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Geosciences, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Hell Creek Formation of North America is one of the few terrestrial units which preserve the K–Pg boundary. It is famous for its dinosaur fossils, such as Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus, which disappear at the K–Pg boundary mass extinction at the upper formational contact. This paper reviews the stratigraphy of the Hell Creek and implements a sequence stratigraphic framework to aid in regional correlations. Revisions suggest that the Hell Creek Formation probably represents ~700 k. y. of deposition. This image shows the basal formational contacts and depositional sequence boundaries in a typical section exposed near Fort Peck Lake, Montana. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Re-assessing the Upper Permian Stratigraphic Succession of the Northern Sydney Basin, Australia, by CA-IDTIMS
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110474 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 503
Abstract
High precision Chemical abrasion-isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (CA-IDTIMS) U-Pb zircon results from tuff marker beds that are interstratified within the Upper Permian deposits of the northern Sydney Basin add constraints on the timing of sediment deposition, and afford a better understanding [...] Read more.
High precision Chemical abrasion-isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (CA-IDTIMS) U-Pb zircon results from tuff marker beds that are interstratified within the Upper Permian deposits of the northern Sydney Basin add constraints on the timing of sediment deposition, and afford a better understanding of the regional stratigraphy. The results indicate a magmatic influence during the deposition of the sediments, with episodic events spanning at least from 255.65 ± 0.08 to 255.08 ± 0.09 Ma. The zircon data suggest that the studied sedimentary rocks and tuffs have accumulated simultaneously over a short time interval, which contrasts with current stratigraphic models that suggest a much greater period of deposition and stratigraphic thickness. Therefore, an updated stratigraphic correlation of the basin is suggested, which combines the presently defined Lambton, Adamstown, and Boolaroo sub-groups into a single Lambton sub-group. This updated correlation framework is stratigraphically and geochronologically constrained and provides a more precise exploration model for the northern Sydney Basin. This case study highlights the valuable contribution of the CA-IDTIMS method in intrabasinal correlations of sedimentary successions, when integrated with a robust sedimentological framework, to minimize the stratigraphic uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sedimentology, Stratigraphy and Palaeontogy)
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Open AccessArticle
Geotechnical Analysis and 3D Fem Modeling of Ville San Pietro (Italy)
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110473 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The paper describes the three-dimensional numerical model of Ville San Pietro, an Italian village subject to slope movements causing damage. The church (dating back to 1776), which is the most significant building of the area, is modelled too. The information from geotechnical and [...] Read more.
The paper describes the three-dimensional numerical model of Ville San Pietro, an Italian village subject to slope movements causing damage. The church (dating back to 1776), which is the most significant building of the area, is modelled too. The information from geotechnical and geophysical surveys on field are used to define the model geometry and the soil properties. A finite element code is adopted to simulate the slope behavior in occurrence of water table fluctuations, detected by piezometers, and to evaluate the slope displacements and stability. The validation of the model is carried out using the inclinometer and interferometry measures and by on-site inspections. The model demonstrated a good ability to simulate the slope behavior during the raising and lowering of the water table. The critical areas computed by the numerical code are in good accordance to the actual portions affected by soil displacements and damages. The modelling presented in this paper is crucial for future analyses that will take advantage of an innovative monitoring system, which will be installed on site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modeling in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Linking Soil Hydrology and Creep: A Northern Andes Case
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110472 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Soil creep is common along the hillslopes of the tropical Andes of Colombia, where very heterogeneous soils develop on old debris flow deposits and are subjected to abundant rainfall with a bimodal annual regime. In particular, the western hillside of the city of [...] Read more.
Soil creep is common along the hillslopes of the tropical Andes of Colombia, where very heterogeneous soils develop on old debris flow deposits and are subjected to abundant rainfall with a bimodal annual regime. In particular, the western hillside of the city of Medellín, Colombia, is comprised of a series of debris and earth flow deposits in which landslides and soil creep are common. To explore linkages between soil creep and hydrology, we selected an experimental site in the western hillslope of the Medellín valley to assess the behavior of water within the soil mass, its relationship with rainfall, and its connection with soil displacement. In experimental plots, we systematically measured runoff, percolation, water table levels, and volumetric water content, for a period of almost 2 years; we also conducted several alti-planimetric positioning surveys to estimate relative displacements of the soil surface. Moisture content of the soil remained above field capacity for most of the year (~68% of the time) and active and quasi-permanent lateral subsurface flow occurred within the upper 80 cm of the profile. The shallow flow likely facilitates the downslope movement. Additionally, our results suggest that displacement magnitudes are largest during the wet season of September–October–November, when a highly humid soil experiences changes in water content, so it is during this time that the effects of expansion / contraction of the soil particles (associated to wetting / drying cycles) contribute the most to the movement. This observational study represents a contribution to the understanding of soil creep in tropical hillslopes, where it responds to the wetting / drying cycles, with the particularities of a rainy weather (>1500 mm/year), warm temperatures (~22 °C on average), and a bimodal precipitation seasonality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslides and Granular Flows on Earth)
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Open AccessArticle
Intensity Reassessment of the 2017 Pohang Earthquake Mw = 5.4 (South Korea) Using ESI-07 Scale
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110471 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
The earthquake environmental effects (EEEs) around the epicentral area of the Pohang earthquake (Mw-5.4) that occurred on 15 November 2017 have been collected and classified using the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale (ESI-07 scale) proposed by the International Union for Quaternary Research [...] Read more.
The earthquake environmental effects (EEEs) around the epicentral area of the Pohang earthquake (Mw-5.4) that occurred on 15 November 2017 have been collected and classified using the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale (ESI-07 scale) proposed by the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) focus group. The shallow-focus 15 November Pohang earthquake did not produce any surface rupture, but caused extensive secondary environmental effects and damage to life-line structures. This earthquake was one of the most damaging earthquakes during the instrumental seismic era of the Korean Peninsula. The EEEs included extensive liquefaction, ground cracks, ground settlement, localized rockfall, and variation of the water table. The main objective of this paper was to carry forward a comparative assessment of the Pohang earthquake’s intensity based on traditional macroseismic scales and the ESI-07 scale. With that objective, this study will also make a substantial contribution to any future revision of the ESI-07 scale, which mostly comprises case studies from Europe and South America. The comparison of the ESI-07 scale with traditional intensity scales similar to the intensity scale used by the Korean Meteorological Administration for the epicentral areas showed 1–2-degree differences in intensity. Moreover, the ESI scale provided a clearer picture of the intensity around the epicentral area, which is mostly agricultural land with a lack of urban units or buildings. This study urges the integration of the traditional and ESI-07 scale for such small magnitude earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula as well as around the world in future. This will predict seismic intensity more precisely and hence provide a more-effective seismic hazard estimation, particularly in areas of low seismic activity. The present study will also provide a useful and reliable tool for the seismic hazard assessment of similar earthquakes around the study area and land-use planning at a local scale considering the secondary effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Environmental Effects in the Historical and Recent Data)
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Open AccessArticle
Elevated CO2 Emissions during Magmatic-Hydrothermal Degassing at Awu Volcano, Sangihe Arc, Indonesia
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110470 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Awu is a remote and little known active volcano of Indonesia located in the northern part of Molucca Sea. It is the northernmost active volcano of the Sangihe arc with 18 eruptions in less than 4 centuries, causing a cumulative death toll of [...] Read more.
Awu is a remote and little known active volcano of Indonesia located in the northern part of Molucca Sea. It is the northernmost active volcano of the Sangihe arc with 18 eruptions in less than 4 centuries, causing a cumulative death toll of 11,048. Two of these eruptions were classified with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 4. Since 2004, a lava dome has occupied the centre of Awu crater, channelling the fumarolic gas output along the crater wall. A combined Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and Multi-component Gas Analyzer System (Multi-GAS) study highlight a relatively small SO2 flux (13 t/d) sustained by mixed magmatic–hydrothermal emissions made-up of 82 mol.% H2O, 15 mol.% CO2, 2.55 mol.% total S (ST) and 0.02 mol.% H2. The CO2 emission budget, as observed during a short observation period in 2015, corresponds to a daily contribution to the atmosphere of 2600 t/d, representing 1% of the global CO2 emission budget from volcanoes. The gas CO2/ST ratio of 3.7 to 7.9 is at the upper limit of the Indonesian gas range, which is ascribed to (i) some extent of S loss during hydrothermal processing, and perhaps (ii) a C-rich signature of the feeding magmatic gas phase. The source of this high CO2 signature and flux is yet to be fully understood; however, given the peculiar geodynamic context of the region, dominated by the arc-to-arc collision, this may result from either the prolonged heating of the slab and consequent production of carbon-rich fluids, or the recycling of crustal carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magma Degassing from Magma at Depth to the Surface)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Methodology for Measuring Tsunami Resilience Using Theory of Springs
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110469 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Resilience is a deeply rooted word in theory of elasticity, which is firstly introduced to English by Thomas Young in 1807 in his treatise “A course of lectures on natural philosophy and the mechanical arts”. However, recently it is frequently used in ecology, [...] Read more.
Resilience is a deeply rooted word in theory of elasticity, which is firstly introduced to English by Thomas Young in 1807 in his treatise “A course of lectures on natural philosophy and the mechanical arts”. However, recently it is frequently used in ecology, economics, social sciences, and as everyone knows in the disaster literature. The purpose of this article is to investigate the mechanical background of word resilience, discuss lessons we could learn from the theory of elasticity for evaluating tsunami resilience, and finally, to propose a new mathematical model based on theory of springs. The mathematical model is in compliance with a pragmatic conceptual framework for evaluating resilience. The effective resilience of a given area can be calculated by aggregation of three components namely, onsite capacity, instantaneous survivability, and recovery potential of the area. The authors suggest that the magnitude of each component depends on socioeconomic, infrastructural and geographical factors of the area considered. Here, we show that aggregation of the individual components can be done in compliance with the theory of springs by analogizing effective tsunami resilience to effective spring constant. The mathematical model will be useful for evaluating the resilience of townships to hydrological disasters and also planning resilient townships, specifically to tsunami. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Formation and Outburst of the Toguz-Bulak Glacial Lake in the Northern Teskey Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110468 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 439
Abstract
In Kyrgyzstan, outburst flood disasters from glacial lakes are increasing. An example is the sudden drainage on 8 August 2019 of the Toguz-Bulak glacial lake in the Tosor river basin of the northern Tien Shan region. In this study, we used remote sensing [...] Read more.
In Kyrgyzstan, outburst flood disasters from glacial lakes are increasing. An example is the sudden drainage on 8 August 2019 of the Toguz-Bulak glacial lake in the Tosor river basin of the northern Tien Shan region. In this study, we used remote sensing and field surveys to examine the reasons for the outburst. We found that the lake area changed from 0.021 km² to 0.002 km2 due to the outburst, in which most of the initial 130,000 m3 of water discharged within four hours. In examining the longer-term behavior of this lake, we found that from 2010 through 2019, it appears in June and disappears in September every year. Its maximum area occurs in late July and early August. With the expansion of the lake basin between 2010 and 2019, the lake also increased greatly in size, particularly so in the three years before the outburst, linked to high summer temperatures and the resulting higher inflow of glacier meltwater, finally leading to the sudden drainage in 2019. Before this outburst, a 2-m high moraine dam retained the lake. Continuously inflowing meltwater and the related increasing pressure by the lake water mass eventually broke the moraine dam. Satellite radar interferometry revealed active displacement fringes in the lake basin and moraine dam due to the melting and subsidence of buried ice. An analysis using digital elevation models from 1964 and 2010 also confirms the surface lowering in the lake basin by up to 8.5 m and on the moraine dam by 2 m. Such lowering of the proglacial moraine complex destabilized the moraine dam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scientific Assessment of Recent Natural Hazard Events)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Multisensory Instruction on Geosciences Learning and Students’ Motivation
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110467 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 280
Abstract
We live in a multisensory world. However, in classrooms, unisensory approaches are preferred, although they are unnatural and usually demotivating for youngsters. We conducted this mix-method study to investigate the possible effects of a multisensory approach on geosciences learning among students at a [...] Read more.
We live in a multisensory world. However, in classrooms, unisensory approaches are preferred, although they are unnatural and usually demotivating for youngsters. We conducted this mix-method study to investigate the possible effects of a multisensory approach on geosciences learning among students at a primary school in Porto, Portugal. The cognitive outcome was assessed using a pre/post-test design, while motivation and other attitudinal parameters were studied using an anonymous questionnaire. The results revealed a higher mean score in post-tests for students attending multisensory classes and high levels of motivation. Therefore, we consider that multisensory instruction has a positive impact on geosciences learning and motivation, and proper measures should be adopted to propel its full and optimal application in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Education in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
The 2017 Rigopiano Avalanche—Dynamics Inferred from Field Observations
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110466 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Data on the disastrous snow avalanche that occurred on 18 January 2017 at the spa hotel Rigopiano, municipality of Farindola in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, are analyzed in different ways. The main results are the following. (i) The 2017 Rigopiano avalanche [...] Read more.
Data on the disastrous snow avalanche that occurred on 18 January 2017 at the spa hotel Rigopiano, municipality of Farindola in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, are analyzed in different ways. The main results are the following. (i) The 2017 Rigopiano avalanche went beyond the run-out point predicted by the topographic-statistical α-β model with standard Norwegian calibration, while avalanches in neighboring paths appear to have run no farther than the β-point of their respective paths during the same period. (ii) The curvature and super-elevation of the trimline between 1500 and 1300 m a.s.l. indicate that the velocity of the front was around 40 m s1. In contrast, the tail velocity of the avalanche can hardly have exceeded 25 m s1 in the same segment. (iii) The deposits observed along all of the lower track and in the run-out zone suggest that the avalanche eroded essentially the entire snow cover, but fully entrained only a moderate amount of snow (and debris). The entrainment appears to have had a considerable decelerating effect on the flow front. (iv) Estimates of the degree to which different parts of the building were damaged is combined with information about the location of the persons in the building and their fates. This allows to refine a preliminary vulnerability curve for persons in buildings obtained from the 2015 Longyearbyen avalanche, Svalbard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snow Avalanche Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
Black Carbon as a Source of Trace Elements and Nutrients in Ice Sheet of King George Island, Antarctica
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110465 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Enormous deglaciation in the polar and mountainous regions of the Earth is associated not only with large-scale climatic changes but also with the global transfer of black carbon (BC) microparticles, which accumulate on the surface of glaciers and lead to changes in albedo [...] Read more.
Enormous deglaciation in the polar and mountainous regions of the Earth is associated not only with large-scale climatic changes but also with the global transfer of black carbon (BC) microparticles, which accumulate on the surface of glaciers and lead to changes in albedo and the rate of degradation of ice. BC is the product of an incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires. The accumulation of organogenic microparticles leads to the formation of cryoconites, which are dust made of a combination of small rock particles and the result of anthropogenic activities (fossil fuel combustion) that play a special role in deglaciation. Here, we describe the content of trace metals and nutrients in accumulation of the BC from glaciers of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Western Antarctica. The analysis of trace metals concentrations showed that most of the studied elements (Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni) have a volcanic origin; at the same time, Cd and Cu have been accumulated as a result of anthropogenic activity. The content of nutrients in BC are most similar with Technosols, which forms near the scientific station at King George Island. The particles of BC can be translocated into organisms, which could pose a significant risk for living organisms and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biogeosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Inversion Method of Fault Slip Analysis to Determine the Orientation of Principal Stresses and Relative Chronology for Tectonic Events in Southwestern White Mountain Region of New Hampshire, USA
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110464 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 363
Abstract
The orientation and relative magnitudes of paleo tectonic stresses in the western central region of the White Mountains of New Hampshire is reconstructed using the direct inversion method of fault slip analysis on 1–10-m long fractures exposed on a series of road cuts [...] Read more.
The orientation and relative magnitudes of paleo tectonic stresses in the western central region of the White Mountains of New Hampshire is reconstructed using the direct inversion method of fault slip analysis on 1–10-m long fractures exposed on a series of road cuts along Interstate 93, just east of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in North Woodstock, NH, USA. The inversion yields nine stress regimes which identify five tectonic events that impacted the White Mountain region over the last 410 Ma. The inversion method has potential application in basin analysis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The White Sea: Available Data and Numerical Models
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110463 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The White Sea is a small shallow semi-closed sea in the North-West of Russia. It is strongly affected by induced tides, so the tidal motion dominates in the sea. Sea ice is seasonal and the water salinity is less than in the neighbouring [...] Read more.
The White Sea is a small shallow semi-closed sea in the North-West of Russia. It is strongly affected by induced tides, so the tidal motion dominates in the sea. Sea ice is seasonal and the water salinity is less than in the neighbouring Barents sea due to strong river discharge. We review the sources of in-situ and satellite data that are available for the sea, and describe those few numerical models, together with the challenges that are faced. We focus on the large-scale circulation and thermohaline fields, but also cover sea ice, river runoff, and pelagic biogeochemical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Two Ensemble-Kalman Filter Based Methods for Estimating Aquifer Parameters from Real 3-D Hydraulic and Tracer Tomographic Tests
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110462 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Pumping and tracer tests are site-investigation techniques frequently used to determine hydraulic conductivity. Tomographic test layouts, in which multiple tests with different combinations of injection and observation wells are performed, gain a better insight into spatial variability. While hydraulic tomography has repeatedly been [...] Read more.
Pumping and tracer tests are site-investigation techniques frequently used to determine hydraulic conductivity. Tomographic test layouts, in which multiple tests with different combinations of injection and observation wells are performed, gain a better insight into spatial variability. While hydraulic tomography has repeatedly been applied in the field, tracer tomography lags behind. In a previous publication, we presented a synthetic study to investigate whether the ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) or the Kalman Ensemble Generator (KEG) performs better in inverting hydraulic- and tracer-tomographic data. In this work, we develop an experimental method for solute-tracer tomography using fluorescein as a conservative tracer. We performed hydraulic- and tracer-tomographic tests at the Lauswiesen site in Germany. We analyzed transient drawdown and concentration data with the EnKF and steady-state hydraulic heads and mean tracer arrival times with the KEG, obtaining more stable results with the KEG at lower computational costs. The spatial distribution of the estimated hydraulic conductivity field agreed with earlier descriptions of the aquifer at the site. This study narrows the gap between numerical studies and field applications for aquifer characterization at high resolution, showing the potential of combining ensemble-Kalman filter based methods with data collected from hydraulic and solute-tracer tomographic experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tomographic Imaging of Aquifer Hydraulic Properties)
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Open AccessEditorial
Tracking the Deep Biosphere through Time
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110461 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 466
Abstract
The oceanic and continental lithosphere constitutes Earth’s largest microbial habitat, yet it is scarcely investigated and not well understood. The physical and chemical properties here are distinctly different from the overlaying soils and the hydrosphere, which greatly impact the microbial communities and associated [...] Read more.
The oceanic and continental lithosphere constitutes Earth’s largest microbial habitat, yet it is scarcely investigated and not well understood. The physical and chemical properties here are distinctly different from the overlaying soils and the hydrosphere, which greatly impact the microbial communities and associated geobiological and geochemical processes. Fluid–rock interactions are key processes for microbial colonization and persistence in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment. Investigations during recent years have spotted microbial processes, stable isotope variations, and species that are unique to the subsurface crust. Recent advances in geochronology have enabled the direct dating of minerals formed in response to microbial activity, which in turn have led to an increased understanding of the evolution of the deep biosphere in (deep) time. Similarly, the preservation of isotopic signatures, as well as organic compounds within fossilized micro-colonies or related mineral assemblages in voids, cements, and fractures/veins in the upper crust, provides an archive that can be tapped for knowledge about ancient microbial activity, including both prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. This knowledge sheds light on how lifeforms have evolved in the energy-poor subsurface, but also contributes to the understanding of the boundaries of life on Earth, of early life when the surface was not habitable, and of the preservation of signatures of ancient life, which may have astrobiological implications. The Special Issue “Tracking the Deep Biosphere through Time” presents a collection of scientific contributions that provide a sample of forefront research in this field. The contributions involve a range of case studies of deep ancient life in continental and oceanic settings, of microbial diversity in sub-seafloor environments, of isolation of calcifying bacteria as well as reviews of clay mineralization of fungal biofilms and of the carbon isotope records of the deep biosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tracking the Deep Biosphere through Time)
Open AccessArticle
Complex Shear Partitioning Involving the 6 February 2012 MW 6.7 Negros Earthquake Ground Rupture in Central Philippines
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110460 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1981
Abstract
A 75 km-long, generally NE-striking ground rupture associated with the 6 February 2012 MW 6.7 (Mb 6.9) Negros earthquake was mapped on the eastern side of Negros Island, Philippines. It closely follows a previously unmapped, pre-existing fault trace along the [...] Read more.
A 75 km-long, generally NE-striking ground rupture associated with the 6 February 2012 MW 6.7 (Mb 6.9) Negros earthquake was mapped on the eastern side of Negros Island, Philippines. It closely follows a previously unmapped, pre-existing fault trace along the coast which is marked mostly by terrace-forming scarps. The dominance of vertical separation (west side up) is consistent with a west-dipping reverse fault, as indicated by focal mechanism solutions. The ground rupture map eliminates the ambiguity in the focal mechanism solution regarding the orientation, sense of motion, and location of the seismogenic fault plane, which are indispensable in the assessment of seismic hazards and the nature and distribution of deformation. This study uses the ground rupture map of the 2012 Negros earthquake in sorting out the mechanism of deformation in the Visayas Islands region. The ground rupture’s length is well within the aftershock area while its scarp heights are consistent with an earthquake of its magnitude and nature of movement. The 2012 Negros earthquake rupture’s pattern, scarp types, and offset of man-made structures are similar to those of recent reverse/thrust ground ruptures mapped globally and are distinct from those associated with erosion, landslide, and liquefaction. The onshore coseismic reverse fault of the Negros earthquake, which contradicts a model of coseismic slip on an offshore blind thrust fault by previous workers, represents the first thoroughly mapped ground rupture of its kind in the Philippines. The ground ruptures of the 2012 Negros and 2013 Bohol earthquakes, along with the Philippine Trench and the Philippine Fault Zone (PFZ), represent a complex shear partitioning mechanism in the Visayas Islands region. This departs from the current simple shear partitioning model for the region and is distinct from those for other regions along the PFZ and adjacent subduction zones. This study shows how an appreciation of morphotectonic features can lead to a better understanding of the distribution of deformation and the nature of earthquake hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismotectonics, Active Deformation, and Structure of the Crust)
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Open AccessArticle
How Can Deep Geothermal Projects Provide Information on the Temperature Distribution in the Upper Rhine Graben? The Example of the Soultz-Sous-Forêts-Enhanced Geothermal System
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110459 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 328
Abstract
The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) hosts thermal anomalies that account for the development of oil fields. Recently, a geothermal power plant has been installed in this area. Data obtained in this framework provide an insight into the temperature distribution in the URG. The [...] Read more.
The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) hosts thermal anomalies that account for the development of oil fields. Recently, a geothermal power plant has been installed in this area. Data obtained in this framework provide an insight into the temperature distribution in the URG. The present thermal gradient at Soultz-sous-Forêts is not linear: nearly 90 °C/km down to 1400 m depth, then about 12 °C/km from that depth down to 5000 m. The combination of temperature conditions and natural fluid circulation in fracture networks has led to the hydrothermal alteration of the granite into mineral assemblages such as those including illite, quartz and calcite. Illite is locally impregnated with organic matter of two kinds: a mature type derived from oil source rocks and a less mature type derived from surficial sedimentary layers indicating the km-scale of transfer. Newly formed crystals of quartz and calcite from around 2000 m depth record a fluid temperature range of 130 to 170 °C, consistent with modelling and the temperatures measured at present in the drill-holes at this depth. In such hydrothermally altered zones, local variations of temperature are encountered indicating current fluid flows that are being sought for geothermal purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Temperature in Sedimentary Basins)
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Experimental Reproducibility and Natural Variability of Hydraulic Transport Properties of Fractured Sandstone Samples
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110458 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Flow and transport processes in fractured systems are not yet fully understood, and it is challenging to determine the respective parameters experimentally. Studies on 10 samples of 2 different sandstones were used to evaluate the reproducibility of tracer tests and the calculation of [...] Read more.
Flow and transport processes in fractured systems are not yet fully understood, and it is challenging to determine the respective parameters experimentally. Studies on 10 samples of 2 different sandstones were used to evaluate the reproducibility of tracer tests and the calculation of hydraulic transport properties under identical boundary conditions. The transport parameters were determined using the advection–dispersion equation (ADE) and the continuous time random walk (CTRW) method. In addition, the fracture surface morphology and the effective fracture aperture width was quantified. The hydraulic parameters and their variations were studied for samples within one rock type and between both rock types to quantify the natural variability of transport parameters as well as their experimental reproducibility. Transport processes dominated by the influence of fracture surface morphology experienced a larger spread in the determined transport parameters between repeated measurements. Grain size, effective hydraulic aperture and dispersivity were identified as the most important parameters to evaluate this effect, as with increasing fracture aperture the effect of surface roughness vanishes and the experimental reproducibility increases. Increasing roughness is often associated with the larger effective hydraulic aperture canceling out the expected increased influence of the fracture surface morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Fractured Rock Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Rainfall Flooding in Urban Areas in the Context of Geomorphological Aspects
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110457 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Flooding risk in urban areas is particularly high, due to the high population density and property values, including those of transport, residential, service and industrial infrastructure, among others. There are many reasons for flooding in urban areas; among them, direct heavy rainfall can [...] Read more.
Flooding risk in urban areas is particularly high, due to the high population density and property values, including those of transport, residential, service and industrial infrastructure, among others. There are many reasons for flooding in urban areas; among them, direct heavy rainfall can cause special problems in risk management. In the case of random heavy rainfall, flood risk management can be supported by information about the morphology of the terrain and the degree of its sealing. In this study, we analyse methods for determining the risk of flooding in urban areas using digital terrain model (DTM) and geographic information system (GIS) tools. Predictors of precipitation floods in urban areas are defined, including the determination of flat areas, areas without outflow (non-drainage) and with large terrain height differences. The main source of information about historical rainfall floods relates to interventions by fire brigades, which constitute the basis for verifying the areas of occurrence of rainfall floods, as determined on the basis of morphological analysis of the area. Identifying the locations of rainfall flooding areas and developing accurate maps based on them are crucial for spatial planning and flood management at the local scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Hydrological Risks Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Fault Detection with Crosshole and Reflection Geo-Radar for Underground Mine Safety
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110456 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Ground-penetrating radar and crosshole radar are applied in an underground marble mine for fault detection and to test if different geological bodies can be distinguished. Boreholes are often drilled in advance of mining to clarify the locations of ore bodies and gangues. Here, [...] Read more.
Ground-penetrating radar and crosshole radar are applied in an underground marble mine for fault detection and to test if different geological bodies can be distinguished. Boreholes are often drilled in advance of mining to clarify the locations of ore bodies and gangues. Here, such boreholes were used for crosshole investigations to supplement optical borehole imaging. Four boreholes were drilled along a profile with increasing offsets from 5 to 25 m. The crosshole measurements were performed with 100 MHz antennas. Tomographic panels were created up to a depth of 28 m and were complemented by reflection mode ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements along a 25 m-long profile with 100 and 250 MHz antennas. The GPR imaging successfully delineates the fault and karstification zones with higher water content due to their strong dielectric permittivity contrast compared to the surrounding geology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Surveying and Geophysical Methods for Soil and Rock)
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Open AccessReview
Constraints on Martian Chronology from Meteorites
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110455 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Martian meteorites provide the only direct constraints on the timing of Martian accretion, core formation, magmatic differentiation, and ongoing volcanism. While many radiogenic isotope chronometers have been applied to a wide variety of Martian samples, few, if any, techniques are immune to secondary [...] Read more.
Martian meteorites provide the only direct constraints on the timing of Martian accretion, core formation, magmatic differentiation, and ongoing volcanism. While many radiogenic isotope chronometers have been applied to a wide variety of Martian samples, few, if any, techniques are immune to secondary effects from alteration and terrestrial weathering. This short review focuses on the most robust geochronometers that have been used to date Martian meteorites and geochemically model the differentiation of the planet, including 147Sm/143Nd, 146Sm/142Nd, 176Lu/176Hf, 182Hf/182W, and U-Th-Pb systematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Martian Meteorites and Mars Exploration)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Mw = 5.6 Kanallaki Earthquake of 21 March 2020 in West Epirus, Greece: Reverse Fault Model from InSAR Data and Seismotectonic Implications for Apulia-Eurasia Collision
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110454 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 587
Abstract
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on 21 March 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by [...] Read more.
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on 21 March 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by inverting the INSAR displacement data. The inversion model suggests a shallow source on a low-angle fault (39°) dipping towards east with a centroid depth of 8.5 km. The seismic moment deduced from our model agrees with those of the published seismic moment tensors. This geometry is compatible with reverse-slip motion along the west-verging Margariti thrust fault that accommodates part of the convergence within the collision zone between Apulia and Eurasia. We also processed new GNSS data and estimate a total convergence rate between Apulia and Eurasia of 8.9 mm yr−1, of which the shortening of the crust between the Epirus coastal GNSS stations and station PAXO in the Ionian Sea (across the Ionian Thrust) is equivalent to ~50% of it or 4.6 mm yr−1. By back-slip modelling we found that a 60-km wide deformation zone takes up nearly most of the convergence between Apulia-Eurasia, trending N318°E. Its central axis runs along the southwest coast of Corfu, along the northeast coast of Paxoi, heading toward the northern extremity of the Lefkada island. The island of Paxoi appears kinematically as part of the Apulian plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismotectonics, Active Deformation, and Structure of the Crust)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Chinyero Volcanic Landscape Trail (Canary Islands, Spain): A Geotourism Proposal to Identify Natural and Cultural Heritage in Volcanic Areas
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110453 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The Chinyero Special Nature Reserve is located on the NW rift zone of Tenerife, between 600 and 1500 m above sea level. This natural setting is distinguished by a significant concentration of monogenetic basaltic volcanoes that have erupted in recent and historical times, [...] Read more.
The Chinyero Special Nature Reserve is located on the NW rift zone of Tenerife, between 600 and 1500 m above sea level. This natural setting is distinguished by a significant concentration of monogenetic basaltic volcanoes that have erupted in recent and historical times, including Garachico (1706) and Chinyero (1909). The volcanic landscapes of this protected area are part of the Canary Island pine forest ecosystem and, therefore, also feature beautiful forests colonising the newly formed layers of volcanic materials. The aim of this paper is to design a geographical route through the landscape for geotourism purposes, based on a global and coherent interpretation of the original physiognomy of a landscape that has been decisively shaped by volcanic phenomena. This nature trail represents a proposal for a new tourism product as an alternative to the traditional “sun and beach” coastal tourism product. This paper comprises a first stage, dedicated to the geographical study of the landscape, and a second stage focused on designing a geotourism route, which will identify and characterise the elements of the natural and cultural heritage of the area and its unique landforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomorphology, Geoheritage, Geoparks and Geotourism in Volcanic Areas)
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Open AccessArticle
Stochastic Analysis of Tsunami Hazard of the 1945 Makran Subduction Zone Mw 8.1–8.3 Earthquakes
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110452 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Historical records of major earthquakes in the northwestern Indian Ocean along the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) indicate high potential tsunami hazards for coastal regions of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, and western India. There are fast-growing and populous cities and ports that are economically important, [...] Read more.
Historical records of major earthquakes in the northwestern Indian Ocean along the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) indicate high potential tsunami hazards for coastal regions of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, and western India. There are fast-growing and populous cities and ports that are economically important, such as Chabahar (Iran), Gwadar (Pakistan), Muscat (Oman), and Mumbai (India). In this study, we assess the tsunami hazard of the 1945 MSZ event (fatalities ≈300 people) using stochastic earthquake rupture models of Mw 8.1–8.3 by considering uncertainties related to rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity. To quantify the uncertainty of earthquake source characteristics in tsunami hazard analysis, 1000 stochastic tsunami scenarios are generated via a stochastic source modeling approach. There are main objectives of this study: (1) developing stochastic earthquake slip models for the MSZ, (2) comparing results of the simulation with the existing observations of the 1945 event, and (3) evaluating the effect of uncertain fault geometry and earthquake slip based on simulated near-shore wave profiles. The 1945 Makran earthquake is focused upon by comparing model predictions with existing observations, consisting of far-field tsunami waveforms recorded on tide gauges in Karachi and Mumbai and coseismic deformation along the Pakistani coast. The results identify the source model that matches the existing observations of the 1945 Makran event best among the stochastic sources. The length, width, mean slip, and maximum slip of the identified source model are 270 km, 130 km, 2.9 m, and 19.3 m, respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami heights along the coastline to the location of a large-slip area is highlighted. The maximum heights of the tsunami and coseismic deformation results at Ormara are in the range of 0.3–7.0 m and −2.7 to 1.1 m, respectively, for the 1000 stochastic source models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Modelling to Evaluate Sedimentation Effects on Heat Flow and Subsidence during Continental Rifting
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110451 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Sedimentation impacts thermal and subsidence evolution in continental rifting. Estimating the blanketing effect of sediments is crucial to reconstructing the heat flow during rifting. The sedimentary load affects the basin subsidence rate. Numerical investigation of these effects requires active and complex simulations of [...] Read more.
Sedimentation impacts thermal and subsidence evolution in continental rifting. Estimating the blanketing effect of sediments is crucial to reconstructing the heat flow during rifting. The sedimentary load affects the basin subsidence rate. Numerical investigation of these effects requires active and complex simulations of the thermal structure, lithospheric stretching, and sedimentation. In this paper, we introduce a numerical model to quantify these effects, which was developed using the COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation software. Our numerical setting for the analytical and numerical solutions of thermal structure and subsidence is based on previous continental rifting studies. In our model, we accumulate a column of 5 m thick sediment layers with varied stretching factors and sedimentation rates, spanning the syn-rift to early post-rift phases over a period of 12 myr. Our results provide intuitive models to understand these sedimentation effects. The models show that an increase in sedimentation thickness significantly decreases surface heat flow, leading to lower geothermal temperature, and amplifies the subsidence magnitude. The findings also demonstrate that increases in the stretching factor and sedimentation rate enhance the blanketing effect and subsidence rate. Based on these results, we discuss key outcomes for geological applications and the possible limitations of our approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications in Computational Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Methane and Dissolved Organic Matter in the Ground Ice Samples from Central Yamal: Implications to Biogeochemical Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emission
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110450 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Permafrost thawing leads to mobilization of the vast carbon pool into modern biogeochemical cycling through the enhanced release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and production of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). In this work, we focus on the study of [...] Read more.
Permafrost thawing leads to mobilization of the vast carbon pool into modern biogeochemical cycling through the enhanced release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and production of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). In this work, we focus on the study of methane and DOM distribution and genesis in the ground ice samples of thermodenudational exposure in the Central Yamal (Russian Arctic). We propose that the liberation of the ice-trapped CH4 and generation of CO2 by DOM mineralization are the earliest factors of atmospheric greenhouse gases emission as a result of permafrost thawing. The observed enormously “light ” isotope signatures of methane (δ13C < −80‰, δD < −390‰) found in the tabular ground ice units significantly divergent in morphology and localization within the exposuremay be related to subzero (cryogenic) carbonate reduction a as significant factor of the local methane enrichment. DOM is mainly formed (>88%) by biochemically refractory humic acids. Distribution of the labile protein-like DOM reflects the specific features of carbon and nitrogen cycles in the tabular ground ice and ice wedge samples. Tabular ground ice units are shown to be a significant source of methane and high quality organic matter as well as dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Ice wedges express a high variation in DOM composition and lability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions and Crater Formation in Arctic Permafrost)
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Open AccessArticle
Extensive Sills in the Continental Basement from Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110449 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 348
Abstract
Crustal seismic reflection profiling has revealed the presence of extensive, coherent reflections with anomalously high amplitudes in the crystalline crust at a number of locations around the world. In areas of active tectonic activity, these seismic “bright spots” have often been interpreted as [...] Read more.
Crustal seismic reflection profiling has revealed the presence of extensive, coherent reflections with anomalously high amplitudes in the crystalline crust at a number of locations around the world. In areas of active tectonic activity, these seismic “bright spots” have often been interpreted as fluid magma at depth. The focus in this report is high-amplitude reflections that have been identified or inferred to mark interfaces between solid mafic intrusions and felsic to intermediate country rock. These “frozen sills” most commonly appear as thin, subhorizontal sheets at middle to upper crustal depths, several of which can be traced for tens to hundreds of kilometers. Their frequency among seismic profiles suggest that they may be more common than widely realized. These intrusions constrain crustal rheology at the time of their emplacement, represent a significant mode of transfer of mantle material and heat into the crust, and some may constitute fingerprints of distant mantle plumes. These sills may have played important roles in overlying basin evolution and ore deposition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Small Mountain River Systems for Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions in Drylands—An Example from the Binaloud Mountains in Northeastern Iran
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110448 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Fluvial sediments are valuable paleoenvironmental archives of the Quaternary. Since besides environmental factors they are also affected by local tectonics or intrinsic processes, large instead of small catchments should be studied. In drylands covering ca. 45% of the global terrestrial surface large river [...] Read more.
Fluvial sediments are valuable paleoenvironmental archives of the Quaternary. Since besides environmental factors they are also affected by local tectonics or intrinsic processes, large instead of small catchments should be studied. In drylands covering ca. 45% of the global terrestrial surface large river systems are generally missing, and most river systems are small rivers originating from mountain ranges. Their sediments are potentially interesting paleoenvironmental archives, but are often affected by intensive tectonics. During this study, to obtain a robust regional paleoenvironmental signal a small river system in the southwestern Binaloud Mountains in semi-arid NE Iran was exemplarily studied with a combined approach that encompassed both alluvial fan and catchment. By using geomorphological mapping and numerical dating, fluvial aggradation followed by incision was independently identified in larger areas or in different parts of the river system ca. 95–88 ka, 40 ka, 20 ka, around/after the Pleistocene/Holocene transition and possibly ca. 2.6 ka. These could be linked with regional and over-regional paleoenvironmental data. Furthermore, large boulders on the alluvial fan suggest anthropogenic destabilisation of the catchment during the last decades. Despite strong local tectonics the fluvial dynamics was mostly controlled by paleoenvironmental changes and human activity. This indicates that despite their small size, such river systems form valuable paleoenvironmental archives in drylands where other archive types are largely missing. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
The New Seismotectonic Atlas of Greece (v1.0) and Its Implementation
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110447 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Knowledge and visualization of the present-day relationship between earthquakes, active tectonics and crustal deformation is a key to understanding geodynamic processes, and is also essential for risk mitigation and the management of geo-reservoirs for energy and waste. The study of the complexity of [...] Read more.
Knowledge and visualization of the present-day relationship between earthquakes, active tectonics and crustal deformation is a key to understanding geodynamic processes, and is also essential for risk mitigation and the management of geo-reservoirs for energy and waste. The study of the complexity of the Greek tectonics has been the subject of intense efforts of our working group, employing multidisciplinary methodologies that include detailed geological mapping, geophysical and seismological data processing using innovative methods and geodetic data processing, involved in surveying at various scales. The data and results from these studies are merged with existing or updated datasets to compose the new Seismotectonic Atlas of Greece. The main objective of the Atlas is to harmonize and integrate the most recent seismological, geological, tectonic, geophysical and geodetic data in an interactive, online GIS environment. To demonstrate the wealth of information available in the end product, herein, we present thematic layers of important seismotectonic and geophysical content, which facilitates the comprehensive visualization and first order insight into seismic and other risks of the Greek territories. The future prospect of the Atlas is the incorporation of tools and algorithms for joint analysis and appraisal of these datasets, so as to enable rapid seismotectonic analysis and scenario-based seismic risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismotectonics, Active Deformation, and Structure of the Crust)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Detailed Geophysical Mapping and Hydrogeological Characterisation of the Subsurface for Optimal Placement of Infiltration-Based Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110446 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The continuous growth of cities in combination with future climate changes present urban planners with significant challenges, as traditional urban sewer systems are typically designed for the present climate. An easy and economically feasible way to mitigate this is to introduce a Sustainable [...] Read more.
The continuous growth of cities in combination with future climate changes present urban planners with significant challenges, as traditional urban sewer systems are typically designed for the present climate. An easy and economically feasible way to mitigate this is to introduce a Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) in the urban area. However, the lack of knowledge about the geological and hydrogeological setting hampers the use of SUDS. In this study, 1315 ha of high-density electromagnetic (DUALEM-421S) data, detailed lithological soil descriptions of 614 boreholes, 153 infiltration tests and 250 in situ vane tests from 32 different sites in the Central Denmark Region were utilised to find quantitative and qualitative regional relationships between the resistivity and the lithology, the percolation rates and the undrained shear strength of cohesive soils at a depth of 1 meter below ground surface (m bgs). The qualitative tests enable a translation from resistivity to lithology as well as a translation from lithology to percolation rates with moderate to high certainty. The regional cut-off value separating sand-dominated deposits from clay-dominated deposits is found to be between 80 to 100 Ωm. The regional median percolation rates for sand and clay till is found to be 9.9 × 10−5 m/s and 2.6 × 10−5 m/s, respectively. The quantitative results derived from a simple linear regression analysis of resistivity and percolation rates and resistivity and undrained shear strength of cohesive soils are found to have a very weak relationship on a regional scale implying that in reality no meaningful relationships can be established. The regional qualitative results have been tested on a case study area. The case study illustrates that site-specific investigations are necessary when using geophysical mapping to directly estimate lithology, percolation rates and undrained shear strength of cohesive soils due to the differences in soil properties and the surrounding environment from site to site. This study further illustrates that geophysical mapping in combination with lithological descriptions, infiltration tests and groundwater levels yield the basis for the construction of detailed planning maps showing the most suitable locations for infiltration. These maps provide valuable information for city planners about which areas may preclude the establishment of infiltration-based SUDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Geophysics)
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Open AccessArticle
Geoheritage and Geotourism in Regions with Extinct Volcanism in Germany; Case Study Southwest Germany with UNESCO Global Geopark Swabian Alb
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110445 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Geotourism has become more popular in recent decades. Volcanism is an essential part of geoheritage and attracts a high number of visitors. In contrast to active volcanism, Tertiary volcanism is often not identified as such by a lay audience and is understandably perceived [...] Read more.
Geotourism has become more popular in recent decades. Volcanism is an essential part of geoheritage and attracts a high number of visitors. In contrast to active volcanism, Tertiary volcanism is often not identified as such by a lay audience and is understandably perceived as less spectacular. The challenge is therefore to protect the volcanic heritage, to communicate its values, and to enhance it with the help of adequate geotourism offers. Germany does not have active volcanism, but a very high quality volcanic geological heritage, especially from the Tertiary period. Fortunately, this heritage is being increasingly valued and presented in an attractive way for a lay audience. The two Geoparks in the Eifel (Rhineland-Palatinate) are pioneers in this field. The UNESCO Global Geopark Swabian Alb actually offers a well camouflaged potential. The Swabian volcano, with an area of 1600 km2, is one of the most important tuff vent areas on earth, but hardly known outside of expert groups. A comprehensive strategy for the geotouristic valorization of the Tertiary volcanic phenomena does not yet exist in the Geopark Swabian Alb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomorphology, Geoheritage, Geoparks and Geotourism in Volcanic Areas)
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