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Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 51 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Adolescence is a period of intense maturation and considered a critical window for the emergence of psychosocial vulnerabilities and increased engagement in unhealthy eating behaviors. Food addiction (FA) research within adolescent populations continues to gain momentum; however, to date, there are limited studies that have considered the demographic and lifestyle characteristics that may predispose adolescents to FA. Identifying this is important for early intervention to reduce the severity or long-term impacts of FA. Therefore, this study investigates sociodemographic, trait, mental health, and lifestyle-related profiles (including self-control, parenting, bullying, and sleep) as proximal factors associated with symptoms of FA in a large sample of Australian adolescents aged 11–15 years. View this paper
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Article
Antecedents and Consequences of Banking Customers’ Behavior towards Social Media: Evidence from an Emerging Economy
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120518 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Due to the aggressive competitive climate in practically every sector, modern firms in the digital age confront a variety of hurdles for survival and growth. Technology, mainly digital technology, has altered global business practices. To stay ahead of their competitors, marketers need to [...] Read more.
Due to the aggressive competitive climate in practically every sector, modern firms in the digital age confront a variety of hurdles for survival and growth. Technology, mainly digital technology, has altered global business practices. To stay ahead of their competitors, marketers need to develop new strategies that make use of digital technology. Using more conventional forms of competition will not result in spectacular outcomes. In this respect, the rise of social media is a game-changer in marketing since it provides marketers with a strategic touchpoint to engage customers with a brand. Still, it is also important to note the customer’s attitude towards social media. Previous studies have, for the most part, ignored the connection between programs involving corporate social responsibility (CSR) and positive experiences for customers. As a result, the current study intends to evaluate the relationship between customer-related CSR activities on social media, customer attitude towards social media, and consumer behavioral outcomes, such as purchase intentions (PI) and electronic word of mouth (E-WOM). Information was collected from banking customers in a developing economy and evaluated with Smart PLS 4.0. According to the findings, customer-related corporate social responsibility activities carried out on social media have an effect on attitudes toward social media, customer behavioral outcomes, such as electronic word of mouth (E-WOM), and buying intentions. The findings also show that a consumer’s feelings toward a brand can bridge the gap between customer-related CSR, E-WOM, and purchase intentions. The current study’s outcomes can help policymakers comprehend the value of CSR practices from the standpoint of marketing, which is something that most CSR researchers overlook. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption, Identity, Demographics and Self-Concept)
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Article
Factors Influencing Students’ Career Intentions in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries: A Meta-Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120517 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 691
Abstract
This study adopted a meta-analysis to generalize and compare the effect of influencing factors on hospitality and tourism management students’ career intentions from 34 studies. After 13 existing factors were classified into four categories, the results revealed that 11 of them significantly impact [...] Read more.
This study adopted a meta-analysis to generalize and compare the effect of influencing factors on hospitality and tourism management students’ career intentions from 34 studies. After 13 existing factors were classified into four categories, the results revealed that 11 of them significantly impact students’ career intentions. In general, the influences of social identity and self-perception are more important, followed by school education and work conditions. A subgroup analysis further identified the sample students’ grades as dynamics that partially moderate some of the influencing factors, while no statistical changes in the relative influences were observed after the COVID-19 outbreak. Finally, suggestions are provided for hospitality and tourism management education and industries. Full article
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Systematic Review
Chemsex and Psychosis: A Systematic Review
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120516 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Chemsex is presented as a major challenge in public health, with numerous physical and mental consequences. The general objective of this review was to analyze the relationship between the practice of chemsex and the development of psychosis. A mixed systematic review model was [...] Read more.
Chemsex is presented as a major challenge in public health, with numerous physical and mental consequences. The general objective of this review was to analyze the relationship between the practice of chemsex and the development of psychosis. A mixed systematic review model was chosen. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched following a predetermined search strategy. The studies were selected, and their information was extracted following a systematic method. A total of 10 articles were included. Psychotic symptoms ranged from 6.7% to 37.2%, being one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses. Slamsex, polydrug use and smoked methamphetamine posed up to a 3-fold increased risk of psychosis within this practice. The risk factors found were foreign or ethnic minority status, location in large cities, stress and anxiety, trauma, loneliness, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), hepatitis, and previous psychotic history. In conclusion, chemsex is associated with psychosis development; we found numerous converging risk factors and a clear mediating role of drugs. It is important, in approaching the prevention and treatment of this addiction, to take into account motivations and psychosocial circumstances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
The Mediating Role of Spiritual Intelligence on Well-Being and Life Satisfaction among Nurses in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Path Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120515 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Introduction: As they are satisfied with life, nurses who demonstrate spiritual intelligence and well-being at work are tremendous assets to an organisation. This study aimed to determine the mediating effect of spiritual intelligence on the well-being and life satisfaction of nurses in the [...] Read more.
Introduction: As they are satisfied with life, nurses who demonstrate spiritual intelligence and well-being at work are tremendous assets to an organisation. This study aimed to determine the mediating effect of spiritual intelligence on the well-being and life satisfaction of nurses in the context of COVID-19. Methods: This research employed a cross-sectional study design. It was conducted in the Hail region of Saudi Arabia. The participants were government hospital nurses who were chosen using a multi-stage sampling method. A total of 1121 (75% response rate) nurses participated in the study. Data gathering was conducted from July to September 2022. Results: The life satisfaction level of the participants was deemed positive. Their well-being was better (10/15), and they rated high in spiritual intelligence (90/120). Life satisfaction had a strong association with well-being (r = 0.640, p < 0.001), but a weak association with spiritual intelligence (r = 0.391, p < 0.001). In comparison, well-being had a moderate association with spiritual intelligence (r = 0.551, p < 0.001). The direct effect of well-being on spiritual intelligence was positive and significant (β = 0.7817, p < 0.0001), and that of spiritual intelligence on life satisfaction was positive and significant (β = 0.1082, p = 0.0257). The direct effect of well-being on life satisfaction was also positive and significant (β = 1.5985, p < 0.0001). Conversely, well-being had an indirect impact on life satisfaction (β = 0.0846), and this effect was significant. Overall, the impact of well-being on life satisfaction was positive and significant (β = 1.6831, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The nurses in this study were deemed satisfied, to have better well-being, and better spiritual intelligence. Life satisfaction has a strong association with well-being but a weak one with spiritual intelligence, while well-being has a moderate association with spiritual intelligence. Overall, spiritual intelligence was found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between well-being and life satisfaction. These findings suggest that an increase in spiritual growth can serve as the foundation for people to live better and more integrated lives. Full article
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Article
Does Brand Truth-Telling Yield Customer Participation? The Interaction Effects of CSR Strategy and Transparency Signaling
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120514 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Customer participation in brand environmental responsibility is necessary for enterprises and consumers to co-create value. However, it is not yet clear why some corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications are more effective in attracting higher customer participation in a digitally transparent environment. Based on [...] Read more.
Customer participation in brand environmental responsibility is necessary for enterprises and consumers to co-create value. However, it is not yet clear why some corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications are more effective in attracting higher customer participation in a digitally transparent environment. Based on signal theory and social identity theory, this study examines the impact of the interactive effect of CSR strategy (proactive vs. reactive) and transparency signals (high vs. low) on customer trust (perceived integrity and perceived competence), customer–brand identification, and participation intention in brand environmental responsibility. We conduct a 2 × 2 study with 140 respondents. The findings reveal a significant interaction effect of CSR strategy and transparency signals on perceived integrity, perceived competence, and participation intention in brand environmental responsibility. Mediation analysis reveals that the impact of CSR strategy on participation intention is serially mediated via perceived trust and customer–brand identification and varies across different transparency levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Workplace Incivility and Employee Performance: Does Trust in Supervisors Matter? (A Dual Theory Perspective)
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120513 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Employee performance is the backbone of achieving competitiveness and sustainability. This study aims to examine the impact of workplace incivility on employee performance. In addition, trust in supervisors is examined as a mediator. The conservation of resources (COR) theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of [...] Read more.
Employee performance is the backbone of achieving competitiveness and sustainability. This study aims to examine the impact of workplace incivility on employee performance. In addition, trust in supervisors is examined as a mediator. The conservation of resources (COR) theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory provided the grounds for developing the framework. The data were collected through closed-ended questionnaires and were analyzed using structural equation modeling with SmartPLS. The results affirmed that incivility is harmful to the performance of employees, and that trust in supervisors helps employees to perform well. The trust in the supervisor significantly mediates the incivility–performance relationship. The examination of the proposed model through the lens of two theories as well as the study of low-intensity deviant workplace behavior in a collectivist and developing economy are the contributions of this study to the growing body of literature. However, the use of a single sector was one of the limitations of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Investigating Salespeople’s Performance and Opportunistic Behavior: Adaptive and Customer-Oriented Responses
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120512 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 450
Abstract
This study investigates the role of value congruence and top management support on salespeople’s customer-oriented selling behavior and adaptive selling behavior. Moreover, this study has also explored the effects of salespeople’s customer-oriented selling behavior and adaptive selling behavior on sales performance and opportunistic [...] Read more.
This study investigates the role of value congruence and top management support on salespeople’s customer-oriented selling behavior and adaptive selling behavior. Moreover, this study has also explored the effects of salespeople’s customer-oriented selling behavior and adaptive selling behavior on sales performance and opportunistic behaviors, respectively. An online survey was administered to collect the data from salespeople in South Korea, and a total of 204 responses were undergone for formal analysis. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. The results showed that salespeople’s value congruence has a significant positive effect on customer-oriented selling behavior and top management support has a significant positive effect on salespeople’s adaptive selling behavior. The salespeople’s customer-oriented selling behavior has a significant positive effect on sales performance and a significant negative effect on opportunistic behavior. Similarly, salespeople’s adaptive selling behavior has significant positive effects on sales performance and opportunistic behaviors. Based on these findings, the implications for theory and practice are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Educators’ Performance in Higher Education Sector
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120511 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
The significance of emotions in the classroom has been thoroughly explored, but discussions on educators’ abilities to recognize, regulate, and manage their emotions are still ongoing. This paper aims to look at the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) and how professors in higher [...] Read more.
The significance of emotions in the classroom has been thoroughly explored, but discussions on educators’ abilities to recognize, regulate, and manage their emotions are still ongoing. This paper aims to look at the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) and how professors in higher education can use it to achieve better results in the form of emotional intelligence competencies (EIC). A total of 312 educators from 25 higher education institutes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) participated in this study. In sampling the Emotional Intelligence Competencies for this study, we adopted Costa and Faria’s (2015) EQ test, administered to the respondent. The Reuven Bar-On emotional intelligence scale was created and standardized to gather data. Using structural equation modeling, the validity and utility of a proposed model for EI-based teaching competencies and their relationship to critical strengths were evaluated (SEM). The findings show that EIC significantly impacts educator behavior, which in turn improves student success. In order to ensure successful instruction and remarkable performance, the study provides valuable recommendations to higher education institutes about the importance of recruiting new instructors with high skills in EI and providing training sessions for existing educators to improve their EI skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
A Qualitative Exploration of Parents’ Perceptions of Risk in Youth Contact Rugby
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120510 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the understandings and perceptions of risk related to brain trauma amongst parents of children that play contact rugby. A qualitative approach was taken, using semi-structured interviews with 7 mothers and 27 fathers of children that [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the understandings and perceptions of risk related to brain trauma amongst parents of children that play contact rugby. A qualitative approach was taken, using semi-structured interviews with 7 mothers and 27 fathers of children that participate in contact rugby. A thematic analysis of data suggests that parents used two primary cognitive strategies to process the risk they consented to with their children’s participation in rugby; (1) minimalizing rugby risk to be equivalent to less injurious sports; and (2) elevating physical and social advantages above what they think other sports are capable of providing. From the findings it is suggested that parents who permit their children to play contact rugby are both aware of the high risks of injury in the sport, but simultaneously utilize two cognitive distortion techniques to rectify the dissonance caused between their choice to have their children play, and the salient number of concussions they observe. These results suggest that it will take properly informed consent, inclusive of concussion rates compared to other sports, in order to reduce cognitive distortion and effectively communicate risks associated with participation in contact rugby. Full article
Article
Findings of a Multidisciplinary Assessment of Children Referred for Possible Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Insights from a Retrospective Chart Review Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120509 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Children with ASD have a wide spectrum of functional deficits in multiple neurodevelopmental domains. A multidisciplinary team assessment (MDT) is required to assess those deficits to help construct a multimodal intervention plan. This is a retrospective chart review of the assessment for children [...] Read more.
Children with ASD have a wide spectrum of functional deficits in multiple neurodevelopmental domains. A multidisciplinary team assessment (MDT) is required to assess those deficits to help construct a multimodal intervention plan. This is a retrospective chart review of the assessment for children who were referred for an assessment of potential neurodevelopmental disorders. We reviewed 221 participants’ charts from January 2019 to January 2020. The mean age of the children was 7.95 ± 3.69, while the mean age of the fathers and mothers was 37.31 ± 8.57 and 31.95 ± 6.93, respectively. Consanguinity was as high as 37.9% for the referred children with developmental delay who were first-degree related, and 13.2% of the parents were second-degree relatives. Approximately 26.6% of children had a family history of mental illness in first-degree relatives. ASD was the most commonly reported diagnosis post-assessment, and ADHD was the most common reported comorbidity at 64.3% and 88.5%, respectively. The MDT findings showed that 58% of children required moderate or higher assistance with toileting, 79.2% were unable to answer yes/no questions, and 86.8% were unable to understand “wh” questions. Only 26% of the nonverbal children had average IQ testing results, and 31% of verbal children did. In conclusion, the mean age of the children when assessed was above that recommended for early screening and intervention. An increased paternal and maternal age was noticeable. Consanguinity and a family history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were high, attesting to a possible genetic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Article
A Study of the Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Resilience
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120508 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Organizational resilience is a key capability for modern firms to survive and thrive in the VUCA environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of strategic human resource management on organizational resilience and the mediating and moderating roles of self-efficacy [...] Read more.
Organizational resilience is a key capability for modern firms to survive and thrive in the VUCA environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of strategic human resource management on organizational resilience and the mediating and moderating roles of self-efficacy and self-management, respectively, in the relationship between the two. A total of 379 valid questionnaires were obtained from employees of Chinese companies in August 2022, and the data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and Amos. The results showed that strategic HRM can effectively contribute to organizational resilience; self-efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between strategic HRM and organizational resilience; self-management can effectively contribute to the impact of self-efficacy on organizational resilience; and self-management can hinder the ability of strategic HRM to contribute to organizational resilience. This paper breaks with the previous literature that studied organizational resilience from a single perspective by studying organizational resilience from the perspective of strategic human resource management (SHRM) and verifies that SHRM can be a possible path for Chinese firms to improve organizational resilience. Full article
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Article
Is Aesthetic Good? A Study on the Aesthetic and Vitality Judgment of Pictorial Representations of the Dead, Saints and Non-Saints
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120507 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
In the history of the Western world, there has always been an association between good and beautiful. Starting from a brief history of beauty, two questions arise: is beauty linked to good even in art? How important are people’s religious beliefs in aesthetic [...] Read more.
In the history of the Western world, there has always been an association between good and beautiful. Starting from a brief history of beauty, two questions arise: is beauty linked to good even in art? How important are people’s religious beliefs in aesthetic and vitality judgments? The psychology of art could answer these questions by studying people’s reactions to the images of Saints as testimonials of goodness. Moreover, the study of Saints’ paintings would allow us to investigate vitality, understood as one’s perception of a living being. The research aimed to investigate the aesthetic and vitality judgments of faces representing the dead, Saints and non-Saints. More than a hundred participants were asked to evaluate the aesthetics and vitality of these paintings; moreover, two tests assessing spirituality and religiosity were administered. Overall, these data suggest Saints were judged more beautiful than non-Saints, and non-Saints were judged more vital than Saints. This might suggest a relationship between ethics and aesthetics, also in the perception of art, and offers reflections on the theme of vitality. The religion and spirituality of participants are not correlated to aesthetic or vitality judgments; this fact could support that these judgments are linked to the basic bottom-up reactions to images. Full article
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Article
The Role of Relative Deprivation and Attribution Style in the Relationship between Organizational Fairness and Employees’ Service Innovation Behavior
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120506 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The basis of organizational innovation is employee innovation, which is of great significance for organizations to gain a competitive advantage. At present, the research on the influencing factors of employee service innovation behavior is increasing. This study, based on the social cognitive theory, [...] Read more.
The basis of organizational innovation is employee innovation, which is of great significance for organizations to gain a competitive advantage. At present, the research on the influencing factors of employee service innovation behavior is increasing. This study, based on the social cognitive theory, with relative deprivation as the mediator and attribution style as the moderator, explores the mechanism of the effect of organizational fairness on employee service innovation behavior. Taking 342 employees of service-oriented enterprises as the subjects of investigation, this paper empirically tests the theoretical model by using Amos and SPSS. The results indicated the following, organizational fairness was positively related to employees’ service innovation behavior. Relative deprivation partially mediated the relationship between organizational fairness and service innovation behavior. An external attribution style positively moderated the relationship between relative deprivation and employee service innovation behavior. An external attribution style also positively moderated the mediation effect of the relationship between organizational fairness and service innovation behavior. The internal attribution style negatively moderated the relationship between relative deprivation and employee service innovation behavior. The internal attribution style also negatively moderated the mediation effect of the relationship between organizational fairness and service innovation behavior. The conclusion of this study has managerial implications on how to promote employee service innovation behavior in service-oriented enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Mental Health Outcomes among Electricians and Plumbers in Ontario, Canada: Analysis of Burnout and Work-Related Factors
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120505 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
(i) Background: Working in the electrical and plumbing sectors is physically demanding, and the incidence of physical injury and work disability is high. This study aimed to assess the mental health and well-being of skilled trades workers working in the electrical and plumbing [...] Read more.
(i) Background: Working in the electrical and plumbing sectors is physically demanding, and the incidence of physical injury and work disability is high. This study aimed to assess the mental health and well-being of skilled trades workers working in the electrical and plumbing sectors; (ii) Methods: Forty participants completed an online survey assessing burnout, work-related factors, and mental health issues. Data were analyzed to determine the association between demographics, the availability, and importance of work-related factors, and burnout using a two-sample Mann–Whitney U test; (iii) Results: Our findings showed that among the work-related factors, workplace safety, family commitments, income and benefits, and full-time employment opportunities might be crucial factors to keep study participants working at their current position. Financial support for external training, which was found to be the most important factor in preventing colleague-related burnout, was available to the satisfaction of approximately 50% of the participants; (iv) Conclusion: Work-related factors such as workplace safety and the availability and support for external training may be protective against all types of burnout among this population. Future studies may consider a larger sample size with a more diverse group of participants and perform an intersectional analysis to incorporate minority identities in the analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Feeling One Thing and Doing Another: How Expressions of Guilt and Shame Influence Hypocrisy Judgment
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120504 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 565
Abstract
The present study investigated how people, as uninvolved social observers (i.e., those not affected by the emotion expresser’s behavior), judge hypocrisy in a target who publicly expresses their self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame and guilt) after making an immoral decision, then repeats the same [...] Read more.
The present study investigated how people, as uninvolved social observers (i.e., those not affected by the emotion expresser’s behavior), judge hypocrisy in a target who publicly expresses their self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame and guilt) after making an immoral decision, then repeats the same immoral behavior again. Results across the two studies conducted showed that participants viewed the target as more hypocritical when the target expressed guilt (vs. shame) for their past misdeed and then committed the same act again. The present study suggests that social perceivers tend to infer expressions of guilt (and of shame to a lesser degree) as signaling future changes, which is reflected in judgments of hypocrisy. The study further discusses implications for the social functions of emotional expression and communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Picturing Morality from Multidisciplinary Perspectives)
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Article
Development of a Japanese Version of the Index of Sexual Satisfaction for Use in Couples with Young Children
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120503 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 477
Abstract
The occurrence of sexual dysfunction in couples after childbirth is well recognized, yet sexual satisfaction in couples with young children (CYC) has received little research attention. This study sought to enable this construct to be measured by developing and validating a Japanese version [...] Read more.
The occurrence of sexual dysfunction in couples after childbirth is well recognized, yet sexual satisfaction in couples with young children (CYC) has received little research attention. This study sought to enable this construct to be measured by developing and validating a Japanese version of the Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS) in CYC. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Scale construction and validation were conducted using two independent samples drawn from 316 mothers and 272 fathers in Japan who had at least one child aged 6 or younger. Two underlying factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis: sexual satisfaction, measured by eight items, and sexual dissatisfaction, measured by three. Polychoric ordinal alpha coefficients indicated the reliability of the resulting scale (overall: 0.89, factor 1: 0.89, factor 2: 0.78), and confirmatory factor analysis and testing supported its validity, showing good model fit (goodness of fit index: 0.984, root mean square residual: 0.062) and satisfactory composite reliability (scale: 0.93, factor 1: 0.90, factor 2: 0.81) and average variance extracted (all ≥0.5). The Japanese version of the ISS for Couples with Young Children will be useful for investigating sexual satisfaction, which is essential to marital stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Desire, Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunction)
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Article
Effect of Signal Design of Autonomous Vehicle Intention Presentation on Pedestrians’ Cognition
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120502 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 457
Abstract
In this study, a method is devised that allows the intentions of autonomous vehicles to be effectively communicated to pedestrians and passengers via an efficient interactive interface. Visual and auditory factors are used as variables to investigate the effects of different autonomous vehicle [...] Read more.
In this study, a method is devised that allows the intentions of autonomous vehicles to be effectively communicated to pedestrians and passengers via an efficient interactive interface. Visual and auditory factors are used as variables to investigate the effects of different autonomous vehicle signal factors on the judgment of pedestrians and to determine the main factors such that the best combination can be proposed. Two visual dimensions (i.e., color and flashing) and three auditory dimensions (i.e., rhythm, frequency, and melody) are used as the experimental signal variables. In addition, deceleration and waiting-to-restart scenarios are investigated. Multiple-choice questions and a subjective cognition scale are used for evaluation. The results show that the combination of green and slow rhythm can be used for the road-user-first case, whereas the combination of red and fast rhythm can be used for the vehicle-first case. Under the same intention, factors of color, flashing, rhythm, and melody are highly similar in terms of the combination mode, except for the frequency. In the deceleration and waiting-to-restart scenarios, the frequencies of the best signal are high and low frequencies, respectively. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the signal design of autonomous vehicles in the future and provide ideas for the interactions between autonomous vehicles and pedestrians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Crash Injury and Driver Behavior)
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Article
Dissociating the Multiple Psychological Processes in Everyday Moral Decision-Making with the CAN Algorithm
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120501 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
In previous research frameworks, researchers used an everyday dilemma to test people’s altruistic versus egoistic inclination. However, there are at least three different psychological processes that could induce altruistic over egoistic decisions, i.e., stronger altruistic sensitivity, weaker egoistic sensitivity, and stronger overall action [...] Read more.
In previous research frameworks, researchers used an everyday dilemma to test people’s altruistic versus egoistic inclination. However, there are at least three different psychological processes that could induce altruistic over egoistic decisions, i.e., stronger altruistic sensitivity, weaker egoistic sensitivity, and stronger overall action versus inaction preference. To dissociate these different psychological processes, we developed new materials and applied the CAN algorithm from traditional moral dilemma research in two studies. In Study 1, we designed scenarios varying with a 2 (egoistic/non-egoistic) × 2 (non-altruistic/altruistic) structure. Then, we recruited 209 participants to validate the scenarios and filtered six scene frameworks with 24 scenarios in total. In Study 2, we recruited 747 participants to judge whether they would conduct behavior that is simultaneously altruistic (or non-altruistic) and egoistic (or non-egoistic) in the filtered scenarios obtained from Study 1. They also filled in the Social Isolation Scale, Distress Disclosure Scale, and some other demographic information. As we dissociated the psychological processes using the CAN algorithm, significant correlations between social isolation and distress disclosure and three parameters (i.e., altruistic tendency, egoistic tendency, and overall action/inaction preference) underlying the altruistic choice were revealed to varying degrees. Other individual differences in the psychological processes in everyday moral decision-making were further demonstrated. Our study provided materials and methodological protocols to dissociate the multiple psychological processes in everyday moral decision-making. It promotes our insights on everyday moral decisions from a differential psychological processes perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Picturing Morality from Multidisciplinary Perspectives)
Article
Examining the Flourishing Impacts of Repeated Visits to a Virtual Art Museum and the Role of Immersion
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120500 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Visiting art museums has been associated with a range of flourishing outcomes. However, there have been recent shifts towards increasing digital engagement with art, leading to a radical change in how people experience visual art. Given the now expansive virtual art viewing options, [...] Read more.
Visiting art museums has been associated with a range of flourishing outcomes. However, there have been recent shifts towards increasing digital engagement with art, leading to a radical change in how people experience visual art. Given the now expansive virtual art viewing options, it is important to understand whether digital engagement can also lead to greater flourishing, and, if so, under what conditions. We examined the flourishing effects of viewing art in a virtual gallery in a pre-registered experiment comprising four sessions over four weeks, with varying viewing instructions designed to increase immersion. Participants were recruited from a USA representative sample on Prolific, resulting in a final sample of 687 participants. People were randomly assigned to one of nine experimental conditions. Eight art viewing conditions involved four 15 min virtual gallery visits with viewing instructions varying on two factors: slow-looking and immersive mindset framing. An active control condition involved reading about (but not viewing) art. Participants completed a battery of baseline flourishing measures in week 1, completed experimental art engagement sessions during weeks 1–4, and completed the battery again in week 5. While immersion levels were greater in the viewing conditions than the reading condition, growth in flourishing did not differ across condition. Exploratory analyses, however, showed that immersion during the gallery visits did predict some changes in specific facets of flourishing (e.g., engagement, meaning, autonomy satisfaction). We suggest a number of possible explanations for these null results and point to what is needed in future research. Full article
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Article
Ratings or Sales? The Neural and Psychological Processes of Online Experience Product Purchase: Evidence from a Sample of Chinese University Students
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120499 - 07 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
Extrinsic cues are ubiquitous in daily commodity consumption scenarios, not to mention online consumption scenarios. Among the many online cues, monthly sales and product ratings are two of the most representative. Some scholars have researched the impact of these cues on consumer decision [...] Read more.
Extrinsic cues are ubiquitous in daily commodity consumption scenarios, not to mention online consumption scenarios. Among the many online cues, monthly sales and product ratings are two of the most representative. Some scholars have researched the impact of these cues on consumer decision making, but only search products have been investigated. Based on previous research, this article expanded the types of products to experience products and further explored consumer purchase behaviours and the underlying purchase processes influenced by these two extrinsic cues with the assistance of a neuroscience tool, event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioural results indicated that the subjects decided mainly based on ratings, while the effect of sales was continuously inhibited. The ERP results further suggested that consumers recognised low ratings and low sales as more negative stimuli than high ratings and high sales, as larger P2 amplitudes were observed. Following the early processing of these cues, low ratings were considered unacceptable and evoked more significant emotional conflicts than high ratings, which was reflected by larger N400 amplitudes. Moreover, in the late stage, high ratings, which activated evaluation categorisation and produced more significant emotional arousal than low-rating conditions, guided the formation of purchase intention and reflected greater LPP amplitudes. Theoretical and managerial implications were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Determinants of Self-Perceived Health: The Importance of Physical Well-Being but Also of Mental Health and Cognitive Functioning
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120498 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 490
Abstract
With life expectancy increasing for the general population, public health promotion activities should be a priority to aim at a reduction of the burden and costs of hospitalization, disability, and lifelong treatment. This study aimed to explore the influence of parameters pertaining to [...] Read more.
With life expectancy increasing for the general population, public health promotion activities should be a priority to aim at a reduction of the burden and costs of hospitalization, disability, and lifelong treatment. This study aimed to explore the influence of parameters pertaining to different aspects of well-being, including physical and mental health and cognitive functioning, on self-perceived health, a predictor of chronic disease prevalence and mortality. We used data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) project gathered between 2013 and 2017, obtaining a sample of 96,902 participants (63.23 ± 6.77 years). We found a strong association between the self-perceived health rating and not only physical health aspects but also mental health and cognitive functioning. In particular, BMI, chronic diseases and medications, muscle strength, and mobility issues had a strong effect on self-perceived health, as also did the quality of life, depression, and verbal fluency, while other aspects, such as individual characteristics, limitations in daily activities, and pain, among others only had a small effect. These results show that public health and prevention interventions should prioritize the targeting of all aspects of well-being and not only of physical health, acknowledging self-perceived health rating as a simple tool that could help provide a complete overview of psycho-physical well-being and functional status. Full article
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Article
Impact of In-Home Repair Services on Physical and Mental Harm among Essential Workers: The Mediating Effect of Fear and Moderating Effect of Types of Employment
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120497 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
This study attempted to establish a hypothetical model describing the severity of physical and mental harm among essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, the mediating effect of fear on the relationship between in-home services and the severity of physical and [...] Read more.
This study attempted to establish a hypothetical model describing the severity of physical and mental harm among essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, the mediating effect of fear on the relationship between in-home services and the severity of physical and mental harm was analyzed. Moreover, this study utilized multigroup path analysis to examine differences according to the type of employment. Thus, data from all 502 participants were included in the final analysis. The study found that in-home service did not have a direct effect on fear in the path model for the permanent employment group, but did have a direct effect on fear in the path model for the non-permanent employment group. The implications for the field are that the following is required: an anti-infection system should be incorporated at workplaces; employment stability should be provided for essential workers; providing systematic support, such as professional counseling to alleviate negative emotional responses, should be considered. Full article
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Article
Maximizers’ Susceptibility to the Effect of Frequency vs. Percentage Format in Risk Representation
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120496 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The present study explored the susceptibility of maximizers to the effect of the specific information format—frequency vs. percentage—in a risk assessment task. One-hundred and fourteen participants were randomized into two experimental conditions: a frequency format and a percentage format. In both conditions, participants [...] Read more.
The present study explored the susceptibility of maximizers to the effect of the specific information format—frequency vs. percentage—in a risk assessment task. One-hundred and fourteen participants were randomized into two experimental conditions: a frequency format and a percentage format. In both conditions, participants had to rate the level of risk that a mental patient would harm someone after his discharge from a mental health facility, based on the information reported in the psychologist’s assessment for that patient. In the frequency condition, the information was presented in terms of frequencies, whereas in the percentage condition the same information was presented in terms of percentage. Our experiment showed that resolute maximizers are less affected by the specific format of the task than fearful maximizers. Thus, we conclude that resolute maximizers are more normative decision-makers. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
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Article
Population Perspectives on Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Essential Health Services—Behavioral Insights from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120495 - 03 Dec 2022
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of use of essential health services (EHS), health-seeking behaviors, and population health and wellbeing in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) from the perspective of its [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of use of essential health services (EHS), health-seeking behaviors, and population health and wellbeing in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) from the perspective of its adult population. A population-based survey was implemented in the FBiH in December 2020 on a sample of 1068 adults. Overall, 64% of respondents received care, significantly more being women (67% vs. 61%, p = 0.046), those with a chronic disease (CD) (75% vs. 65%, p < 0.001), and of an older age (58% in 18–34 vs. 67% in older, p = 0.031). These groups also postponed care more often (39% in 55+ vs. 31% in 18–34 years old, p = 0.01; 55% with CD vs. 31% without, p < 0.001; and 43% in females vs. 32% males, p < 0.001). Main reasons for postponing care were lack of available appointments and fear of infection. The presence of a CD was the strongest predictor of need, access, and disruptions of health care. Respondents reported increased expenses for medicines (40%) and health services (30%). The findings of the survey add user insights into EHS disruptions to existing health statistics and other data and may be used to inform strategies for mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on the disruption of health care services, strengthening health system preparedness and building resilience for future emergencies. Full article
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Article
Extra-Linguistic Cognitive Functions Involved in the Token Test: Results from a Cohort of Non-Aphasic Stroke Patients with Right Hemisphere Lesion
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120494 - 03 Dec 2022
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Abstract
Background: The Token Test (TT) is widely used to examine comprehension disorders in aphasic patients, but abilities other than language may affect a patient’s performance. This study aims to explore the correlation between the TT subtest performances and the performances in extra-linguistic cognitive [...] Read more.
Background: The Token Test (TT) is widely used to examine comprehension disorders in aphasic patients, but abilities other than language may affect a patient’s performance. This study aims to explore the correlation between the TT subtest performances and the performances in extra-linguistic cognitive areas in a cohort of patients from the Intensive Rehabilitation Post-Stroke (RIPS) study with a first, right hemisphere stroke and without aphasia, prospectively enrolled at admission to intensive inpatient post-acute rehabilitation. Methods: The patients were administered the TT (50-item version), the forward and backward digit span (DST), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Spearman’s partial correlations adjusted by age were used to evaluate the association between the number of errors in the TT and the other tests’ corrected scores. Results: Of the 37 patients enrolled in this study, 29.7% made 3–11 errors on the TT, 27.0% more than 11 errors, mostly in parts IV and V. The forward and backward digit span scores showed correlations with errors in part V of the TT (r = −0.408, p = 0.013; r = −0.307, p = 0.027). The errors in part IV of the TT presented a correlation with a forward digit span too (r = −0.394, p = 0.017). With respect to MoCA domains, executive functioning, and orientation were related to the TT part V errors (r = −0.468, p = 0.007; r = −0.499, p = 0.003). The orientation also correlated with the TT part III (r = −0.504, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Our findings show that the TT performances in patients with right hemisphere stroke and without aphasia are related to impairments in auditory–verbal span/auditory working memory mostly for TT scores on subpart V as measured by the DST and to executive function and orientation, as measured by the MoCA subtests. Full article
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Review
Dimensions, Measures, and Contexts in Psychological Investigations of Curiosity: A Scoping Review
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120493 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The study of curiosity as a construct has led to many conceptualisations, comprising of different dimensions. Due to this, various scales of curiosity have also been developed. Moreover, some researchers have conceived of curiosity as a general trait-like, while others have included contexts, [...] Read more.
The study of curiosity as a construct has led to many conceptualisations, comprising of different dimensions. Due to this, various scales of curiosity have also been developed. Moreover, some researchers have conceived of curiosity as a general trait-like, while others have included contexts, such as the workplace, or education when investigating curiosity. This scoping review aims to scope the extant psychological literature on curiosity in order to better understand how it has been studied, specifically with regard to its dimensions, measures, and contexts. A total of 1194 records were identified, with 245 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Results suggest that the majority of curiosity research examined curiosity as having multiple dimensions and analysed the dimensions individually, with a deprivation-type curiosity playing the biggest role. The measure most commonly used was the Epistemic Curiosity Scale, which also consisted of a deprivation-type curiosity as one of the dimensions. Findings also implied that curiosity was most studied in the context of the workplace. Supplementary findings included a lack of representation of non-Western countries, as well as needing to cross-validate a recently developed curiosity scale. This scoping review represents a consolidation of the curiosity literature and how it can further prosper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
The Mediating Role of Time Perspective in the Relationship between Chronotype and Suicide in Bipolar Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120492 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 658
Abstract
(1) Background: Suicide in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is related to the chronotype of the person from a biological perspective. However, it is not known whether there is a relationship between suicide and psychological time in BD. The aim of our study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Suicide in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is related to the chronotype of the person from a biological perspective. However, it is not known whether there is a relationship between suicide and psychological time in BD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between time perspective (TP) and suicide and the effect of TP on the relationship between suicide and chronotype in euthymic patients with BD. (2) Methods: We included 150 BD patients and 84 healthy controls in this cross-sectional study. We administered the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSSI), Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), and Morning–Evening Questionnaire (MEQ). (3) Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the median scores of past negative TP, present fatalistic TP, future TP, and MEQ total score (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.010, and p = 0.020, respectively). There was a significant correlation between past negative TP, future TP, MEQ scores, and BSSI scores in the patient group (p < 0.001, p = 0.018, and p = 0.028, respectively). An inverse and significant relationship between the MEQ total score and BSSI score and TP types had a mediator role in this relationship. (4) Conclusions: Our study shows that TP, which evaluates time from a psychological perspective, has a direct relationship with suicidal ideation and a mediating role in the relationship between chronotype and suicide. According to our results, we can conclude that ZTPI can also be used to evaluate the risk of suicidality in patients with BD. Appropriate therapy methods for TP may help to prevent some suicide attempts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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Article
The Use of Executive Fluency Tasks to Detect Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Subjective Cognitive Decline
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120491 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Objective: Although evidence has indicated that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may be an early sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the objectification of cognitive impairment in SCD is challenging, mainly due to the lack of sensitivity in assessment tools. The present study investigated the [...] Read more.
Objective: Although evidence has indicated that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may be an early sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the objectification of cognitive impairment in SCD is challenging, mainly due to the lack of sensitivity in assessment tools. The present study investigated the potential contribution of two verbal fluency tasks with high executive processing loads to the identification of cognitive impairment in SCD. Methods: A total of 60 adults with SCD and 60 healthy controls (HCs) performed one free action (verb) fluency task and two fluency tasks with more executive processing load—an alternating fluency task and an orthographic constraint fluency task—and the results were compared. Result: In the free action fluency task, the performance of the participants with SCD and the HCs was similar. However, HCs performed significantly better than SCD in the alternating fluency task, which required mental flexibility, and the orthographic constraint fluency task, which required inhibition. Discussion: The study findings suggest that verbal fluency tasks with high executive processing load could be useful in detecting cognitive deficits at the preclinical stage of AD. The inclusion of such tests in assessment batteries should be considered in order to improve the detection of subtle cognitive impairment in preclinical major neurocognitive disorder populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Subjective Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease)
Review
Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Competitive Cycling: A Scoping Review
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120490 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 771
Abstract
This article reports on the findings from a scoping review on eating disorders and disordered eating in competitive cycling. The review was informed by a scoping review methodological framework as well as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis extension for [...] Read more.
This article reports on the findings from a scoping review on eating disorders and disordered eating in competitive cycling. The review was informed by a scoping review methodological framework as well as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) reporting guidelines. PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science were used to identify relevant literature for review. Fourteen studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the full review. A narrative synthesis was used to summarise the main findings and themes across the included literature. Findings from the review are presented under the following themes: cycling as an ‘at-risk’ discipline; power to weight ratio; energy requirements and risk of low energy availability; the social environment of cycling; nutrition support provision; relationship between eating disorders/disordered eating and exercise addiction; and recommendations made in identified literature. Overall, the literature suggests competitive cycling is a sport with a high prevalence of disordered eating and/or eating disorders and a sport with unique risk factors that contribute to this. Crucially, more research is needed in this area. The article concludes with the gaps in the literature highlighted, implications for future research, and applications to policy and practice suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessing Injury Risk and Cycling Performance)
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Article
Development and Validation of the Digital Life Balance (DLB) Scale: A Brand-New Measure for Both Harmonic and Disharmonic Use of ICTs
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12120489 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 590
Abstract
The use of new technologies and information communication technology services (ICTs) has greatly increased, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in an irrevocable change in people’s work-life balance (WLB). Despite the thriving literature on the dysfunctional use of new technologies, a functional use [...] Read more.
The use of new technologies and information communication technology services (ICTs) has greatly increased, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in an irrevocable change in people’s work-life balance (WLB). Despite the thriving literature on the dysfunctional use of new technologies, a functional use of ICTs also seems to be possible. Inspired by the theory of psychology of harmony and referring to behavioral addiction models and substance use models, we defined the construct of digital life balance to indicate a harmonic balance between digital life and real life. In this context, the imbalance between online and offline life may reflect a dysfunctional use of ICTs and can be seen as a process of disharmonization. With this perspective in mind, the aim of this study was to develop a dedicated measuring instrument that could capture both people’s balanced and unbalanced use of ICTs. Through two cross-sectional studies (Study 1= 1473 participants; Study 2 = 953 participants), we validated the scale internally and externally. In line with the literature, Digital Life Balance scores appeared to be negatively associated with addiction measures and positively associated with well-being measures. In conclusion, the Digital Life Balance (DLB) Scale appears to be a reliable (ω = 0.89) and valid instrument to investigate people’s harmonic and disharmonic use of ICTs. Full article
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