Next Issue
Volume 12, January-1
Previous Issue
Volume 11, November
 
 

Animals, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 274 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Diagnostic tests are used to classify the infection status of individual animals. Developing tests for use in wildlife is extremely problematic when compared to the same process in humans or captive animals. Real-world conditions (e.g. limited access to animals, lack of controlled, experimental conditions, and small budgets) hamper our efforts to learn how to interpret results. Chronic infections such as tuberculosis further complicate this problem, as responses to diagnostic tests will vary with disease stage. Here, using meerkats (Suricata suricatta) as an exemplar species, we demonstrate an approach to studying diagnostic tests in situ. This study shows that combining methodologies to evaluate diagnostic tests in free-ranging wildlife is a useful approach in imperfect circumstances. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
10 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Intravenous Acetaminophen Does Not Provide Adequate Postoperative Analgesia in Dogs Following Ovariohysterectomy
by Jessica Leung, Thierry Beths, Jennifer E. Carter, Richard Munn, Ted Whittem and Sebastien H. Bauquier
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123609 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
(1) Objective: To investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous acetaminophen after intravenous administration in dogs presenting for ovariohysterectomy. (2) Methods: 14 ASA I client-owned female entire dogs. In this randomized, blinded, clinical study, dogs were given meperidine and acepromazine intramuscularly before induction of [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: To investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous acetaminophen after intravenous administration in dogs presenting for ovariohysterectomy. (2) Methods: 14 ASA I client-owned female entire dogs. In this randomized, blinded, clinical study, dogs were given meperidine and acepromazine intramuscularly before induction of anesthesia with intravenous propofol. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Intravenous acetaminophen 20 mg/kg or 0.9% NaCl was administered postoperatively. Pain assessments were conducted using the Glasgow Pain Scale short form before premedication and at 10, 20, 60, 120, and 180 min post-extubation or until rescue analgesia was given. The pain scores, times, and incidences of rescue analgesia between the groups was compared. Blood was collected before and 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min after acetaminophen administration. Acetaminophen plasma concentration was quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acetaminophen plasma concentration at the time of each pain score evaluation was subsequently calculated. (3) Results: There was no significant difference in pain scores at 10 min, highest pain scores, or time of rescue analgesia between groups. In each group, 3 dogs (43%) received rescue analgesia within 20 min. (4) Conclusions: Following ovariohysterectomy in dogs, there was no detectable analgesic effect of a 20 mg/kg dosage of intravenous acetaminophen administered at the end of surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Clinical Studies)
10 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Tryptophan, Kynurenine and Kynurenic Acid Concentrations in Milk and Serum of Dairy Cows with Prototheca Mastitis
by Mariola Bochniarz, Tomasz Piech, Tomasz Kocki, Mateusz Iskra, Henryk Krukowski and Tomasz Jagielski
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123608 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate serum and milk levels of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), and kynurenic acid (KYNA), as well as the activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cows with mastitis due to Prototheca algae. The study was prompted by [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate serum and milk levels of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), and kynurenic acid (KYNA), as well as the activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cows with mastitis due to Prototheca algae. The study was prompted by previous research showing a link between the KYN pathway of TRP metabolism and bovine mastitis of bacterial etiology. The study was carried out over a 2-year period (2018–2019) and included quarter milk and serum samples collected from six dairy herds in Poland. The samples were obtained from healthy cows and cows with Prototheca mastitis of either clinical and subclinical manifestation, as determined upon direct measurement of the somatic cell count or indirectly by performing a California Mastitis Test on suspected quarters. Both TRP and KYN concentrations were significantly lower in milk of mastitic cows compared to healthy animals (0.8 vs. 8.72 µM, p = 0.001; 0.07 vs. 0.32 µM, p = 0.001, respectively). The difference in TRP and KYN concentrations in the sera of the two animal groups was much less pronounced (25.55 vs. 27.57 µM, 3.03 vs. 3.56 nM, respectively). The concentration of KYNA was almost at the same level in milk (1.73 vs. 1.70 nM) and in serum (80.47 vs. 75.48 nM) of both mastitic and healthy cows. The data showed that the level of TRP and its metabolites in serum was conspicuously higher compared to milk in all cows under the study. The activity of IDO was significantly higher in milk of cows with Prototheca mastitis compared to healthy animals (71.4 vs. 40.86, p < 0.05), while in serum it was pretty much the same (135.94 vs. 124.98, p > 0.05). The IDO activity differed significantly between serum and milk both for mastitic (135.94 vs. 71.4, p < 0.05) and healthy cows (124.98 vs. 40.86, p < 0.001). In conclusion, low values of TRP and KYN concentrations or elevated IDO activity in milk samples might be used as markers of mastitis due to infectious causes, including Prototheca spp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Insights into the Milk 2.0)
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
The Efficiency of Probiotics Administrated via Different Routes and Doses in Enhancing Production Performance, Meat Quality, Gut Morphology, and Microbial Profile of Broiler Chickens
by Elham A. Soumeh, Astrid Del Rocio Coba Cedeno, Shahram Niknafs, Jacoba Bromfield and Louwrens C. Hoffman
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123607 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3787
Abstract
To study the efficiency of Bacillus spp. probiotics administered via different routes and doses, a 6-week grow-out trial was conducted using a total of 378 day-old mixed-sex ROSS308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized block design. Six experimental diets included probiotics added at [...] Read more.
To study the efficiency of Bacillus spp. probiotics administered via different routes and doses, a 6-week grow-out trial was conducted using a total of 378 day-old mixed-sex ROSS308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized block design. Six experimental diets included probiotics added at two different inclusion rates into the feed (250 g/ton; PRO250, or 500 g/ton; PRO500), or in the drinking water (25 g/L; PRO-WS), or as a feed synbiotic (250 g probiotic + 250 g/ton prebiotic; SYN), compared to a negative (NC; without additives) and positive control (PC; with antibiotics) diets. The PRO-WS enhanced feed intake (p < 0.05) and tended to improve average daily gain and final body weight (p = 0.14). Broiler gut morphology in the duodenum including the villus height (p = 0.04), villus width (p = 0.05) and crypt depth (p = 0.02) were improved by PRO500. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes. Streptococcaceae, Lachnoospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipe-lotrichaceae were the top five most abundant families. Antibiotic inclusion in PC reduced microbial beta-diversity and increased similarity compared to probiotic inclusion (p = 0.05). Probiotic inclusion reduced the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis, which is a commonly isolated pathogen and is considered as a marker for antimicrobial resistance. Overall, probiotic supplementation via feed or water may potentially improve the production performance of the broiler chickens, and water-soluble probiotics are potentially more effective. Probiotics, especially when added to water, suggest a promising feed additive to support gut microbial maturation and diversity, and may reduce resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. However, it is suggested that the best route for the administration of probiotics be further examined under commercial conditions to find the most effective and practical application method that yields the most consistent results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Poultry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2284 KiB  
Article
Rumen Development of Artificially-Reared Lambs Exposed to Three Different Rearing Regimens
by Hitihamy M. G. P. Herath, Sarah J. Pain, Paul R. Kenyon, Hugh T. Blair and Patrick C. H. Morel
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123606 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3282
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of three different rearing regimens on rumen development in lambs reared artificially. Romney ram lambs were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: commercial milk replacer fed to 57 d of age and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of three different rearing regimens on rumen development in lambs reared artificially. Romney ram lambs were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: commercial milk replacer fed to 57 d of age and high fibre concentrate pellets (HFP57); commercial milk replacer, high fibre concentrate pellets, and early weaning from milk replacer at 42 d of age (HFP42); high protein milk replacer from 2–16 d of age followed by commercial milk replacer, low fibre concentrate pellets, and early weaning from milk replacer at 42 d of age (LFP42). Lambs were slaughtered at 57 d of age. Volatile fatty acid content in rumen fluid at slaughter was analysed and rumen tissue samples were collected for histological examination. The rumen n-butyric content was greater (p < 0.05) in both LFP42 and HFP42 treatment lambs compared to HFP57 lambs. The n-valeric content was greater (p < 0.05) in LFP42 lambs compared to both HFP57 and HFP42 treatment lambs. Thickness of the rumen dorsal wall determined by ultrasound scanning at 49 d was greater (p < 0.05) in both HFP42 and LFP42 lambs compared to HFP57 lambs. There was an interaction (p < 0.05) between treatment and site of rumen tissue sampling on papillae width, density, and rumen muscular layer thickness. Collectively, early weaning and the provision of a low fibre pellet leads to improved rumen function and physical development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Interventions in Young Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
Effect of Suckling Management and Ewe Concentrate Level on Methane-Related Carbon Footprint of Lamb Meat in Sardinian Dairy Sheep Farming
by Gianni Battacone, Mondina Francesca Lunesu, Salvatore Pier Giacomo Rassu, Anna Nudda and Giuseppe Pulina
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123605 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the methane-linked carbon footprint (CF) of the suckling lamb meat of Mediterranean dairy sheep. Ninety-six Sarda dairy ewes, divided into four groups of 24 animals each, were assigned to 2 × 2 factorial design. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate the methane-linked carbon footprint (CF) of the suckling lamb meat of Mediterranean dairy sheep. Ninety-six Sarda dairy ewes, divided into four groups of 24 animals each, were assigned to 2 × 2 factorial design. The experiment included the suckling lamb feeding system: traditional (TS), in which lambs followed their mothers on pasture during grazing time, vs. separated (SS), in which lambs remained indoors, separated from their mothers during the grazing time. Each group was divided into high (HS) and low (LS) supplemented ewes (600 g/d vs. 200 g/d of concentrate). The estimated CH4 emission of the ewes, calculated per kg of body weight (BW) gain of the lamb during the suckling period, was then converted to CO2eq with multiplying factor of 25. The TS lambs showed lower methane-linked emissions than SS ones (p < 0.05). The sex of lambs affected their methane-linked CF, with males having lower (p < 0.05) values than females. Twins displayed much lower methane-linked CF than singles (4.56 vs. 7.30 kg of CO2eq per kg of BW gained), whereas the level of supplementation did not affect greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. Interaction displayed lower and not-different GHG emissions for both indoor- and outdoor-reared twins. In conclusion, the methane-linked CF of the suckling lamb meat can be reduced by maintaining the traditional lamb rearing system and by improving flock prolificacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Products from Ruminants in Extensive Production Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Lung Disease in Finishing Pigs at Slaughter: Pulmonary Lesions and Implications on Productivity Parameters
by Yania Paz-Sánchez, Pedro Herráez, Óscar Quesada-Canales, Carlos G. Poveda, Josué Díaz-Delgado, María del Pino Quintana-Montesdeoca, Elena Plamenova Stefanova and Marisa Andrada
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123604 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7273
Abstract
Swine respiratory disease is associated with productive losses. We evaluated the prevalence of lung lesions with an emphasis on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), as well as the impact on productive parameters [...] Read more.
Swine respiratory disease is associated with productive losses. We evaluated the prevalence of lung lesions with an emphasis on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), as well as the impact on productive parameters in 108 finishing pigs at slaughter. Pathologic, immunohistochemical (IHC) and serologic analyses were performed. Pneumonic processes were observed in 73.1% of the animals. They mainly consisted of cranioventral bronchopneumonia (CBP) (46.3%) and pleuritis (17.6%). Microscopically, bronchointerstitial pneumonia (67.4%) was common and was occasionally combined (27.9%) with interstitial pneumonia (IP). Mh and PCV2-antigens were detected in bronchointerstitial pneumonia (70.7%) and IP cases (33.3%). There were low titers against Mh (18%) and high titers against PRRSV (100%) and PCV2 (65%). Animals with CBP remained at the farm longer; those with >10% of lung parenchyma involvement were sent later (208.8 days old) and had a lower average carcass weight (74.1 kg) and a lower daily weight gain (500.8 gr/day) compared with animals without lesions (567.2 gr/day, 77.7 kg, 200.8 days old). We suggest that animals that do not reach the weight at slaughter should be sent to slaughter regardless to avoid further negative impacts of respiratory disease in productive parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Mushroom or Vitamin D2-Enriched Mushroom Powders on Gastrointestinal Health Parameters in the Weaned Pig
by Alison Dowley, Torres Sweeney, Eadaoin Conway, Stafford Vigors, Supriya Yadav, Jude Wilson, William Gabrielli and John V. O’Doherty
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123603 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3694
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the molecular, physiological and microbial effects of mushroom powder (MP), vitamin D2 enriched mushroom powder (MPD2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in pigs post-weaning. Pigs (four pigs/pen; 12 pens/treatment) were assigned to: (1) [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the molecular, physiological and microbial effects of mushroom powder (MP), vitamin D2 enriched mushroom powder (MPD2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in pigs post-weaning. Pigs (four pigs/pen; 12 pens/treatment) were assigned to: (1) basal diet (control), (2) basal diet + ZnO, (3) basal diet + MP (2 g/kg feed) and (4) basal diet + MPD2 (2 g/kg feed). Zinc oxide supplementation improved the feed intake (p < 0.001); increased the caecal abundance of Lactobacillus (p < 0.05); increased the villus height (p < 0.05) in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; increased the expression of chemokine interleukin 8 (CXCL8; p < 0.05); and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene interleukin 6 (IL6; p < 0.05), tumour necrosis factor (TNF; p < 0.05), nutrient transporters peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1; p < 0.05) and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2; (p < 0.05) in the duodenum. Whereas dietary supplementation with MPD2 improved the gastrointestinal morphology (p < 0.05); increased the total volatile fatty acid concentrations (p < 0.05); increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine gene interleukin 10 (IL10; p < 0.05) and nutrient transporters SLC15A1 (p < 0.05), FABP2 (p < 0.05) and vitamin D receptor (VDR; p < 0.05); and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL6 (p < 0.05), it adversely affected average daily feed intake (ADFI; p < 0.001) and average daily gain (ADG; p < 0.05). Mushroom powder supplementation had a positive impact on gastrointestinal morphology (p < 0.05) and upregulated the expression of nutrient transporters SLC15A1 (p < 0.05) and FABP2 (p < 0.05) and tight junction claudin 1 (CLDN1) (p < 0.05) compared to the controls but had no effect on the expression of inflammatory markers (p > 0.05). Furthermore, MP reduced ADFI (p < 0.01); however, this did not negatively impact the ADG (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MP and MPD2 have limited use as commercial feed additives in replacing ZnO in pig diets as feed intake was reduced post-weaning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
13 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Neonatal Proteinuria in Calves—A Quantitative Approach
by Wiesław Skrzypczak, Alicja Dratwa-Chałupnik, Małgorzata Ożgo and Karolina Boniecka
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123602 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2497
Abstract
Urine testing is a convenient, non-invasive method of obtaining information about body functions. Depending on the intended purpose, urine testing may be qualitative and/or quantitative. Urine analysis can also include proteins. There are no data in the literature on the occurrence of proteinuria [...] Read more.
Urine testing is a convenient, non-invasive method of obtaining information about body functions. Depending on the intended purpose, urine testing may be qualitative and/or quantitative. Urine analysis can also include proteins. There are no data in the literature on the occurrence of proteinuria in healthy neonatal calves. The present study was the first that aimed to quantify the hypothesis of proteinuria occurrence in these animals in the first week of life, to assess its intensity and dynamics and to understand the underlying causes of proteinuria in healthy calves. The research was carried out on 15 healthy calves in the first seven days of life. Calves were catheterized to determine minute diuresis. Total protein concentration was determined in blood plasma and urine. Urine proteins were separated by electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) and their concentration and percentage were determined by densitometry using an image archiving and analysis software. The separated proteins were divided into three groups according to molecular weight for albumin, LMW and HMW proteins. The results were standardized per 1 m2 of body surface area and statistically analyzed. Neonatal proteinuria was demonstrated in healthy calves, mainly resulting from the high concentration of LMW proteins in the urine. Their percentages decreased significantly from 84.46% on the first day of calves’ life to 64.02% on day 7. At the same time, a statistically significant increase was observed in the proportion of albumin and high molecular weight proteins in urine total protein. Albumin percentage increased from 9.54% (on day 1) to almost 20% (on day 7), while the proportion of HMW proteins increased from 6.68% to 18.13%, respectively. The concentration of total protein in the urine of newborn calves amounted to 14.64 g/L and decreased statistically significantly during the first 72 h of postnatal life, stabilizing at the level of 3–4 g/L. The mean value of total protein excretion in the first week of life was 4.81 mg/min/m2 (i.e., 6.93 g/24 h/m2). The analysis of protein concentration in the urine and its excretion, as well as changes in urinary excretion of the tested protein fractions, indicated that neonatal proteinuria in healthy neonatal calves was tubular (i.e., main reason is the reduced absorption of proteins in nephrons). In addition, research showed that there was a rapid improvement in resorptive mechanisms in tubular cells. It should be assumed that the filtration barrier in the kidneys of these animals after birth is morphologically prepared to retain high molecular weight proteins. It seems that the increased permeability of the filtration barrier in the glomeruli does not necessarily indicate the immaturity of the kidneys, but may indicate the kidneys’ adaptation to excess protein removal from the body during feeding with high-protein food (colostrum), with an open intestinal barrier enabling protein absorption from the gastrointestinal tract to the blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3302 KiB  
Communication
Administration of Dietary Microalgae Ameliorates Intestinal Parameters, Improves Body Weight, and Reduces Thawing Loss of Fillets in Broiler Chickens: A Pilot Study
by Miroslava Anna Šefcová, Francisco Santacruz, César Marcelo Larrea-Álvarez, Christian Vinueza-Burgos, David Ortega-Paredes, Gabriel Molina-Cuasapaz, Jessica Rodríguez, William Calero-Cáceres, Viera Revajová, Esteban Fernández-Moreira and Marco Larrea-Álvarez
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123601 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4323
Abstract
This pilot investigation aimed at studying the feasibility of using a low dose (0.2%) of dietary microalgae as a means of improving intestinal morphometry, body weight, and selected meat quality parameters in broilers. A total of 72 one-day-old ROSS 308 male chicks were [...] Read more.
This pilot investigation aimed at studying the feasibility of using a low dose (0.2%) of dietary microalgae as a means of improving intestinal morphometry, body weight, and selected meat quality parameters in broilers. A total of 72 one-day-old ROSS 308 male chicks were randomly separated into four groups; three experimental pens in which the birds were fed with biomass from Tysochrysis lutea, Tetraselmis chuii, and Porphyridium cruentum over 30 days and a control group. T. chuii and P. cruentum had a positive effect with regard to body weight. In treated animals, duodenal and ileal sections showed characteristic tall and thin villi, with serrated surfaces and goblet cell differentiation. In both sections, values of the villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratio were increased by microalgae ingestion. The thawing weight loss of fillets was reduced in T. chuii-fed animals. The positive effects exerted by T. chuii and P. cruentum on intestinal architecture were associated with the improved body weight. Arguably, these outcomes exhibit the potential of using these species to enhance growth performance in broiler chickens by promoting gut homeostasis and thus nutrient absorption. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2882 KiB  
Article
Chicken Immune Cell Assay to Model Adaptive Immune Responses In Vitro
by Filip Larsberg, Maximilian Sprechert, Deike Hesse, Gudrun A. Brockmann and Susanne Kreuzer-Redmer
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123600 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3645
Abstract
Knowledge about the modes of action of immunomodulating compounds such as pathogens, drugs, or feed additives, e.g., probiotics, gained through controlled but animal-related in vitro systems using primary cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) will allow the development of targeted nutrition strategies. Moreover, [...] Read more.
Knowledge about the modes of action of immunomodulating compounds such as pathogens, drugs, or feed additives, e.g., probiotics, gained through controlled but animal-related in vitro systems using primary cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) will allow the development of targeted nutrition strategies. Moreover, it could contribute to the prevention of infectious diseases and the usage of antimicrobials, and further promote the health of the animals. However, to our knowledge, a protocol for the isolation of PBMCs with reduced thrombocyte count from chicken blood and subsequent cell culture over several days to assess the effects of immunomodulating compounds is not available. Therefore, we established an optimized protocol for blood sampling and immune cell isolation, culture, and phenotyping for chicken PBMCs. For blood sampling commercial Na–citrate tubes revealed the highest count of vital cells compared to commercial Li–heparin (p < 0.01) and K3EDTA (p < 0.05) tubes. Using combined dextran and ficoll density gradient separation, the thrombocyte count was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) compared to slow-speed centrifugation with subsequent ficoll. For cell culture, the supplementation of RPMI-1640 medium with 10% chicken serum resulted in the lowest relative cell count of thrombocytes compared to fetal calf serum (FCS) (p < 0.05). To validate the ability of the cell culture system to respond to stimuli, concanavalin A (conA) was used as a positive control. The optimized protocol allows the isolation and cultivation of vital PBMCs with reduced thrombocyte count from chicken blood for subsequent investigation of the modes of action of immunomodulating compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Poultry Nutrition and Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Prediction and Experimental Verification of a Hierarchical Transcription Factor Regulatory Network of Porcine Myoglobin (Mb)
by Di Yuan, Hao Yu, Songcai Liu, Linlin Hao and Jing Zhang
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123599 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
Myoglobin is a key chemical component that determines meat’s color and affects consumers’ purchase intentions. In this work, we firstly identified the promoter sequence of the Mb gene from the primary assembly of high-throughput genome sequencing in pigs, and predicted its potential transcription [...] Read more.
Myoglobin is a key chemical component that determines meat’s color and affects consumers’ purchase intentions. In this work, we firstly identified the promoter sequence of the Mb gene from the primary assembly of high-throughput genome sequencing in pigs, and predicted its potential transcription factors by LASAGNA. Through the data mining of the mRNA expression profile of longissimus dorsi muscle of different pig breeds, we constructed a hierarchical interplay network of Mb-TFs (Myoglobin-Transcription Factors), consisting of 16 adaptive transcription factors and 23 secondary transcription factors. The verification of gene expression in longissimus dorsi muscle showed that the Mb mRNA and encoded protein were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant in Bama pigs than Yorkshire pigs. The qRT-PCR (Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) validation on genes of the Mb-TFs network showed that FOS, STAT3, STAT1, NEFL21, NFE2L2 and MAFB were significant positive regulatory core transcription factors of Mb-TFs network in Bama pigs, whereas ATF3 was the secondary transcription factor most responsible for the activation of the above transcription factors. Our study provides a new strategy to unravel the mechanism of pork color formation, based on public transcriptome and genome data analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pigs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3380 KiB  
Article
Utero-Placental Immune Milieu during Normal and Aglepristone-Induced Parturition in the Dog
by Miguel Tavares Pereira, Renata Nowaczyk, Selim Aslan, Serhan S. Ay and Mariusz P. Kowalewski
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123598 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Maternal immunotolerance is required for the maintenance of pregnancy, in sharp contrast with the uterine pro-inflammatory activity observed during parturition in several species. Correspondingly, in the dog, increased immune signaling at term has been suggested, but a deeper understanding of the uterine immune [...] Read more.
Maternal immunotolerance is required for the maintenance of pregnancy, in sharp contrast with the uterine pro-inflammatory activity observed during parturition in several species. Correspondingly, in the dog, increased immune signaling at term has been suggested, but a deeper understanding of the uterine immune milieu is still missing. Thus, the availability of 30 immune-related factors was assessed in utero-placental samples collected during post-implantation (days 18–25 of pregnancy) and mid-gestation (days 35–40) stages, and at the time of prepartum luteolysis. Gene expression and/or protein localization studies were employed. Samples collected from antigestagen (aglepristone)-treated dogs were further analyzed. Progression of pregnancy was associated with the downregulation of IL1β and upregulation of IL10 (p < 0.05) at mid-gestation. When compared with mid-gestation, a higher availability of several factors was observed at term (e.g., CD206, CD4, TLR4). However, in contrast with natural parturition, MHCII, CD25, CCR7, TNFα, IDO1 and AIF1 were upregulated after aglepristone treatment (p < 0.05), but not TNFR1 or CCL13 (p > 0.05). Altogether, these results show an increased immune activity during canine parturition, involving, i.a., M2 macrophages, Treg and Th cells, with strong support for progesterone-mediated immunomodulation. Furthermore, differences between term and induced parturition/abortion could relate to differences in placental maturation towards parturition and/or functional traits of antigestagens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology and Reproduction in Companion Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1307 KiB  
Article
Respiratory Disease Risk of Zoo-Housed Bonobos Is Associated with Sex and Betweenness Centrality in the Proximity Network
by Jonas R. R. Torfs, Marcel Eens, Daan W. Laméris and Nicky Staes
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123597 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3640
Abstract
Infectious diseases can be considered a threat to animal welfare and are commonly spread through both direct and indirect social interactions with conspecifics. This is especially true for species with complex social lives, like primates. While several studies have investigated the impact of [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases can be considered a threat to animal welfare and are commonly spread through both direct and indirect social interactions with conspecifics. This is especially true for species with complex social lives, like primates. While several studies have investigated the impact of sociality on disease risk in primates, only a handful have focused on respiratory disease, despite it being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both wild and captive populations and thus an important threat to primate welfare. Therefore, we examined the role of social-network position on the occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms during one winter season in a relatively large group of 20 zoo-housed bonobos with managed fission-fusion dynamics. We found that within the proximity network, symptoms were more likely to occur in individuals with higher betweenness centrality, which are individuals that form bridges between different parts of the network. Symptoms were also more likely to occur in males than in females, independent of their social-network position. Taken together, these results highlight a combined role of close proximity and sex in increased risk of attracting respiratory disease, two factors that can be taken into account for further welfare management of the species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Animal Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1162 KiB  
Article
Effects of Season on Donor and Recipient Cows and Calf Performance from Birth to Weaning in Embryo Transfer Programs in the Tropics
by José Francisco Martínez, Carlos Salvador Galina, Pablo Ortiz, Martín Guillermo Maquivar and Juan José Romero-Zúñiga
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123596 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effect of an embryo transfer program in the tropics on the donor response, recipient reproductive performance and calf growth from birth to weaning. This study included five-year records from 145 donors, 1149 embryo [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effect of an embryo transfer program in the tropics on the donor response, recipient reproductive performance and calf growth from birth to weaning. This study included five-year records from 145 donors, 1149 embryo transfers (ET) and 609 in calves. The effect of the season (dry or wet) was evaluated at the time of embryo flushing, embryo transfer and birth of the calves. There was a seasonal effect on the yield and quality of the embryos. The number of nonfertilized and transferable good quality embryos increased in the wet season. For the recipients, the probability of pregnancy after an ET decreased by 6% for each year of the dam’s age. However, no seasonal effect was found when comparing ET calves with their control group (natural mating—NM), nevertheless, weaning weight was associated with birth body weight, treatment, sex of the calf, season at birth, year of treatment, and dam’s age. Calves born by NM had lower average daily gain (ADG), and male calves registered higher gains than females. Likewise, calves born during the rainy season had lower ADG compared with calves born during the dry season. In conclusion, this study shows that seasonal effect is more apparent in donor and calf performance than in the recipients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Reproduction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 446 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Feasibility of Using Kinect 3D Images to Predict Light Lamb Carcasses Composition from Leg Volume
by Severiano R. Silva, Mariana Almeida, Isabella Condotta, André Arantes, Cristina Guedes and Virgínia Santos
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123595 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the leg volume obtained by the Microsoft Kinect sensor to predict the composition of light lamb carcasses. The trial was performed on carcasses of twenty-two male lambs (17.6 ± 1.8 kg, body weight). The carcasses [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the leg volume obtained by the Microsoft Kinect sensor to predict the composition of light lamb carcasses. The trial was performed on carcasses of twenty-two male lambs (17.6 ± 1.8 kg, body weight). The carcasses were split into eight cuts, divided into three groups according to their commercial value: high-value, medium value, and low-value group. Linear, area, and volume of leg measurements were obtained to predict carcass and cuts composition. The leg volume was acquired by two different methodologies: 3D image reconstruction using a Microsoft Kinect sensor and Archimedes principle. The correlation between these two leg measurements was significant (r = 0.815, p < 0.01). The models to predict cuts and carcass traits that include leg Kinect 3D sensor volume are very good in predicting the weight of the medium value and leg cuts (R2 of 0.763 and 0.829, respectively). Furthermore, the model, which includes the Kinect leg volume, explained 85% of its variation for the carcass muscle. The results of this study confirm the good ability to estimate cuts and carcass traits of light lamb carcasses with leg volume obtained with the Kinect 3D sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 789 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Streptococcus uberis on Gamma Delta T Cell Phenotype in Bovine Mammary Gland
by Petr Slama, Terezie Zavadilova, Ales Pavlik, Pavel Horky, Sylvie Skalickova, Jiri Skladanka, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Simona Baldovska, Adriana Kolesarova, Roman Konecny, Vladimir Tancin and Monika Zouharova
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123594 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2430
Abstract
In this study, we focused analyzing γδ T cells during bovine mammary gland inflammation induced by Streptococcus uberis. A mammary gland cell suspension was obtained using lavage 24, 48, 72, and 168 h after intramammary-induced infection. The proportion of lymphocytes increased during [...] Read more.
In this study, we focused analyzing γδ T cells during bovine mammary gland inflammation induced by Streptococcus uberis. A mammary gland cell suspension was obtained using lavage 24, 48, 72, and 168 h after intramammary-induced infection. The proportion of lymphocytes increased during the entire week in which inflammation was present. The γδ T cells were also elevated during inflammation, reaching their peak at 72 h following induced inflammation. The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes continually increased, with the highest proportion occurring 168 h after S. uberis infection. The results show that γδ T cells may be involved in the resolution of inflammation in bovine mammary glands, with the apoptosis of those cells potentially playing an important role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Veterinary Microbiology in Farm Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2286 KiB  
Case Report
Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Whistle Modulation during a Trawl Bycatch Event in the Adriatic Sea
by Valentina Corrias, Giovanni de Vincenzi, Maria Ceraulo, Virginia Sciacca, Antonello Sala, Giuseppe Andrea de Lucia and Francesco Filiciotto
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123593 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
Marine mammal vocal elements have been investigated for decades to assess whether they correlate with stress levels or stress indicators. Due to their acoustic plasticity, the interpretation of dolphins’ acoustic signals of has been studied most extensively. This work describes the acoustic parameters [...] Read more.
Marine mammal vocal elements have been investigated for decades to assess whether they correlate with stress levels or stress indicators. Due to their acoustic plasticity, the interpretation of dolphins’ acoustic signals of has been studied most extensively. This work describes the acoustic parameters detected in whistle spectral contours, collected using passive acoustic monitoring (PAM), in a bycatch event that involved three Bottlenose dolphins during midwater commercial trawling. The results indicate a total number of 23 upsweep whistles recorded during the bycatch event, that were analyzed based on the acoustic parameters as follows: (Median; 25th percentile; 75th percentile) Dr (second), total duration (1.09; 0.88; 1.24); fmin (HZ), minimum frequency (5836.4; 5635.3; 5967.1); fmax (HZ), maximum frequency, (11,610 ± 11,293; 11,810); fc (HZ), central frequency; (8665.2; 8492.9; 8982.8); BW (HZ), bandwidth (5836.4; 5635.3; 5967.1); Step, number of step (5; 4; 6). Furthermore, our data show that vocal production during the capture event was characterized by an undescribed to date combination of two signals, an ascending whistle (upsweep), and a pulsed signal that we called “low-frequency signal” in the frequency band between 4.5 and 7 kHz. This capture event reveals a novel aspect of T. truncatus acoustic communication, it confirms their acoustic plasticity, and suggests that states of discomfort are conveyed through their acoustic repertoire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Human-Wildlife Conflict and Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1877 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Known Long Non-Coding RNAs during the Maternal-to-Zygotic Transition in Rabbit
by Yu Shi, Mingcheng Cai, Kun Du, Xue Bai, Lipeng Tang, Xianbo Jia, Shiyi Chen, Jie Wang and Songjia Lai
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123592 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
The control of pre-implantation development in mammals undergoes a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) after fertilization. The transition involves maternal clearance and zygotic genome activation remodeling the terminal differentiated gamete to confer totipotency. In the study, we first determined the profile of long non-coding RNAs [...] Read more.
The control of pre-implantation development in mammals undergoes a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) after fertilization. The transition involves maternal clearance and zygotic genome activation remodeling the terminal differentiated gamete to confer totipotency. In the study, we first determined the profile of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of mature rabbit oocyte, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, and morula embryos using RNA-seq. A total of 2673 known rabbit lncRNAs were identified. The lncRNAs exhibited dynamic expression patterns during pre-implantation development. Moreover, 107 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE lncRNAs) were detected between mature oocyte and 2-cell embryo, while 419 DE lncRNAs were detected between 8-cell embryo and morula, consistent with the occurrence of minor and major zygotic genome activation (ZGA) wave of rabbit pre-implanted embryo. This study then predicted the potential target genes of DE lncRNAs based on the trans-regulation mechanism of lncRNAs. The GO and KEGG analyses showed that lncRNAs with stage-specific expression patterns promoted embryo cleavage and synchronic development by regulating gene transcription and translation, intracellular metabolism and organelle organization, and intercellular signaling transduction. The correlation analysis between mRNAs and lncRNAs identified that lncRNAs ENSOCUG00000034943 and ENSOCUG00000036338 may play a vital role in the late-period pre-implantation development by regulating ILF2 gene. This study also found that the sequential degradation of maternal lncRNAs occurred through maternal and zygotic pathways. Furthermore, the function analysis of the late-degraded lncRNAs suggested that these lncRNAs may play a role in the mRNA degradation in embryos via mRNA surveillance pathway. Therefore, this work provides a global view of known lncRNAs in rabbit pre-implantation development and highlights the role of lncRNAs in embryogenesis regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 723 KiB  
Article
Do Live Weight, Body Condition Score, Back Muscle or Back-Fat Reserves Create the Suspicion of Goats Infected with Eimeria or Trichostrongylids?
by Martin Ptáček, Iveta Angela Kyriánová, Jana Nápravníková, Jaromír Ducháček, Tomáš Husák, Alfonso J. Chay-Canul, Claudia Zaragoza-Vera, Luis Cruz-Bacab and Jaroslav Vadlejch
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123591 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Thirty goats of the breeds Czech Brown Shorthaired and Czech White Shorthaired and their crosses were randomly selected from a flock at a farm in the Czech Republic. All animals were monitored for one year at monthly intervals for their nutritional status (live [...] Read more.
Thirty goats of the breeds Czech Brown Shorthaired and Czech White Shorthaired and their crosses were randomly selected from a flock at a farm in the Czech Republic. All animals were monitored for one year at monthly intervals for their nutritional status (live weight, LW; body-condition score, BCS; depth of musculus longissimus thoracis et lumborum, MLTL; back-fat thickness, BT) and infection intensity with Eimeria sp. (EIM) and strongylid nematodes (STR). Regression–correlation analysis showed a possible interrelation of BCS with EIM infection. Analysis of muscle and fat reserves indicated that BT was better than MLTL in identifying EIM infection. Goat nutritional status was not significantly correlated with STR infection. A linear tendency (p = 0.092), however, was detected for the response of MLTL to STR infection. Results of this study indicated theoretical use of BCS for Eimeria identification and suggested some perspective of BCS for targeting animals infected by strongylid nematode. Validity of our results, however, was limited by number of observed animals managed under specific breeding conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 469 KiB  
Article
Carcass and Pork Quality and Gut Environment of Pigs Fed a Diet Supplemented with the Bokashi Probiotic
by Artur Rybarczyk, Elżbieta Bogusławska-Wąs and Bogumiła Pilarczyk
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123590 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2946
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotics on gut microbiota, on carcass and meat quality and on mineral contents in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle in pigs. The research was carried out with 120 hybrid pigs deriving from [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotics on gut microbiota, on carcass and meat quality and on mineral contents in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle in pigs. The research was carried out with 120 hybrid pigs deriving from Naïma sows and P-76 boars. Pigs from the experimental group received the EM®Bokashi probiotic (Greendland Technologia EM®, Janowiec n/Wisłą, Poland) in their feed (containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum). The study showed that EM®Bokashi probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly higher count of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in the feed, a lower number of Clostridium in the mucosa and colorectal digesta as well as a lower Enterobacteriaceae count in the colorectal digesta. The research showed that carcasses of the pigs who received the EM®Bokashi probiotic had a higher lean percentage and lower fat content than the carcasses of the control fatteners. Diet supplementation with the EM®Bokashi probiotic resulted in a lower pH and technological yield (TY) and a higher drip loss and shear force at a lower protein content in LL muscle. Moreover, the administration of the probiotic to fatteners resulted in higher yellowness (b*) and saturation (C*) and higher concentrations of Na, Mg and Se in meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Farming and Breeding)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Oral Cavity of Cats with Chronic Gingivostomatitis
by Wayne Tsang, Annika Linde, Janina A. Krumbeck, Guangxi Wu, Young J. Kim, Gerald H. Lushington and Tonatiuh Melgarejo
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123589 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a severe immune-mediated inflammatory disease with concurrent oral dysbiosis (bacterial and fungal). Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used empirically in FCGS. Still, neither the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria nor potential patterns of co-occurrence between AMR genes and fungi have [...] Read more.
Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a severe immune-mediated inflammatory disease with concurrent oral dysbiosis (bacterial and fungal). Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used empirically in FCGS. Still, neither the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria nor potential patterns of co-occurrence between AMR genes and fungi have been documented in FCGS. This study explored the differential occurrence of AMR genes and the co-occurrence of AMR genes with oral fungal species. Briefly, 14 clinically healthy (CH) cats and 14 cats with FCGS were included. Using a sterile swab, oral tissue surfaces were sampled and submitted for 16S rRNA and ITS-2 next-generation DNA sequencing. Microbial DNA was analyzed using a proprietary curated database targeting AMR genes found in bacterial pathogens. The co-occurrence of AMR genes and fungi was tested using point biserial correlation. A total of 21 and 23 different AMR genes were detected in CH and FCGS cats, respectively. A comparison of AMR-gene frequencies between groups revealed statistically significant differences in the occurrence of genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (ant4Ib), beta-lactam (mecA), and macrolides (mphD and mphC). Two AMR genes (mecA and mphD) showed statistically significant co-occurrence with Malassezia restricta. In conclusion, resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics, such as beta-lactams and macrolides, is a significant cause for concern in the context of both feline and human medicine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Resveratrol Supplementation on Growth Performance and Anti-Inflammatory Ability in Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) through the Nrf2/HO-1 and TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathways
by Hao Yang, Yingjie Wang, Mengru Liu, Xiao Liu, Yihan Jiao, Sanjun Jin, Anshan Shan and Xingjun Feng
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123588 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of dietary resveratrol on the growth performance and anti-inflammatory mechanism in ducks. A total of 280 one-day-old specific pathogen-free male ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) with an average body weight of 35 ± [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of dietary resveratrol on the growth performance and anti-inflammatory mechanism in ducks. A total of 280 one-day-old specific pathogen-free male ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) with an average body weight of 35 ± 1 g were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups with different supplementation levels of resveratrol for growth performance experiments: R0 and R400 (0 and, 400 mg kg−1 resveratrol, respectively). At the age of 28 days, 16 ducks were selected from each treatment group and divided into four subgroups for a 2 × 2 factorial pathological experiment: R0; R400; R0 + LPS; R400 + LPS, (0 mg kg−1 resveratrol, 400 mg kg−1 resveratrol, 0 mg kg−1 resveratrol, 400 mg kg−1 resveratrol + 5 mg lipopolysaccharide/kg body weight). The results showed that resveratrol significantly improved final body weight and average daily gain (p < 0.01) and alleviated the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response with a reduction in IL-1β and IL-6 in the plasma and the liver (p < 0.05). Resveratrol improved mRNA levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreased the mRNA levels of TLR4 and NF-κB in duck liver (p < 0.05). Dietary resveratrol can improve growth performance and reduce inflammation through the Nrf2/HO-1 and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways in duck. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Animal Nutrition: Biological Effects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 3601 KiB  
Review
Determining Immunoglobulin Content of Bovine Colostrum and Factors Affecting the Outcome: A Review
by Johanna Ahmann, Julia Steinhoff-Wagner and Wolfgang Büscher
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123587 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4642
Abstract
The immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum should be measured to ensure feeding with sufficient immunoglobulins (≥50 mg immunoglobulin G mL−1). Adequate feeding prevents diseases, promotes development, and has a positive influence on the adult animal. Indirect and direct measurement methods are [...] Read more.
The immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum should be measured to ensure feeding with sufficient immunoglobulins (≥50 mg immunoglobulin G mL−1). Adequate feeding prevents diseases, promotes development, and has a positive influence on the adult animal. Indirect and direct measurement methods are available for this purpose. Direct measurement methods cannot be easily used in practice; therefore, farmers use indirect methods such as a colostrometer and a refractometer. Many factors influence the immunoglobulin concentration of colostrum; some of them have already been intensively researched. In particular, lactation and temporal aspects play an essential role. Newer aspects such as dry period, seasonal influences, and genetics are gaining importance, but their impact on immunoglobulin content has not been sufficiently investigated. Developments are still needed, especially in data management. This review analyzes the outcome of different studies on the indirect and direct measurement methods and discusses different factors influencing the immunoglobulin concentration of bovine colostrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Colostrum and Transition Milk)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on the Revenue of the Livestock Industry: A Case Study of China
by Jianxiong Chen and Chung-Cheng Yang
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123586 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected social order and people’s health and has also caused a heavy blow to the livestock industry, affecting animal management and welfare. The livestock industry is one of the main contributors to economic growth in many regions, and it [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected social order and people’s health and has also caused a heavy blow to the livestock industry, affecting animal management and welfare. The livestock industry is one of the main contributors to economic growth in many regions, and it is of great significance to people’s lives and regional economic growth. COVID-19 has reduced the livestock industry’s market as well as consumers’ opportunities to purchase livestock products, resulting in no sales or low sales of livestock or their products. The main purpose of this study is to consider the impact of the pandemic on the revenue of the livestock industry, and to study the challenges arising from the pandemic to the livestock industry. Based on the perspective of financial statements, we estimate the impact of COVID-19 through the translog revenue function of listed Chinese livestock companies from 2015 to 2020, and the study results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the revenue of the livestock industry, but the decline in revenue of large livestock enterprises is lower than that of small and medium-sized livestock enterprises. In the last two parts of this study, we make policy recommendations to livestock enterprises and the authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Impact of COVID-19 on Animal Management and Welfare)
14 pages, 3924 KiB  
Article
Browse from Three Tree Legumes Increases Forage Production for Cattle in a Silvopastoral System in the Southwest Amazon
by Lucy Dablin, Simon L. Lewis, William Milliken, Alexandre Monro and Mark A. Lee
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123585 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4074
Abstract
Assessing the palatability of forage from locally adapted trees could improve the sustainability of livestock production systems. However, grasses continue to dominate livestock feed across the Amazon. We established a silvopastoral cattle farming system in Peru, comparing three different forage tree species with [...] Read more.
Assessing the palatability of forage from locally adapted trees could improve the sustainability of livestock production systems. However, grasses continue to dominate livestock feed across the Amazon. We established a silvopastoral cattle farming system in Peru, comparing three different forage tree species with grass monocultures using a randomised block design. Trees were arranged in alleys of 0.5 × 7.5 m, planted alongside grass, and were directly browsed by cattle. Browse removal was estimated by three methods: destructive sampling, canopy measurements and leaf counts. We found that all three tree species were palatable to cattle. Plots containing trees and grass produced more available forage (mean > 2.2 Mg ha−1) for cattle than the grass monocultures (mean = 1.5 Mg ha−1). Destructive sampling below 1.6 m demonstrated that cattle consumed 99% of the available Erythrina berteroana forage, 75% of the available Inga edulis forage and 80% of the available Leucaena leucocephala forage in 8 days. This research demonstrates methodologies to estimate the intake of locally adapted browse species by cattle and highlights the potential benefits of silvopastoral systems in the Amazon. Planting trees could also benefit animal health and provide ecosystem services such as soil regeneration, enhanced nutrient cycling and carbon capture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6417 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Ruminal Microbial Community Associated with Fat Deposition in Lambs
by Yukun Zhang, Xiaoxue Zhang, Fadi Li, Chong Li, Deyin Zhang, Xiaolong Li, Yuan Zhao and Weimin Wang
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123584 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
Microbial communities of the sheep rumen have been studied extensively; however, their involvement in the regulation of fat deposition is unknown. Herein, we aimed to identify the correlations among fat deposition-related phenotypes and the effect of microbiota on changes in body fat accumulation. [...] Read more.
Microbial communities of the sheep rumen have been studied extensively; however, their involvement in the regulation of fat deposition is unknown. Herein, we aimed to identify the correlations among fat deposition-related phenotypes and the effect of microbiota on changes in body fat accumulation. The rumen microbiota of 141 lambs was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and the volatile fatty acids’ (VFAs’) concentrations were quantified by gas chromatography. Subsequently, the animals were grouped according to body mass index (BMI) to compare the microbiota of the rumen among the sheep with different fat deposition levels. Results further revealed differences in terms of the species abundance, diversity, and microbial composition between sheep with different fat deposition levels. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis and Random Forest (RF) regression analysis identified changes in 29 ruminal bacteria, which may be the main driver for different fat deposition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 572 KiB  
Communication
Three Studies Evaluating the Potential for Lidocaine, Bupivacaine or Procaine to Reduce Pain-Related Behaviors following Ring Castration and/or Tail Docking in Lambs
by Alison Small, Manon Fetiveau, Robin Smith and Ian Colditz
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123583 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3773
Abstract
The use of local anesthesia at the time of ring castration and tail docking can improve lamb welfare. However, few local anesthetics are registered for sheep, and data on their duration of effect is limited. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy [...] Read more.
The use of local anesthesia at the time of ring castration and tail docking can improve lamb welfare. However, few local anesthetics are registered for sheep, and data on their duration of effect is limited. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of procaine (P), lidocaine (L), and bupivacaine (B) in terms of observed alleviation of behavioral responses to castration and/or tail docking in 10-min blocks in the first 60 min post-treatment. In each study, comparisons were made between two groups of lambs castrated and/or tail docked with rubber rings and either receiving the agent using the NUMNUTS® instrument (N) or receiving no anesthetic agent (RR). Acute pain behavior was lower in NL (n = 28) than RRL (n = 15) males in the first 10 min post-procedure (p < 0.05); lower in NB (n = 16) than RRB (n = 16) males in periods 10–20 min (0.05 < p < 0.01), 20–30 min (p < 0.05) and 40–50 min (0.05 < p < 0.01); lower in NB (n = 16) than RRB (n = 16) females between 20 and 40 min post-procedure (0.05 < p < 0.01); lower in NP (n = 8) than RRP (n = 7) males in period 10–20 min (0.05 < p < 0.01), and lower in NP (n = 9) than RRP (n = 9) females in periods 0–10 min (0.05 < p < 0.01), and 10–40 min (p < 0.05). Benefits were modest, and the effects of procaine appear to last longer than lidocaine, while bupivacaine is slower to take effect than either procaine or lidocaine but may provide longer-lasting pain relief. The duration of action of local anesthetics is short in sheep, and detailed behavioral evaluations are required in the first hour post-procedure to establish efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain Mitigation for Farmed Livestock)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4694 KiB  
Article
Molecular Cloning of Dynein Heavy Chain and the Effect of Dynein Inhibition on the Testicular Function of Portunus trituberculatus
by Qiumeng Xiang, Chaoguang Wei, Xinming Gao, Yiner Chen, Daojun Tang, Junquan Zhu and Congcong Hou
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123582 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Dynein is a motor protein with multiple transport functions. However, dynein’s role in crustacean testis is still unknown. We cloned the full-length cDNA of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (Pt-dhc) gene and its structure was analyzed. Its expression level was highest in [...] Read more.
Dynein is a motor protein with multiple transport functions. However, dynein’s role in crustacean testis is still unknown. We cloned the full-length cDNA of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (Pt-dhc) gene and its structure was analyzed. Its expression level was highest in testis. We injected the dynein inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (SOV) into the crab. The distribution of Portunus trituberculatus dynein heavy chain (Pt-DHC) in mature sperm was detected by immunofluorescence. The apoptosis of spermatids was detected using a TUNEL kit; gene expression in testis was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of immune-related factors in the testis were detected by an enzyme activity kit. The results showed that the distribution of Pt-DHC was abnormal after SOV injection, indicating that the function of dynein was successfully inhibited. Apoptosis-related genes p53 and caspase-3, and antioxidant stress genes HSP70 and NOS were significantly decreased, and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 was significantly increased. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) were significantly decreased. The results showed that there was no apoptosis in testicular cells after dynein function was inhibited, but the cell function was disordered. This study laid a theoretical foundation for the further study of apoptosis in testis and the function of dynein in testis and breeding of P. trituberculatus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Impact of Gait and Diameter during Circular Exercise on Front Hoof Area, Vertical Force, and Pressure in Mature Horses
by Alyssa A. Logan, Brian D. Nielsen, Cara I. Robison, David B. Hallock, Jane M. Manfredi, Kristina M. Hiney, Daniel D. Buskirk and John M. Popovich, Jr.
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123581 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6646
Abstract
Circular exercise can be used at varying gaits and diameters to exercise horses, with repeated use anecdotally relating to increased lameness. This work sought to characterize mean area, mean vertical force, and mean pressure of the front hooves while exercising in a straight [...] Read more.
Circular exercise can be used at varying gaits and diameters to exercise horses, with repeated use anecdotally relating to increased lameness. This work sought to characterize mean area, mean vertical force, and mean pressure of the front hooves while exercising in a straight line at the walk and trot, and small (10-m diameter) and large circles (15-m diameter) at the walk, trot, and canter. Nine mature horses wore TekscanTM Hoof Sensors on their forelimbs adhered with a glue-on shoe. Statistical analysis was performed in SAS 9.4 with fixed effects of leg, gait, and exercise type (PROC GLIMMIX) and p < 0.05 as significant. For all exercise types, the walk had greater mean pressure than the trot (p < 0.01). At the walk, the straight line had greater mean area loaded than the large circle (p = 0.01), and both circle sizes had lower mean vertical force than the straight line (p = 0.003). During circular exercise at the canter, the outside front limb had greater mean area loaded than at the walk and trot (p = 0.001). This study found that gait is an important factor when evaluating circular exercise and should be considered when exercising horses to prevent injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Equids)
12 pages, 3637 KiB  
Communication
Very Small Home Ranges of Two Gravid European Brown Bears during Hyperphagia
by Laura Schulte, Daniele De Angelis, Natarsha Babic and Slaven Reljić
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123580 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
In September 2019, two gravid female brown bears (Ursus arctos) were captured and equipped with GPS/GSM collars in Paklenica National Park (Croatia). Home ranges during hyperphagia were analyzed to describe the spatiotemporal requirements. Mean seasonal home ranges were very small with [...] Read more.
In September 2019, two gravid female brown bears (Ursus arctos) were captured and equipped with GPS/GSM collars in Paklenica National Park (Croatia). Home ranges during hyperphagia were analyzed to describe the spatiotemporal requirements. Mean seasonal home ranges were very small with 9.2 km2 and 7.5 km2 (Brownian Bridge Movement Model 95%). During the tracking period, both bears used different territories and showed little to no use of overlapping area. The bears in our study spent a considerable time in proximity of artificial feeding sites, indicating a probable use of these structures as a food resource (mean 15.7% and 30.7%). Furthermore, the bears approached very close to human structures such as 8.9 m and 4.4 m. As most encounters between humans and bears occur during hyperphagia, it is important to offer refugia from human disturbance, especially as the National Park is not only used by residents, but also by tourists. To adapt management according to the animal’s needs, further studies should include more individuals from different age and sex classes. Both females were gravid. It remains unclear whether gravidity has an effect on the home range and should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecology and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop