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Open AccessArticle

Formation and Outburst of the Toguz-Bulak Glacial Lake in the Northern Teskey Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

1
Central-Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences (CAIAG), Bishkek 720027, Kyrgyzstan
2
Program of Field Research in the Environmental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
3
Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
4
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba 305-8505, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110468
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scientific Assessment of Recent Natural Hazard Events)
In Kyrgyzstan, outburst flood disasters from glacial lakes are increasing. An example is the sudden drainage on 8 August 2019 of the Toguz-Bulak glacial lake in the Tosor river basin of the northern Tien Shan region. In this study, we used remote sensing and field surveys to examine the reasons for the outburst. We found that the lake area changed from 0.021 km² to 0.002 km2 due to the outburst, in which most of the initial 130,000 m3 of water discharged within four hours. In examining the longer-term behavior of this lake, we found that from 2010 through 2019, it appears in June and disappears in September every year. Its maximum area occurs in late July and early August. With the expansion of the lake basin between 2010 and 2019, the lake also increased greatly in size, particularly so in the three years before the outburst, linked to high summer temperatures and the resulting higher inflow of glacier meltwater, finally leading to the sudden drainage in 2019. Before this outburst, a 2-m high moraine dam retained the lake. Continuously inflowing meltwater and the related increasing pressure by the lake water mass eventually broke the moraine dam. Satellite radar interferometry revealed active displacement fringes in the lake basin and moraine dam due to the melting and subsidence of buried ice. An analysis using digital elevation models from 1964 and 2010 also confirms the surface lowering in the lake basin by up to 8.5 m and on the moraine dam by 2 m. Such lowering of the proglacial moraine complex destabilized the moraine dam. View Full-Text
Keywords: glacial lake; GLOF; lake basin; moraine-dammed lake; moraine complex; Tien Shan glacial lake; GLOF; lake basin; moraine-dammed lake; moraine complex; Tien Shan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daiyrov, M.; Narama, C.; Kääb, A.; Tadono, T. Formation and Outburst of the Toguz-Bulak Glacial Lake in the Northern Teskey Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Geosciences 2020, 10, 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110468

AMA Style

Daiyrov M, Narama C, Kääb A, Tadono T. Formation and Outburst of the Toguz-Bulak Glacial Lake in the Northern Teskey Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Geosciences. 2020; 10(11):468. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daiyrov, Mirlan; Narama, Chiyuki; Kääb, Andreas; Tadono, Takeo. 2020. "Formation and Outburst of the Toguz-Bulak Glacial Lake in the Northern Teskey Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan" Geosciences 10, no. 11: 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110468

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