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Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 61 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): People who have experienced homelessness for a long time are at risk of remaining connected to homeless services and of being isolated even after finding a home. This study aimed to explore the daily lives of people who have obtained public housing, focusing on their daily relationships and the places that they frequent. Interviews with qualitative and quantitative measures were administered to 14 people with experience of homelessness who had obtained a public house in a medium-sized Italian city. Themes concerning social relationships and places were identified. The results reveal that people experience loneliness or a connection with the community and homeless services. They spend their time alone at home or around the city. The results provide implications for practice and research on homelessness. View this paper
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14 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Using the ICF Framework to Assess Communicative Competence in Dyadic Communication among Children and Adolescents Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices in Taiwan
by Meng-Ju Tsai
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110467 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2323
Abstract
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices enable children and adolescents (CAD) with communication disorders to communicate competently and develop friendships through communicative competence (CC). Existing assessment tools are unable to indicate whether CAD aged 0 to 18 years would competently use the subsidized [...] Read more.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices enable children and adolescents (CAD) with communication disorders to communicate competently and develop friendships through communicative competence (CC). Existing assessment tools are unable to indicate whether CAD aged 0 to 18 years would competently use the subsidized AAC devices provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. This study, thus, aimed to develop an assessment tool by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to measure CC in dyadic communication among CAD using AAC devices. Five speech-language pathologists (SLPs), five special education teachers, and four AAC experts (14 in total) selected codes relevant to the four domains of CC via the Delphi method. Next, they categorized the selected codes into one of the four domains of CC through a face-to-face expert panel. A total of 112 codes were listed in the tool and fully classified into the four domains of CC. Among these, seven codes were concurrently placed under two domains of CC. Consequently, this study developed an assessment tool by employing the ICF for children and youth core set using universal qualifiers to measure the relative levels of CC in dyadic communication among CAD who use AAC devices in their daily life. Full article
16 pages, 1521 KiB  
Article
Experiences of Middle School Programming in an Online Learning Environment
by Reem Alebaikan, Hayat Alajlan, Ahmad Almassaad, Norah Alshamri and Yvonne Bain
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110466 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
This small-scale qualitative study aimed to explore learning programming through online experiences among middle school students in a school for girls in Saudi Arabia. The low uptake of computing by girls has been a persistent problem in schools and beyond. In Saudi Arabia, [...] Read more.
This small-scale qualitative study aimed to explore learning programming through online experiences among middle school students in a school for girls in Saudi Arabia. The low uptake of computing by girls has been a persistent problem in schools and beyond. In Saudi Arabia, there are similar issues in encouraging learners and girls in particular to be interested in computer coding. To explore how to engage learners in coding, an informal online course on programming for learners (age 12) was designed using a community-of-inquiry approach and a gamification process enabled through the use of Thunkable™ and TalentLMS™ to engage learners. An inductive qualitative research approach was used to explore influencing factors for engaging learners in programming. The data comprised three individual interviews, one focus group, a teacher’s diary, and a content analysis of the activities recorded in the TalentLMS™ system’s student progress reports. Findings highlighted the need to consider digital learning agency in the online learning environment and that learning programming online was best facilitated through student collaboration using live tools with teacher support to develop the online community. Further, findings revealed the rationale for the girls enrolling in the online programming course, which included improving their online learning skills, planning future careers, and developing résumés. These findings may contribute to offering some insight into pedagogy that can encourage greater interest in computer programming in schools. Full article
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14 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
What Do You Think of AI? Research on the Influence of AI News Anchor Image on Watching Intention
by Ke Xue, Yifei Li and Hanqing Jin
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110465 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6666
Abstract
Since the concept of artificial intelligence was introduced in 1956, AI technology has been gradually applied in various fields, including journalism. This paper focuses on research related to AI news anchors, and two correlated experiments are applied to examine audiences’ perceived attractiveness of [...] Read more.
Since the concept of artificial intelligence was introduced in 1956, AI technology has been gradually applied in various fields, including journalism. This paper focuses on research related to AI news anchors, and two correlated experiments are applied to examine audiences’ perceived attractiveness of AI news anchors from a psychological dimension. Study 1 focuses on the different variables that influence the behavioral willingness of AI news anchor viewers, while Study 2 focuses on the mediating and moderating variables that influence audiences’ psychological changes. The results indicate that non-humanoid female AI news anchors who use anthropomorphic voices to broadcast news obtain the highest perceived attractiveness among audiences. Additionally, the mediating effect of perceived attractiveness and the negative moderating effect on the inherent impression of traditional news anchors are both verified in the study. Based on the research findings, the implications and suggestions are addressed accordingly. Full article
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12 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Direct and Indirect Effects of Child Maltreatment on Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Left-Behind Children: Does Gender Make a Difference?
by Xiaoyan Fan and Xiangping Li
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110464 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Previous studies indicate that maltreatment is related to children’s suicidal ideation, but the indirect mechanisms of left-behind children have been rarely investigated in the Chinese context. On the basis of a left-behind children sample (N = 1355; 57.1% females), this study aims to [...] Read more.
Previous studies indicate that maltreatment is related to children’s suicidal ideation, but the indirect mechanisms of left-behind children have been rarely investigated in the Chinese context. On the basis of a left-behind children sample (N = 1355; 57.1% females), this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on suicidal ideation among Chinese left-behind children. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrate that child maltreatment not only directly affects the suicidal ideation of left-behind children, but can also indirectly affect their suicidal ideation through the partially mediating role of self-efficacy. Moreover, a significant gender difference was found in the direct effect of maltreatment on suicidal ideation, with females experiencing stronger influence than males. Findings suggest that the effect of maltreatment on the suicidal ideation of left-behind children is mediated by self-efficacy and moderated by gender. Findings also highlight intervention directions for risk behaviors among left-behind children. Full article
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15 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on the Quality of Life and Happiness of Care Home Residents in Croatia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Michael Olumekor, Andrea Stojić, Tatjana Kehler and Francesco Polo
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110463 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Care/nursing homes globally have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and have disproportionately experienced a high rate of mortality which led to the introduction of strict isolation policies. However, while there are studies on the mortality, epidemiology, staffing challenges, and mismanagement in [...] Read more.
Care/nursing homes globally have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and have disproportionately experienced a high rate of mortality which led to the introduction of strict isolation policies. However, while there are studies on the mortality, epidemiology, staffing challenges, and mismanagement in long-term care homes as a result of COVID-19, there appears to be a paucity of information regarding the Quality of Life (QoL), happiness, and associated well-being of the elderly residents of these homes. Therefore, we examined if COVID-19 affected the happiness level, QoL, and financial condition of long-term care home residents in Croatia. To achieve this, a survey of 308 participants in eight long term care homes was conducted. Descriptive analysis was performed to describe the mean of all responses and the Bayesian Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) was used to provide a detailed quantitative analysis of the results. We found that the QoL and happiness of residents remained relatively stable during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the income level, financial outlook, marital status, and vaccination positivity influenced the QoL and happiness of care home residents to a considerable degree. We recommend that policy makers pay attention to these underlying factors. Full article
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14 pages, 1695 KiB  
Article
Impact of Subjective and Objective Factors on Bus Travel Intention
by Qi Chen, Yibo Yan, Xu Zhang and Jian Chen
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110462 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
Given the lack of quantitative descriptions on the interaction between psychological factors and the built environment in existing urban bus travel behavior, this study examines the simultaneous influences of the objective-built environment and subjective psychological factors on bus travel intentions. An empirical study [...] Read more.
Given the lack of quantitative descriptions on the interaction between psychological factors and the built environment in existing urban bus travel behavior, this study examines the simultaneous influences of the objective-built environment and subjective psychological factors on bus travel intentions. An empirical study on the influence path of bus travel intention was conducted using structural equation modeling. Then, personal attribute factors were introduced, and a linear regression model was used to explore the influence of behavioral intentions. This study uses 410 investigated samples from the residents in Zhengzhou, China. The findings proved that psychological factors play mediating roles between the travel environment and its impact on travel behaviors and confirms the validity of the description of the measurement variable with respect to the bus travel intentions proposed in the study. We also found that the retirement factor among the personal attribute factors could significantly affect bus travel intentions, which means that the retired group prefers to use buses for traveling. This study shows innovations in catching the intermediary effect of psychological factors between the built environment and travel behavior while also quantifying the effects of both subjective and objective factors when choosing bus travel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health: Social Psychology Perspective)
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16 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
Consumer Response to Food Corporate Social Irresponsibility: Food Performance and Company Ethics Irresponsibility
by Weiping Yu, Dongyang Si and Jun Zhou
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110461 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) seriously damages the rights and interests of stakeholders, particularly consumers. This study analyzes the consumer response to food performance irresponsibility and food corporate ethics irresponsibility by moral emotions. A situational simulation experiment was conducted with the following results: (1) [...] Read more.
Corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) seriously damages the rights and interests of stakeholders, particularly consumers. This study analyzes the consumer response to food performance irresponsibility and food corporate ethics irresponsibility by moral emotions. A situational simulation experiment was conducted with the following results: (1) Food performance irresponsibility has the greatest impact on consumer boycotts, while corporate ethics irresponsibility more often leads to consumers’ negative word of mouth (NWOM). (2) Moral emotions play a strong mediating role between CSI and consumers’ NWOM and boycott behavior. (3) Gender significantly moderates the propagation path from moral emotions to NWOM, and female consumers react more strongly to food performance irresponsibility. In conclusion, the paper offers empirical evidence of the effect food corporate social irresponsibility has on consumers’ different responses. Furthermore, it can help food enterprises to identify different CSI types and develop corresponding governance strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Picturing Morality from Multidisciplinary Perspectives)
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19 pages, 1043 KiB  
Article
Effects of Personality Traits Concerning Media Use Decisions on Fear of Missing Out and Social Media Use Behavior
by Sheng-Cheng Lin and Er-Ting Jian
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110460 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3531
Abstract
We could view the phenomenon of fear of missing out (FoMO) as a dilemma of too many choices about social media. Although there are already various studies on FoMO, there is still a lack of studies on what personality traits concerning media use [...] Read more.
We could view the phenomenon of fear of missing out (FoMO) as a dilemma of too many choices about social media. Although there are already various studies on FoMO, there is still a lack of studies on what personality traits concerning media use decisions will contribute to FoMO or how FoMO mediates these personality traits and people’s social media use behavior, and, thus, corresponding negative emotions. This study explored the causes of FoMO in a FoMO moderated mediation model using maximizing tendency before the choice was made, social comparison orientation when making choices, and regrets tendency after the choice was made. The results showed that (1) there is a non-significant influence between maximizing tendency and FoMO, (2) regret tendency is a positive influence on FoMO, (3) social comparison orientation is a positive influence on FoMO, (4) FoMO is a positive influence on the compulsive use of social media and surveillance use of social media, (5) FoMO exhibited a full mediating effect on the relationship between regret tendency and social media surveillance use, (6) FoMO exhibited a full mediating effect on the relationship between social comparison orientation and social media compulsive use. Full article
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10 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Resources in Working Memory: Domain-Specific or General?
by Anna Izmalkova, Artem Barmin, Boris B. Velichkovsky, Gerda Prutko and Igor Chistyakov
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110459 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
An experiment in the dual-task paradigm was carried out to explore the nature of domain-specific and domain-general resource distribution in working memory. The subjects (N = 32) performed symmetry span and letter reading span tasks under visuospatial (tapping) and verbal (articulatory suppression) cognitive [...] Read more.
An experiment in the dual-task paradigm was carried out to explore the nature of domain-specific and domain-general resource distribution in working memory. The subjects (N = 32) performed symmetry span and letter reading span tasks under visuospatial (tapping) and verbal (articulatory suppression) cognitive load. The effects of task type and cognitive load modality were analyzed. The results are described within the concentric model framework: significant distinctions in relative accuracy under visuospatial and verbal cognitive load in visuospatial and verbal tasks were observed when N elements in the set exceeded the region of direct access capacity, while no such effect was observed for 2–3 element sets. This is attributed to domain-general resources in the region of direct access, and domain-specific resources in the activated long-term memory. We also found evidence for the asymmetric distribution of visuospatial and verbal working memory resources in that the verbal component is more susceptible to cognitive load. Full article
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17 pages, 1205 KiB  
Review
Can Museums Help Visitors Thrive? Review of Studies on Psychological Wellbeing in Museums
by Marta Šveb Dragija and Daniela Angelina Jelinčić
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110458 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3749
Abstract
Museums are expected to prove their social value and ability to have a long-term social impact. Hence, in order to do so, museums, as experience hubs and the most-visited cultural attraction, may use their potential to offer experiences that could help visitors thrive [...] Read more.
Museums are expected to prove their social value and ability to have a long-term social impact. Hence, in order to do so, museums, as experience hubs and the most-visited cultural attraction, may use their potential to offer experiences that could help visitors thrive by increasing their psychological wellbeing. Although psychological wellbeing has been a hot topic, the synthesized and holistic review of the literature on this theme has been lacking in regard to museums. Hence, we conducted an analysis using the PRISMA protocol to answer two research questions: (1) Can museums increase the visitor’s psychological wellbeing? (2) How can the museum experience be designed to enhance the psychological wellbeing of the visitors and how can that potentially be measured? The results showed that museums can enhance visitors’ and other stakeholders’ psychological wellbeing. This can be achieved by designing museum experiences that are attractive, comfortable (restorative), comprehensible, participative, innovative, and sustainable, relying on specific detailed guidelines provided in the article. The Museum Wellbeing Toolkit serves to measure the efficiency of the proposed guidelines in stimulating the psychological wellbeing of museum visitors. If backed by wellbeing policy frameworks, museums may increase their role in fostering psychological wellbeing. As wellbeing public policies have been rather rare to date, future research may explore the effects of the existing ones to provide recommendations for new developments on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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16 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Importance of Gender, Family Affluence, Parenting Style and Loneliness in Cyberbullying Victimization and Aggression among Romanian Adolescents
by Magdalena Iorga, Lavinia Maria Pop, Irina Croitoru, Elena Hanganu and Dana-Teodora Anton-Păduraru
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110457 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
The increasing phenomenon of cyberbullying among adolescents needs parental, educational, and social intervention. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of cyberbullying among Romanian adolescents and the importance of gender, family-related factors, self-esteem, and parental styles in both victims and perpetrators. A total [...] Read more.
The increasing phenomenon of cyberbullying among adolescents needs parental, educational, and social intervention. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of cyberbullying among Romanian adolescents and the importance of gender, family-related factors, self-esteem, and parental styles in both victims and perpetrators. A total of 835 adolescents aged 10–19 years were included in the research. An online questionnaire was specially constructed for this research, gathering socio-demographic and family-related data along with information about cyberbullying as a victim, aggressor, or bystander, and strategies used in order to deal with it. Four psychological scales were used to evaluate self-esteem, loneliness, cybervictimization/cyberaggression, and parental style. (3) Results showed that the most common age for a personal smartphone is M = 10.24 ± 2.43. The main reasons why students use these networks are primarily chatting and fun and less for academic tasks. During the week, adolescents spend 5.53 ± 2.75 h on social media, while during weekends, the duration of smartphone usage almost doubles. Girls are the most common victims of cyberbullying, and less than three-quarters of students believe that aggressors can be both girls and boys, and only a quarter of them have reported an incident. Family affluence, the relationship with parents and classmates, the presence of loneliness and sociodemographic factors were found to be in a strong relationship with the presence of aggression and/or victimization among adolescents. Cyberaggression was found to be positively correlated with the aggressive parental style and negatively correlated with the compassionate and avoidant parental styles. Results are crucial for identifying cyberbullying actors and preventing the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological, social, and academic life for students, parents, and teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Psychology Research and Public Health)
19 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
The Effect of WhatsApp Usage on Employee Innovative Performance at the Workplace: Perspective from the Stressor–Strain–Outcome Model
by Nur Muneerah Kasim, Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi, Muhammad Fakhrul Yusuf and Walton Wider
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110456 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3259
Abstract
Social media applications have increasingly become a valuable platform for personal communication and knowledge sharing in working life. Several researchers have considered the direct role of social media usage in influencing job performance. However, limited studies explore how social media use may impact [...] Read more.
Social media applications have increasingly become a valuable platform for personal communication and knowledge sharing in working life. Several researchers have considered the direct role of social media usage in influencing job performance. However, limited studies explore how social media use may impact employees’ job performance, especially in innovativeness. Moreover, inconsistencies in the findings exist in the literature regarding whether social media improves employees’ job performance or causes harm. By adapting the stressor–strain–outcome (SSO) model, the present study investigates how WhatsApp use at work can predict social media overloads that might induce technostress and, subsequently, affect employees’ innovative job performance. Thus, 206 Malaysian employees from the government and private sectors participated in this study and the data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings show that social media, predominantly WhatsApp, used at work has a mild but statistically significant influence on information overload, communication overload, and social overload. In addition, information overload and communication overload positively influence technostress, except for social overload. Subsequently, technostress does not have an impact on innovative job performance. This study provides theoretical and practical implications for extending the knowledge and mitigating plans and efforts to improve employees’ performance at work. Therefore, this study helps mitigate the dearth of research pertaining to the roles of social media use at work on employees’ innovative job performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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10 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Boredom Proneness and Online Deviant Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Rumination and the Moderating Role of Gender
by Jing Zhao, Shisheng Chen, Xiaochun Xie, Jin Wang and Xiaodong Wang
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110455 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
Online deviant behaviors have received increasing attention. This study examined the association between boredom proneness and online deviant behaviors as well as the mediating role of rumination and the moderating role of gender in the relationship. A sample of 1001 college students (Mage [...] Read more.
Online deviant behaviors have received increasing attention. This study examined the association between boredom proneness and online deviant behaviors as well as the mediating role of rumination and the moderating role of gender in the relationship. A sample of 1001 college students (Mage = 20.20 ± 1.52 years, 50.25% female) was recruited to complete a set of questionnaires assessing the main variables. The results show that boredom proneness was positively associated with online deviant behaviors and that rumination played a mediating role in this relationship. Moreover, gender differences were found in the relationship, which was stronger for males than females. Despite several limitations, this study deepens our understanding of the influencing mechanism of boredom proneness on online deviant behaviors, which could provide practical implications for the prevention and intervention of online deviant behaviors. Full article
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15 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
Relationships among Problematic Smartphone Use, Mathematics Achievement, Teacher–Student Relationships, and Subjective Well-Being: Results from a Large-Scale Survey in China
by Da Zhou, Jinqing Liu, Guizhen Ye, Ting Wang, Xiaogang Xia and Jian Liu
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110454 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
This study examined the mediating role of mathematics performance and the moderating role of teacher–student relationships on the effects of problematic smartphone use on students’ subjective well-being. Through probability proportionate to size sampling (PPS), a total of 20,321 fourth graders from a city [...] Read more.
This study examined the mediating role of mathematics performance and the moderating role of teacher–student relationships on the effects of problematic smartphone use on students’ subjective well-being. Through probability proportionate to size sampling (PPS), a total of 20,321 fourth graders from a city in central China were invited to complete a paper-based mathematics achievement test and an online questionnaire survey, including demographic information, problematic smartphone use, subjective well-being, and teacher–student relationship scales. The results showed that: after controlling for SES and gender, (1) problematic smartphone use had a direct and negative effect on students’ subjective well-being; (2) mathematics performance partially mediated the effects of problematic smartphone use on students’ subjective well-being; (3) teacher–student relationships moderated the effects of problematic smartphone use on mathematics performance/students’ subjective well-being; (4) with the increase in problematic smartphone use, high teacher–student relationships produced a lower rate of the positive moderating effect than low teacher–student relationships. The implications of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. Full article
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12 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
The Influence of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Frequent Use of E-Cigarettes and Its Association with Substance Use and Mental Health Symptoms
by David Adzrago, Saanie Sulley, Lohuwa Mamudu, Cameron K. Ormiston and Faustine Williams
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110453 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Background: Although several studies examined the association between e-cigarettes, substance use, and mental health conditions, there is limited research on whether COVID-19-related stress and health outcomes, mental health symptoms, and substance use differ by the frequency of e-cigarette use during the COVID-19 pandemic. [...] Read more.
Background: Although several studies examined the association between e-cigarettes, substance use, and mental health conditions, there is limited research on whether COVID-19-related stress and health outcomes, mental health symptoms, and substance use differ by the frequency of e-cigarette use during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the association of past 30-day frequent use of e-cigarettes with alcohol, cannabis, anxiety/depression, and COVID-19 impact. Methods: We conducted a national online cross-sectional survey among a random sample of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 5065) between 13 May 2021, and 9 January 2022. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the study aims. Results: Of the participants, 7.17% reported once to several times per month (OSTPM), 6.95% reported once to several times per week (OSTPW), and 6.57% reported every day to several times per day (ESTPD) use of e-cigarettes in the past month. Alcohol and cannabis use ESTPD and once to several times per week/month (OSTPW/M) were associated with a higher likelihood of e-cigarette use ESTPD and OSTPW/M, respectively. Anxiety/depression was associated with e-cigarette use ESTPD and OSTPW. Individuals who considered social distancing to be stressful were more likely to use e-cigarettes ESTPD and OSTPW/M compared to those that considered social distancing as not stressful. Conclusion: Individuals who engaged in the frequent use of alcohol or cannabis, had depression/anxiety, and considered social distancing to be stressful were more likely to engage in frequent e-cigarette use. Improving efforts geared toward reducing the use of substances may help decrease the health risks associated with e-cigarette use. Full article
9 pages, 540 KiB  
Article
Examining Nurses’ Vengeful Behaviors: The Effects of Toxic Leadership and Psychological Well-Being
by Oktay Koç, Hayrettin Şahin, Gökten Öngel, Ayşe Günsel and Julie Aitken Schermer
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110452 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2555
Abstract
Toxic leadership is becoming increasingly common in healthcare organizations and there is strong need for studies focusing on organizational factors that can trigger revenge. Additionally, how psychological well-being functions in shielding against toxicity has not been adequately studied. Hence, this study aims to [...] Read more.
Toxic leadership is becoming increasingly common in healthcare organizations and there is strong need for studies focusing on organizational factors that can trigger revenge. Additionally, how psychological well-being functions in shielding against toxicity has not been adequately studied. Hence, this study aims to examine the relationship between toxic leadership and vengeful behaviors of nurses, along with the contingency of psychological well-being on the relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, we attempt to examine the antecedent effect of toxic leadership on vengeful behaviors based on self-reports from 311 nurses. Using partial least squares and moderation analyses, the results show that toxic leadership is an important antecedent of vengeful behaviors among nurses. However, the results provide no statistical evidence to support a moderating role of psychological well-being in the relationship between toxic leadership and vengeful behaviors. This study reveals that nurses exposed to toxic behaviors by their superiors are more likely to engage in vengeance and highlights the fact that nurses are suffering psychologically during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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4 pages, 206 KiB  
Editorial
The Role of Associative Learning in Current Paradigm Shifts in Eating Disorder Research and Clinical Practice
by David Garcia-Burgos
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110451 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
This editorial is an introduction to the Special Issue “Psychopathological analysis and intervention for anorexia nervosa: using associative-learning mechanisms” [...] Full article
16 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
Metamemory: Metacognitive Strategies for Improved Memory Operations and the Role of VR and Mobiles
by Athanasios Drigas, Eleni Mitsea and Charalabos Skianis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110450 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4327
Abstract
Memory is one of the most vital cognitive functions, affecting almost all aspects of human life. Meta-memory is considered a special part of metacognition that enables humans to acquire mnemonic knowledge and meta-skills to take control of their memory functions. In the digital [...] Read more.
Memory is one of the most vital cognitive functions, affecting almost all aspects of human life. Meta-memory is considered a special part of metacognition that enables humans to acquire mnemonic knowledge and meta-skills to take control of their memory functions. In the digital era, the use of mobile applications to improve memory is constantly gaining ground, while virtual reality is considered a promising technology for memory rehabilitation. The current study aimed to present a metamemory framework based on eight fundamental principles of metacognition. The theoretical model is complemented by a set of meta-mnemonic strategies while emphasizing the role of virtual reality and mobile applications in metamemory skills training. The metamemory strategies framework supported by virtual reality and mobile applications provides a training paradigm for implementation in general, special, and vocational education. Full article
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15 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Team Learning Behaviours: The Effect of Time and Team Culture
by Margarida Pinheiro, Teresa Rebelo, Paulo Renato Lourenço, Bruno de Sousa and Isabel Dimas
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110449 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
This research study focused on team learning behaviours, particularly the extent to which teams use learning behaviours over time, as well as the influence of different team cultures on learning behaviours over time. Data from 33 university project teams were collected longitudinally at [...] Read more.
This research study focused on team learning behaviours, particularly the extent to which teams use learning behaviours over time, as well as the influence of different team cultures on learning behaviours over time. Data from 33 university project teams were collected longitudinally at three moments (beginning, halfway point, and end of the project) and the analysis was conducted through growth modelling. A linear relationship between time and team learning through experimenting behaviour was found, suggesting that experimenting behaviour tends to increase over time in project teams. Moreover, the early development of team cultures that promote mutual understanding and good interpersonal relationships, the accomplishment of objectives, flexibility, and the search for alternative ways to perform tasks/problem solving are conducive to experimenting behaviours from the beginning of the teamwork. This study highlights the relevance of the temporal dynamics of team learning behaviours and their interaction with team culture. Full article
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21 pages, 973 KiB  
Article
Parental Socialization, Delinquency during Adolescence and Adjustment in Adolescents and Adult Children
by Sonia Climent-Galarza, Marta Alcaide, Oscar F. Garcia, Fangzhou Chen and Fernando Garcia
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110448 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4110
Abstract
Although parental socialization has an influence on child development, current research is questioning which combination of parental strictness and warmth acts as protective or risk factors, especially during adolescence when the child is more vulnerable. The sample was 2125 participants, 58.7% female, divided [...] Read more.
Although parental socialization has an influence on child development, current research is questioning which combination of parental strictness and warmth acts as protective or risk factors, especially during adolescence when the child is more vulnerable. The sample was 2125 participants, 58.7% female, divided into four age groups: adolescents (28.57%), young adults (28.38%), middle-aged adults (23.95%), and older adults (19.11%). The families were classified into four parenting styles: neglectful, indulgent, authoritative, and authoritarian according to their warmth and strictness scores. The psychosocial adjustment was measured by children’s scores on academic/professional self-concept, self-esteem, delinquency during adolescence, and benevolence values. A MANOVA 4 × 2 × 4 was applied with parenting styles, sex, and age group as independent variables. The results showed that, for adolescents and adult children, only parenting styles characterized by warmth (i.e., indulgent, and authoritative) were found to factor against delinquency during adolescence and benefit greater academic/professional self-concept, self-esteem, and benevolence values, while parenting without warmth (i.e., authoritarian, and neglectful) were identified as risk factors. Contrary to classical research, the present findings seriously question the universal benefits of strict parenting as the only optimal strategy to protect not only against delinquency, but also to foster an adequate self and the internalization of social values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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10 pages, 750 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 and Integrated Multidisciplinary Care Model in Parkinson’s Disease: Literature Review & Future Perspectives
by Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Monica S. Ponce-Rivera, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez and Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110447 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Clinical diversity and multi-systemic manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD) necessitate the involvement of several healthcare professionals from different disciplines for optimal care. Clinical guidelines recommend that all persons with PD should have access to a broad range of medical and allied health professionals [...] Read more.
Clinical diversity and multi-systemic manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD) necessitate the involvement of several healthcare professionals from different disciplines for optimal care. Clinical guidelines recommend that all persons with PD should have access to a broad range of medical and allied health professionals to implement an efficient and effective multidisciplinary care model. This is well supported by growing evidence showing the benefits of multidisciplinary interventions on improving quality of life and disease progression in PD. However, a “multidisciplinary” approach requires gathering healthcare professionals from different disciplines into an integrative platform for collaborative teamwork. With the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, implementation of such a multidisciplinary care model has become increasingly challenging due to social distancing mandates, isolation and quarantine, clinics cancellation, among others. To address this problem, multidisciplinary teams are developing innovate virtual platforms to maintain care of people with PD. In the present review, we cover aspects on how SARS-CoV-2 has affected people with PD, their caregivers, and care team members. We also review current evidence on the importance of maintaining patient-centered care in the era of social distancing, and how can we utilize telehealth and innovative virtual platforms for multidisciplinary care in PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Treatments in Movement Disorders)
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10 pages, 1613 KiB  
Article
Immediate Effects of Fine-Motor Training on Coordination and Dexterity of the Non-Dominant Hand in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Chanhyun Park and Hohee Son
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110446 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of mirror training; however, only a few studies in Eastern countries have investigated fine-motor exercises using chopsticks, which have numerous advantages. We aimed to compare changes in coordination and dexterity of the non-dominant hand in healthy [...] Read more.
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of mirror training; however, only a few studies in Eastern countries have investigated fine-motor exercises using chopsticks, which have numerous advantages. We aimed to compare changes in coordination and dexterity of the non-dominant hand in healthy adults after conducting fine-motor training with the dominant hand using a mirror. We divided 100 healthy adults (age: 20–40 years) into experimental and control groups (each n = 50). The experimental group placed the non-dominant hand in a mirror box and indirectly imitated the fine-motor exercises conducted with the dominant hand using chopsticks. The control group performed the task with the non-dominant hand using chopsticks. We conducted the Chopsticks Manipulation Test and the Purdue Pegboard Test to assess the pre- and post-intervention coordination and dexterity of the non-dominant hand. Both groups showed a significant post-intervention improvement in coordination and dexterity (p < 0.01). There was no significant between-group difference in the functional improvement of coordination and dexterity (p > 0.05). Fine-motor training using mirrors and chopsticks significantly improved coordination and dexterity of the non-dominant hand. This training could be used to improve activity in brain regions associated with the non-dominant hand in healthy adults. Full article
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9 pages, 526 KiB  
Article
Readiness to Change: A Pathway to the Adoption of Trauma-Sensitive Teaching
by Megan A. Blanton, Fallon J. Richie and Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110445 - 12 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Creating a trauma-sensitive classroom requires a shift in perspective from viewing a student’s problematic behavior as a function of poor character to considering it contextually. However, a trauma-sensitive perspective may be insufficient for school staff to implement trauma-sensitive practices. Theoretically, motivation, or readiness [...] Read more.
Creating a trauma-sensitive classroom requires a shift in perspective from viewing a student’s problematic behavior as a function of poor character to considering it contextually. However, a trauma-sensitive perspective may be insufficient for school staff to implement trauma-sensitive practices. Theoretically, motivation, or readiness to change (R2C), is needed to adopt any new behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of R2C in the relation between attitudes related to trauma-informed care (ARTIC) and the adoption of trauma-sensitive practices in a school setting. The targeted elementary school primarily serves Black students (83%), living below the federal poverty line. All staff attended an in-service training about trauma-sensitive schools (TSS), in which trauma-sensitive strategies were modeled, and student-friendly, emotional regulation materials were provided. Teachers and staff (n = 40) were assessed one year after receiving the TSS training. Participants reported their ARTIC, R2C, and trauma-informed strategy adoption. Using PROCESS Model 4, R2C fully mediated the relation between ARTIC and reported use of specific trauma-sensitive classroom strategies (β = 0.19, bootstrapped SE = 0.12, 95% LLCI = 0.04, 95% ULCI = 0.49). Facilitating R2C is essential when implementing trauma-sensitive school strategies. System-wide policies that may help promote the uptake of trauma-sensitive practices are described. Full article
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16 pages, 1751 KiB  
Article
Assessing Inhibitory Control in the Real World Is Virtually Possible: A Virtual Reality Demonstration
by Francisco Rocabado and Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110444 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Executive functions are the key ingredient for behaviour regulation. Among them, inhibitory control is one of the main exponents of executive functions, and in the last decades, it has received a good amount of attention thanks to the development of chronometric tasks associated [...] Read more.
Executive functions are the key ingredient for behaviour regulation. Among them, inhibitory control is one of the main exponents of executive functions, and in the last decades, it has received a good amount of attention thanks to the development of chronometric tasks associated with paradigms that allow exploring human behaviour when the inhibitory component is needed. Among the different paradigms typically used, the Simon and flanker tasks are probably the most popular ones. These have been subjected to modifications in order to assess inhibitory control from different perspectives (e.g., in different samples or in combination with different research techniques). However, its use has been relegated to classical presentation modalities within laboratory settings. The accessibility of virtual reality (VR) technology has opened new research avenues to investigate inhibition control with a high ecological validity while retaining tightly controlled lab conditions and good measurement accuracy. We present two cutting-edge modifications of the standard Simon and flanker tasks that have been adapted to real-world settings using VR and human-like avatars as target stimuli. Our findings show that virtual reality is a credible tool for testing inhibitory control with a high degree of transferability and generalizability to the real world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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19 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Self-Leadership and Innovative Behavior: Mediation of Informal Learning and Moderation of Social Capital
by Hyesun Kang, Minyoung Song and Yiran Li
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110443 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
As the business environment is rapidly changing, interest in the innovation of organizational members is accelerating. Therefore, this study investigated how individual-level resources, particularly self-leadership, affect workers’ innovative behavior. Many studies have emphasized that employee initiative can lead to job performance at the [...] Read more.
As the business environment is rapidly changing, interest in the innovation of organizational members is accelerating. Therefore, this study investigated how individual-level resources, particularly self-leadership, affect workers’ innovative behavior. Many studies have emphasized that employee initiative can lead to job performance at the individual level and organizational performance improvement. Self-leadership is a spontaneous and an active behavior, or mindset, defined as the ability to lead an individual in challenging situations characterized by learned behaviors that can be augmented by training. It is of interest to many researchers and practitioners. Further, we tested the mediation of informal learning, another individual-level resource, in this relationship and the moderation of social capital, a social resource, in the mediation. We analyzed the responses of 551 employees of South Korean companies using Model 6 and 14 of PROCESS Macro. The results revealed that self-leadership positively influenced workers’ innovative behavior, and informal learning mediated this relationship. We also confirmed that social capital strengthened the positive mediating effect of informal learning. This study empirically verifies the role of self-leadership, informal learning, and social capital as the determinants of innovative behavior and expands the discussion on leadership by highlighting the significance of self-leadership as opposed to traditional leadership approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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18 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Study of the Unidimensionality of the Subjective Measurement Scale of Schizophrenia Coping Oral Health Profile and Index: SCOOHPI
by Mohamad Hamad, Nathalie Rude, Mounir Mesbah, Francesca Siu-Paredes and Frederic Denis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110442 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Background: The Schizophrenia Coping Oral Health Profile and Index (SCOOHPI) scale studies the coping strategies of schizophrenic patients with regard to oral health. The structural validity of this scale is studied has been studied using factor analyses. In this article, we study the [...] Read more.
Background: The Schizophrenia Coping Oral Health Profile and Index (SCOOHPI) scale studies the coping strategies of schizophrenic patients with regard to oral health. The structural validity of this scale is studied has been studied using factor analyses. In this article, we study the unidimensionality of the SCOOHPI scale to use it as an index. Methods: We studied the internal consistency of the items of the SCOOHPI scale. Then, we studied the construct validity. The unidimensionality of the SCOOHPI scale was studied by the partial credit model. Results: The data used in this study come from five hospitals, and the total number of individuals participating in this study is 96, of which 72% are men and 59% are smokers. The SCOOHPI scale has good internal consistency (α = 0.84). The validity of divergence was checked by the absence of correlation between the SCOOHPI scale and the GOHAI (General Oral Health Assessment Index) scale. The unidimensionality of the SCOOHPI scale with data smoothing was demonstrated by the partial credit model. Conclusion: In this study, we completed the study of the psychometric validation of the SCOOHPI. The SCOOHPI scale can then contribute to improving evaluation of the coping strategies of schizophrenic patients with regard to oral health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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17 pages, 1627 KiB  
Article
Do I Really Want to Change? The Effectiveness of Goal Ambivalence Feedback on Dieters’ Motivation
by Javad S. Fadardi, Samiyeh Borhani, W. Miles Cox and Alan W. Stacy
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110441 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Becoming committed to a new health-related goal and pursuing it is difficult for many people. The present study (a) developed and tested the psychometric properties of a brief Goal Ambivalence Scale (GAS) in a sample of dieters and (b) tested the effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Becoming committed to a new health-related goal and pursuing it is difficult for many people. The present study (a) developed and tested the psychometric properties of a brief Goal Ambivalence Scale (GAS) in a sample of dieters and (b) tested the effectiveness of providing dieters with feedback on their scores on the GAS. In Study 1, dieters (n = 334, 74% females) completed the GAS and a measure of Health-Related Concerns and Actions (HRCA). The standardization of the GAS was supported by CVR and CVI, the results of a PCA, and strong reliability and validity statistics. In Study 2, the experimental group of dieters (n = 107; 67.50% female) received feedback on their GAS scores, but the control group did not (n = 111; 62.30% female). Compared with the control group, the experimental group reported a greater need for information, greater readiness to change, and higher perceived situational confidence in resisting food that was inconsistent with their dieting goals. To conclude, the GAS could be used in health settings to provide clients and providers with an objective, fast measure of commitment to achieving health-related goals. Moreover, immediate feedback on health-related goals may improve change motivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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13 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Are Perfectionists Always Dissatisfied with Life? An Empirical Study from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory and Perceived Control
by Qipeng Liu, Xiaoyun Zhao and Weidi Liu
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110440 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Compared to non-perfectionists, perfectionists may not be satisfied with the growing needs in their lives to the same extent. To test whether perfectionists are dissatisfied with their lives, we investigated whether trait perfectionism attenuates the relationship between basic psychological needs, perceived control, and [...] Read more.
Compared to non-perfectionists, perfectionists may not be satisfied with the growing needs in their lives to the same extent. To test whether perfectionists are dissatisfied with their lives, we investigated whether trait perfectionism attenuates the relationship between basic psychological needs, perceived control, and life satisfaction. A total of 574 college students self-reported basic psychological needs, perceived control, life satisfaction, and perfectionistic strivings and concerns, with a mean age of 19.53 (SD = 1.61), including 299 women and 275 men. A correlation analysis showed that perfectionistic strivings were significantly positively related to life satisfaction, while perfectionistic concerns were significantly negatively related to life satisfaction. The moderation analysis showed that perfectionistic strivings not only moderated the relationship between basic psychological needs and life satisfaction but also moderated the relationship between perceived control and life satisfaction. Individuals with high perfectionistic strivings generally reported high levels of life satisfaction. Perfectionistic strivings, however, reduced the positive relationship between perceived control and life satisfaction. Perfectionistic concerns moderated the relationship between perceived control and life satisfaction—the higher the perfectionistic concerns, the weaker the positive relationship between perceived control and life satisfaction. The study found that individuals with high perfectionistic tendencies are not always dissatisfied with life, but that perfectionism weakens the relationship between basic psychological needs, perceived control, and life satisfaction. We argue that one way to improve happiness is by coaching individuals who are highly perfectionistic to become self-aware of their personality so both their perfectionistic strivings and concerns are more coherent with their values and goals or character. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Personality Psychology)
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13 pages, 547 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Music Therapists’ Perspectives on Quality of Life in Building Relationships with Older Adults with Chronic Illness
by Kyung Min Kim
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110439 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Older adults with chronic illnesses have diminished qualities of life (QoL) due to physical and mental decline. To promote their QoL, music therapists create meaningful shared music experiences and positive therapeutic relationships to address their psychosocial needs. However, within this relationship-building process, healthcare [...] Read more.
Older adults with chronic illnesses have diminished qualities of life (QoL) due to physical and mental decline. To promote their QoL, music therapists create meaningful shared music experiences and positive therapeutic relationships to address their psychosocial needs. However, within this relationship-building process, healthcare professionals, staff, and even caregivers appear to project their own perceptions and expectations of what positive QoL of older adults should be. This misapprehension may challenge therapists to meet older adults’ actual QoL needs adequately. To date, no studies have explored music therapists’ perspectives on QoL in building relationships with older adults experiencing chronic illness. Eleven music therapists participated in online, semi-structured phenomenological interviews that were thematically analyzed. Three themes emerged: participants gained an increased awareness of unconscious biases, a deepened understanding of older adults’ QoL, and a purposeful alignment with older adults’ QoL. These highlighted the significance of therapists’ consistent self-reflection within the relationship-building process. Identifying their shared commonalities with older adults guided therapists to engage with clients more salutogenically and empathically. Additionally, recognizing their own biases being projected onto older adults empowered therapists to be more intentional to reconcile their perceptual discrepancies while prioritizing older adults’ authentic voices and capable selves. Full article
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15 pages, 1986 KiB  
Article
Childhood Maltreatment and Life Satisfaction in Chinese Student Preschool Teachers: The Roles of Resilience and Social Support
by Xiaojing Liu, Shengkai Ji, Juan Jiang and Chen Chen
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12110438 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Although some studies have explored the relationships between childhood maltreatment and life satisfaction, few studies have explored the pathways between those two variables in a sample of student preschool teachers. The current study, thus, attempts to explore the relationships between childhood maltreatment and [...] Read more.
Although some studies have explored the relationships between childhood maltreatment and life satisfaction, few studies have explored the pathways between those two variables in a sample of student preschool teachers. The current study, thus, attempts to explore the relationships between childhood maltreatment and life satisfaction in Chinese student preschool teachers and to examine the roles of resilience and social support in those relationships. A total of 1218 students majoring in early childhood education were recruited from three Chinese universities to attend this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect data, and structural equation modeling was used to perform data analysis. Results showed that childhood maltreatment was negatively associated with life satisfaction in Chinese student preschool teachers; resilience and social support mediated those relationships. The findings suggest that childhood maltreatment not only has a direct relationship with life satisfaction, but also has an indirect relationship with life satisfaction via resilience and social support. Childhood maltreatment should be considered when enrolling student preschool teachers, and increasing levels of resilience and social support should be meaningful approaches when cultivating student preschool teachers who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
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