccade spanning 10 degrees of visual angle. The observers had a main task to recognize the emotion depicted, and a secondary task to point at the perceived location of the photo on the screen. It is shown that probability of correct recognition of emotion is above chance (0.62), and that it depends on its type. False localizations of stimuli and their compression in the direction of the saccade were also observed. According to the acquired data, complex environmentally valid objects are perceived differently during saccades in comparison to isolated dots, lines or gratings. The rhythmic structure of oculomotor activity (fixation–saccade–fixation) does not violate the continuity of the visual processing. The perceptual genesis of facial expressions does not take place only during gaze fixation, but also during peak speed of rapid eye movements both at the center and in closest proximity of the visual acuity area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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