Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Yimin Cai
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Japan
Prof. Dr. Zaenal Bachruddin
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Jianguo Zhang
College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China

Development of Agricultural and Food By-Product Resources and Animal Production to Achieve Food Sustainability

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 January 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (20 March 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Livestock products such as meat and milk are the main sources of animal protein and can play an important role in improving human life. In order to develop sustainable food production technologies, the effective use of agriculture by-products and food residues can not only meet the nutritional needs of animals, but also contribute to the production of high-quality livestock products. Therefore, efficient livestock product production technology can not only reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of ruminants and promote the revitalization of local animal husbandry, but also provide a good supply of milk and meat and improve the living standards of local people. This multidisciplinary topic mainly publishes papers related to the effective use of by-product resources of agriculture and food industry to achieve sustainable animal product production technology development and application.

Prof. Dr. Yimin Cai
Prof. Dr. Zaenal Bachruddin
Prof. Dr. Jianguo Zhang
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • agricultural by-product
  • animal product
  • animal protein
  • food residue
  • food sustainability
  • meat quality
  • metabolite
  • microbiota
  • milk production
  • nutritional value

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Foods
foods
5.561 4.1 2012 15.1 Days 2200 CHF
Microorganisms
microorganisms
4.926 4.1 2013 15.3 Days 2200 CHF
Animals
animals
3.231 2.7 2011 19.7 Days 1800 CHF
Agriculture
agriculture
3.408 3.1 2011 19.8 Days 1800 CHF

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Published Papers (34 papers)

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Article
Dietary Crude Fiber Levels for Optimal Productivity of Male Ross 308 Broiler and Venda Chickens Aged 1 to 42 Days
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101333 - 23 May 2022
Abstract
The study determined the effects of dietary crude fiber (CF) levels on the production performance of male Ross 308 broiler and indigenous Venda chickens. There were 360 male Ross 308 broiler and male Venda chickens aged 1–21 for Phase 1 and 196 chickens [...] Read more.
The study determined the effects of dietary crude fiber (CF) levels on the production performance of male Ross 308 broiler and indigenous Venda chickens. There were 360 male Ross 308 broiler and male Venda chickens aged 1–21 for Phase 1 and 196 chickens aged 22–42 days for Phase 2. Chickens were allocated four diets with different levels of CF (3, 4, 5, and 7%) in a completely randomized design. Quadratic regression analyses were used to determine the dietary CF levels for the optimal production responses. In Phase 1, the feed intake, growth, live weight, nitrogen retention, and metabilizable energy (ME) intake of the Ross 308 broiler chickens were improved at dietary CF levels of 3.9, 4.5, 4.5, 3.2, and 3.7%, respectively. In the Venda chickens, feed intake, growth, live weight, nitrogen retention, and ME intake were optimized at 4.4, 4.8, 4.7, 4.1, and 3.3% CF, respectively. In Phase 2, the feed intake, nitrogen retention, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) were enhanced at CF levels of 6.4, 4.4, and 3.7% in the Ross 308 broiler chickens, respectively. Dietary CF levels of 4.5, 5.8, 5.7, 5.1, 3.9, and 4.4% optimized the feed intake, growth rate, live weight, nitrogen retention, NDF, and ADFD, respectively, in Venda chickens. It was concluded that the indigenous Venda chickens coped better with higher dietary CF than the Ross 308 broiler chickens. Full article
Article
Supplementation with Fermented Feedstuff Enhances Orexin Expression and Secretion Associated with Increased Feed Intake and Weight Gain in Weaned Pigs
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101329 - 23 May 2022
Abstract
The health status of weaned pigs is crucial for their subsequent growth performance. Supplementation with fermented feedstuff is able to improve the feed intake and growth of weaned pigs; however, the exact mechanism behind this is not clear. Hence, in the present study [...] Read more.
The health status of weaned pigs is crucial for their subsequent growth performance. Supplementation with fermented feedstuff is able to improve the feed intake and growth of weaned pigs; however, the exact mechanism behind this is not clear. Hence, in the present study a total of 320 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire weaned pigs were selected and allocated to the following two groups: unfermented diet group (UFD) and fermented diet group (FD). The experimental period lasted 21 days. At the end of the experiment, feces, blood, and gastrointestinal tissue samples (including the stomach, jejunum, and ileum) were collected and used for further analysis. The results of growth performance suggested that the FD group had significantly increased (p < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) during the first week, during the last two weeks, and over the entire three-week period compared with the UFD group. The results of the apparent nutrient digestibility of pigs showed that, compared with the UFD group, the FD group showed increased phosphorus (p < 0.05) and CP (p < 0.1) digestibility. There were no significant differences in the serum biochemical parameters between the UFD and FD groups. Moreover, our results showed that the FD group showed significantly increased gene expression of SGLT1 and PepT1 in the jejunum (p < 0.05). Compared with the UFD group, the FD group showed an increased (p < 0.05) serum orexin level and prepro-orexin (PPOX) expression in the gastric fundus, jejunum, and ileum mucosa and increased IGF-1 and IGFR expression in the jejunum. Collectively, these results indicated that supplementation with fermented feedstuff in the diet effectively enhanced the feed intake and growth of weaned pigs and that this may have been caused by the increased orexin, IGF-1, and IGFR serum levels. Full article
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Article
Effect of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes Supplementation or Functional Feed Additives on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Chemically Pre-Treated Sunflower Heads
Agriculture 2022, 12(5), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12050696 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aims to provide possible utilization of sunflower head byproduct (SFH) as a feedstuff by implementing chemical pretreatments (4% sodium hydroxide (SFHNaOH) or 4% urea (SFHurea) and supplementation with either exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) or functional feed additive [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide possible utilization of sunflower head byproduct (SFH) as a feedstuff by implementing chemical pretreatments (4% sodium hydroxide (SFHNaOH) or 4% urea (SFHurea) and supplementation with either exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) or functional feed additive (FFA). The experimental EFE was a complex (1:1, v/v) of two enzyme products with high activity of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase and endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase and applied at 0 (SFHout), 1, 2, 5, and 10 µL/ gdry matter, while FFA was a fermentation byproduct rich in cellulase and xylanase activities, applied at 0 (SFHout), 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/g DM. SFHurea had the highest (p < 0.05) crude protein (CP) content compared to other SFH substrates. Linear enhancements (p < 0.05) in kinetics of gas production (GP), metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations were observed for all SFH substrates supplemented with EFE. The SFHout had the highest (p < 0.05) potential GP, maximum rate (Rmax) of GP, ME, OMD and SCFAs. Supplementation of EFE was more pronounced than FFA in affecting the kinetic parameters of in vitro GP for all SFH substrates. SFHout supplemented with EFE seems to be the most promising substrate to enhance microbial fermentation in vitro. Full article
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Article
Effects of Lactobionic Acid on Pig Growth Performance and Chemical Composition of Pork
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091138 - 28 Apr 2022
Abstract
Lactobionic acid is an innovative product obtained in the fermentation process of cheese or curd whey, and it has several beneficial properties. Therefore, it may have potential application in animal feeding. Currently, lactobionic acid is not widely used yet in feeding farm animals. [...] Read more.
Lactobionic acid is an innovative product obtained in the fermentation process of cheese or curd whey, and it has several beneficial properties. Therefore, it may have potential application in animal feeding. Currently, lactobionic acid is not widely used yet in feeding farm animals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of lactobionic acid (LBA) on pig growth performance and pork quality. Two groups of pigs (control and trial, 26 piglets each) were completed. The control group received compound feed, whereas the trial group’s feed was supplemented with LBA (0.17 kg per 100 kg of feed). Carcass weight and meat pH were determined. The subcutaneous fat layer S (mm) was measured. Lean meat content was determined using the SEUROP classification. Amino acids and fatty acids in pork were evaluated. The addition of LBA to pig feed significantly increased the live weight gain and slaughter yield of pigs, but the samples had a slightly thicker backfat layer. Results obtained showed higher concentration of amino acids in the trial group but slightly lower pork fat quality in the same group. Lactobionic acid has the potential for applications in pig feeding. Full article
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Article
Effects of Solid-State Fermented Wheat Bran on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Intestinal Morphology and Microflora in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Broiler Chickens
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091100 - 24 Apr 2022
Abstract
The study evaluated the effects of dry and wet solid-state fermented wheat bran (FWB) on growth performance, immune function, intestinal morphology and microflora in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broiler chickens. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. A total of 252 [...] Read more.
The study evaluated the effects of dry and wet solid-state fermented wheat bran (FWB) on growth performance, immune function, intestinal morphology and microflora in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broiler chickens. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. A total of 252 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatments: basal diet + sterile saline (negative control, NC), basal diet + LPS (positive control, PC), 7% dry FWB + sterile saline (FWB-I), 7% dry FWB + LPS (FWB-II), 7% wet FWB + sterile saline (FWB-III) and 7% wet FWB + LPS (FWB-IV), with containing 6 replicate cages/treatment and 7 broiler chickens/cage, and the experimental period lasted for 42 days. Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.5 mg LPS or sterile saline solution per kg body weight at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. Growth performance, serum immunological parameters and indicators related to intestinal health were analyzed on days 21 and 42. Compared with NC, dry and wet FWB significantly increased (p < 0.05) average daily feed intake of days 21 to 42, and increased (p < 0.05) the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio of ileum on day 21, decreased (p = 0.101) the jejunum crypt depth and decreased (p < 0.05) the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts of the cecum digesta on day 42. Compared with NC, FWB-II and FWB-IV significantly increased (p < 0.05) the levels of serum total protein and globulin on day 21; compared with the basal diet groups, dry and wet FWB groups significantly increased (p < 0.05) glucose levels on day 21, and wet FWB significantly decreased (p < 0.05) alanine aminotransferase levels on day 42. Compared with PC and FWB-II, FWB-IV significantly increased (p < 0.05) the level of serum immunoglobulin G on day 21. Compared with PC and FWB-II, FWB-IV significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β and acute C reactive protein (CRP) on day 21; compared with FWB-III, FWB-IV significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the levels of IL-6, IL-8, CRP and tumor necrosis factor alpha on day 42, but the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly increased (p < 0.05) on days 21 and 42. These results indicated that supplementing 7% dry or wet FWB can improve growth performance and serum immune functions of broilers, which effectively alleviate the LPS-challenged damage, and wet FWB had a better effect than dry FWB. Full article
Commentary
A Brief Update on the Challenges and Prospects for Goat Production in Mexico
Animals 2022, 12(7), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12070837 - 25 Mar 2022
Abstract
In Mexico, information on goat production is scarce and documenting goat production challenges and future perspectives could be of great value, not only for Latin America, but also for international players—including those from farms, industry, and academia. Therefore, the objective of this review [...] Read more.
In Mexico, information on goat production is scarce and documenting goat production challenges and future perspectives could be of great value, not only for Latin America, but also for international players—including those from farms, industry, and academia. Therefore, the objective of this review is to provide current knowledge on goat production systems in Mexico and discuss current challenges and future perspectives for this animal production sector. In Mexico, more than 70% of goats are produced under extensive production systems in arid and semi-arid areas and roughly 25% are produced in intensive or semi-intensive systems. Main breeds are French Alpine, Saanen, Toggenburg, LaMancha, Nubian, Boer, and their crosses. The main challenges are correlated at different levels, where economic, social, and environmental issues are mixed and are closely associated with goat health and welfare. Newly available farming technologies could be an option that should be explored. Mexican goat farming systems will need to look at the animal, social, and environmental factors to promote sustainable production systems. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Selected Bacteria and Yeast for Probiotic Potential in Poultry Production
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040676 - 22 Mar 2022
Abstract
Performance and efficiency of feed utilization in poultry is highly influenced by gut health, which is dependent on intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements or viable microorganisms that beneficially affect the host animal by improving its gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbial [...] Read more.
Performance and efficiency of feed utilization in poultry is highly influenced by gut health, which is dependent on intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements or viable microorganisms that beneficially affect the host animal by improving its gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbial balance. However, their mode of action and suitable GIT environment favoring their colonization of the GIT is obscure. The probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, and Saccharomyces boulardii were evaluated. These microbes were tested in vitro against gastrointestinal conditions for survivability and their ability to attach to the intestinal mucosa. The ability of the microbes to tolerate and survive varying pH levels and bile concentrations was assessed. The microbes were challenged with a pH of 2 to 7 for 5 h and bile concentrations of 1 to 3% for 6 hrs. The microbes were sampled hourly to evaluate growth or decline in colony-forming units (CFU). B. longum, L. Plantarum, and S. boulardii exhibited significantly higher CFU (p < 0.05) at a pH range of 5 to 7, 4 to 7, and 2 to 7, respectively, when compared with other pH levels. L. plantarum had much higher colony-forming units per mL within each pH level, except at pH 2 where S. boulardii was the only microbe to survive over time. While L. plantarum and S. boulardii were able to tolerate the various bile concentrations, B. longum and L. plantarum showed remarkable ability to attach to the intestinal mucosa and to inhibit pathogenic microbes. Full article
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Article
Dynamics Changes of Microorganisms Community and Fermentation Quality in Soybean Meal Prepared with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Artemisia argyi through Fermentation and Aerobic Exposure Processes
Foods 2022, 11(6), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060795 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum ZA3, Artemisia argyi and their combination, on the fermentation characteristics, microbial community, mycotoxins and crude flavonoids content of fermented soybean meal during fermentation (under anaerobic conditions) and aerobic exposure (under aerobic conditions). The [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum ZA3, Artemisia argyi and their combination, on the fermentation characteristics, microbial community, mycotoxins and crude flavonoids content of fermented soybean meal during fermentation (under anaerobic conditions) and aerobic exposure (under aerobic conditions). The results showed that ZA3, Artemisia argyi and ZA3+ Artemisia argyi groups had lower pH values and higher lactic acid concentrations compared with controls, and additives increased the abundance of Lactiplantibacillus and decreased those of Acetobacter and Enterobacter; in particular, Artemisia argyi and ZA3+ Artemisia argyi reduced the abundance of fungi, such as Aspergillus, Pichia, Fusarium, Cladosporium and Xeromyces. Meanwhile, the contents of mycotoxins were lower in treated groups, and even mycotoxins in the control were significantly reduced after 30 d (p < 0.05). Crude flavonoids that were correlated positively with Lactococcus and negatively with Bacillus, Aspergillus, Enterobacter and Kazachstania were significantly higher in the Artemisia argyi and ZA3+ Artemisia argyi groups (p < 0.05). Full article
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Article
Total Lipids, Fatty Acid Composition, Total Cholesterol and Lipid-Soluble Antioxidant Vitamins in the longissimus lumborum Muscle of Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Different Production Systems of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon
Animals 2022, 12(5), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050595 - 27 Feb 2022
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of distinct production systems and seasonal variation in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon on the meat lipid composition of water buffaloes. Water buffaloes were reared in commercial farms in the Eastern Amazon either in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of distinct production systems and seasonal variation in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon on the meat lipid composition of water buffaloes. Water buffaloes were reared in commercial farms in the Eastern Amazon either in extensive systems (Marajó Island, Nova Timboteua and Santarém locations), during rainy or dry seasons, or intensive (feedlot) systems. Animals reared in extensive systems were fed natural pastures, and those reared in feedlots were fed sorghum silage and commercial pellets. Buffaloes were slaughtered and ribeye muscle (longissimus lumborum) samples collected. Lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids were analyzed. The nutritional value of meat from buffaloes reared in Marajó Island extensive system during the rainy season was higher than that of other systems, as it had lower levels of cholesterol and higher amounts of α-tocopherol associated with higher hypocholesterolaemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio and lower index of atherogenic. Also, this meat had lower percentages of saturated fatty acids and higher proportions of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA, with increased PUFA/saturated fatty acids ratio and decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. However, all extensive systems produced meat with a relatively low index of thrombogenicity values, which is advantageous for human health. Full article
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Article
Effects of Silage-Based Diets and Cattle Efficiency Type on Performance, Profitability, and Predicted CH4 Emission of Backgrounding Steers
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020277 - 15 Feb 2022
Abstract
Feed costs are the largest expense in commercial beef production. Increasing cattle (Bos taurus) feed efficiency should reduce feed costs and increase beef profitability. This study used data from two years of a backgrounding trial conducted in Lacombe, Alberta, Canada. The [...] Read more.
Feed costs are the largest expense in commercial beef production. Increasing cattle (Bos taurus) feed efficiency should reduce feed costs and increase beef profitability. This study used data from two years of a backgrounding trial conducted in Lacombe, Alberta, Canada. The evaluation looked at economic and predicted CH4 emission impacts of diet quality and cattle efficiency type in backgrounding systems. The hypothesis was that diet quality from use of barley (Hordeum vulgare c.v. Canmore) or triticale (xTriticosecale c.v. Bunker) silage-based diets and cattle efficiency type defined by residual feed intake would interact to affect profitability and CH4 emissions. Effects of diet and cattle efficiency type on profitability and CO2e emissions were assessed using statistical and stochastic risk simulation. The profitability of beef backgrounding was affected by cattle efficiency type and diet quality with higher quality barley silage also lowering CO2e emissions. The difference in certainty equivalent (CAD~30 steer−1) of efficient steers on barley silage and inefficient steers on barley silage or efficient or inefficient steers on triticale silage supports a beef backgrounding producer focus on diet quality and cattle efficiency type. This study did not address potential agronomic differences, including yield, which could provide nuance to forage choice. Full article
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Article
Particle Size Distribution of Organic Complete Diets for Laying Hens during Feed Offering
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020272 - 15 Feb 2022
Abstract
Complete diets for laying hens are usually offered in meal form. This form initially promotes the laying hens’ natural feed intake behavior and allows them to satisfy their pecking behavior. At the same time, it can also cause difficulties, because it consists of [...] Read more.
Complete diets for laying hens are usually offered in meal form. This form initially promotes the laying hens’ natural feed intake behavior and allows them to satisfy their pecking behavior. At the same time, it can also cause difficulties, because it consists of different particles and is not a homogeneous unit. A homogeneous mixture is essential to ensure that each laying hen in the flock can meet its nutritional needs. If feed exhibits a wide particle size distribution, this can promote feed segregation during transport and selective feed intake behavior of laying hens. These two processes sometimes lead to significant differences between the composition of the feed produced and the composition of the feed that is finally ingested by the laying hens. Multi-stage sampling can be used to investigate progressing differences in feed composition. In this study, samples of different complete diets for laying hens (n = 76) were collected from ten organic farms in Germany to examine their particle size distributions (dry sieve analysis). Samples were taken at four different locations (V1 = loading, V2 = silo, V3 = at the beginning of the feed chain, V4 = at the end of the feed chain) in each farm. There was a tendency for V1 and V2 to be characterized by high proportions of particles between 1400 and 3150 µm (V1 = 61.2%, V2 = 43.5%). V3 and V4 consisted mainly of particles of size 500–800 µm and 200–400 µm, respectively. The lowest proportions across all variants were in the range above 3150 µm (V1 = 2.20%, V2 = 1.30%, V3 = 1.00%, V4 = 0.400%) and between 400 and 500 µm (V1 = 2.50%, V2 = 4.50%, V3 = 5.70%, V4 = 6.60%). The mean value comparison of the proportions of sieve mesh sizes from 200 to 1000 µm resulted in: V1 < V2 < V3 < V4; and of sieve mesh sizes between 1400 and 2000 µm in: V1 > V2 > V3 > V4. This observation can be explained by segregation of the feed during transport and a selective feeding behavior of the laying hens. However, trends were discontinuous and varied between the farms. Deviations from the guideline values were found in particular for particle sizes in the range of 1000 to 1400 µm. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Ingestive Behavior, Ruminal and Blood Parameters, Performance, and Thermography as a Phenotypic Divergence Markers of Residual Feed Intake in Rearing Dairy Heifers
Animals 2022, 12(3), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030331 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify and rank phenotypically divergent animals for residual feed intake (RFI) regarding their efficiency (high: HE or low: LE); (2) to evaluate their relationships with ingestive behavior, ruminal and blood parameters, performance, and infrared thermography; [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify and rank phenotypically divergent animals for residual feed intake (RFI) regarding their efficiency (high: HE or low: LE); (2) to evaluate their relationships with ingestive behavior, ruminal and blood parameters, performance, and infrared thermography; and (3) to determine if such measurements can be used as feed efficiency markers in rearing dairy heifers. Thirty-eight heifers, 143 d ± 4 (Mean ± SD) of age and 108.7 kg ± 17.9 of body weight were used. The animals were fed with a total mixed ration during the 91 d of the trial. A phenotypic divergence of DMI for RFI was observed between −0.358 and 0.337 kg/d for HE and LE, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was lower in the HE (2.5 kg DMI/d vs. 3.1 kg DMI/d), as was the number of visits to the feed bin with consumption (59 vs. 71). Feed intake was the best predictor of said divergence. Water intake and number of visits to the feed bin were presented moderate correlations with RFI. The ruminal fermentation variables, blood metabolites, blood hormones (such as the other ingestive behavior variables), and infrared thermography were not able to accurately predict HE or LE animals. Full article
Article
Influences of Dietary Supplementation with Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Performance, Parameters of Growth Curve and Carcass Characteristics in Japanese Quail
Animals 2022, 12(3), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030318 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Maca plant contains rich nutrients and in addition, it has various bioactive substances (N-benzyl-palmitamide, benzyl isothiocyanate, glucosinolates and phenolics). It is used to improve reproductive properties and has antioxidant effects for both humans and animals. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Maca plant contains rich nutrients and in addition, it has various bioactive substances (N-benzyl-palmitamide, benzyl isothiocyanate, glucosinolates and phenolics). It is used to improve reproductive properties and has antioxidant effects for both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adding maca plant powder to the ration at different levels on growth, slaughter carcass, partial egg production and some reproductive characteristics in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The experimental groups were formed by adding 0% (control), 0.05% and 0.1% maca powder to the diet, and a total of 300 birds were used. Growth (weekly body weights, parameters of Gompertz growth function), feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of quails in the 42-day fattening trial were determined. Reproductive characteristics were measured up to 22 weeks of age. Addition of maca powder to the diet increased the feed consumption (p < 0.05) but did not affect body weights at 35 and 42 days of age, β0 and β1 parameters or point of inflection weight of the Gompertz model, carcass traits, partial egg production or fertility. It may be advisable to add 0.1% maca powder to the diets of breeders. Besides, maca powder reduced embryonic deaths and improved chick quality (both p < 0.05). It is thought that different results for reproductive traits can be obtained if maca powder is used for a longer period in the diets of breeder quail flocks. Full article
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Article
Biochemical Properties of Black and Green Teas and Their Insoluble Residues as Natural Dietary Additives to Optimize In Vitro Rumen Degradability and Fermentation but Reduce Methane in Sheep
Animals 2022, 12(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030305 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Black (BTL) or green (GTL) tea and their spent tea (STL) leaves can be used as natural dietary additives for ruminants. Experiment 1 used a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates (n = 4) to test the effects [...] Read more.
Black (BTL) or green (GTL) tea and their spent tea (STL) leaves can be used as natural dietary additives for ruminants. Experiment 1 used a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates (n = 4) to test the effects of three different inclusions of tea leaves at 0 (control), 50, and 100 g/kg DM of two different tea types (BTL and GTL) in two different total mixed diets containing either ryegrass hay (RH) or rice straw (RS) on in vitro rumen organic matter degradability (IVOMD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH, ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) outputs over a 24 h incubation time. Experiment 2 followed a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with eight replicates (n = 8) to study the impacts of three different STL inclusions at 0, 100, and 200 g/kg DM of two different STL types (black and green) into two different total mixed diets containing either RH or RS on the same in vitro measurements. Both types of tea leaves decreased NH3 (p < 0.001) and CH4 (p < 0.01) without affecting (p > 0.05) rumen degradability, but the effect of their STL was less remarkable. Tea leaves and their STL inclusions improved (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) the acetate to propionate (A:P) ratio. Compared with BTL, GTL containing diets had higher IVOMD (p < 0.05) and A:P ratio (p < 0.05) but lower NH3 (p < 0.001). Reduced rumen NH3 and CH4 outputs can be useful for protein and energy use efficiency while an increased A:P ratio might lead to increased milk fat synthesis and reduced low-fat milk syndrome. The surplus or wasted tea leaf products could be used as sustainable sources of nutrients to optimize rumen function and minimize environmental impacts of feeding ruminant animals. Full article
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Review
Review: Research Progress of Dairy Sheep Milk Genes
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020169 - 25 Jan 2022
Abstract
The dairy sheep industry is an important but lacking part of the small ruminant industry. For a sheep breeding program, in addition to wool and meat use, sheep milk can also be processed into high-end dairy products such as cheese and milk powder [...] Read more.
The dairy sheep industry is an important but lacking part of the small ruminant industry. For a sheep breeding program, in addition to wool and meat use, sheep milk can also be processed into high-end dairy products such as cheese and milk powder and bring high economic interests for businesses home and abroad. With increasing interest in sheep milk, the content of which is becoming increasingly clearer, people have found that the nutritional value of sheep milk is higher than that of goat milk and cow milk, with abundant fat yield, protein percentage, and mineral contents, which provide a good opportunity for the development of the sheep milk industry. This review will introduce some dairy sheep breeds with the highest milk production worldwide and compare sheep milk nutrition contents with other ruminants’ milk. Moreover, genes influencing lactation or mammary gland growth like CSN2, SLC2A2, SCD, and SOCS2, which have been revealed in recent studies to significantly affect milk production and milk composition traits will be discussed. For the SLC2A2 gene, working as an important solute carrier to transport small molecular nutrition from blood to milk and SOCS2 gene mutation as an indicator of mastitis, in addition, other genes have been detected that correlate with milk traits, which will be introduced in the review. Some personal opinions into future sheep milk development will be given in the final part of the text. Although the research of sheep milk genetic factors has achieved some progress in recent years, there is still a long way to go. Full article
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Article
Mineral and Botanical Composition of Honey Produced in Chile’s Central-Southern Region
Foods 2022, 11(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030251 - 18 Jan 2022
Abstract
The chemical composition and quality of honey depend on the floral and geographical origin, extraction techniques, and storage, resulting in a unique product for each area. Currently, consumers are not only concerned about the chemical composition, quality, and food safety of honey, but [...] Read more.
The chemical composition and quality of honey depend on the floral and geographical origin, extraction techniques, and storage, resulting in a unique product for each area. Currently, consumers are not only concerned about the chemical composition, quality, and food safety of honey, but also about its origin. The objective of this study was to characterize honeys produced in Chile’s central-southern region from a mineral and botanical perspective, thus adding value through differentiation by origin. Two hundred honey samples were used and underwent analysis such as melissopalynological composition, nutritional composition, and color. Forty-seven melliferous floral species were identified, out of which 24 correspond to exotic species and 23 to native species. Fifty-six percent were classified as monofloral honeys, 2% as bifloral, and 42% as multifloral. Moisture mean values (17.88%), diastase activity (15.53 DN), hydroxymethylfurfural (2.58 mg/kg), protein (0.35%), and ash (0.25%) comply with the ranges established by both the national and the international legislation; standing out as honeys of great nutritional value, fresh, harvested under optimal maturity conditions, and absence fermentation. Regarding color, light amber was prevalent in most territories. The territory where honey was produced, denoted relevant differences in all the parameters studied. Full article
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Article
Effects of Dietary Incorporation of Grape Stalks Untreated and Fungi-Treated in Growing Rabbits: A Preliminary Study
Animals 2022, 12(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12010112 - 04 Jan 2022
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of untreated grape stalks (UGS) and fungi-treated grape stalks (Lentinula edodes, TGS) in rabbits’ diets. The control group was fed with a control diet without grape stalks [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of untreated grape stalks (UGS) and fungi-treated grape stalks (Lentinula edodes, TGS) in rabbits’ diets. The control group was fed with a control diet without grape stalks (C), two experimental groups were fed on diets with 5% and 10% incorporation of UGS (5UGS and 10UGS), and two with 5% and 10% incorporation of TGS (5TGS and 10TGS). Rabbits fed with TGS diets showed higher daily weight gain (p = 0.034), feed conversion rate (p = 0.002), carcass weight (p = 0.038), and reference carcass weight (p = 0.03) when compared to the control diet. Moreover, animals fed with TGS diets showed an increase in the caecum (p = 0.015) and small intestine (p = 0.021) lengths and in the total volatile fatty acid content (p = 0.005) compared to animals fed UGS diets. Blood triglyceride levels were lower in animals fed with TGS diets compared to UGS (p = 0.005) and C (p ≤ 0.001) diets (12% and 19% lower, respectively), and a trend to lower cholesterol levels was observed (p = 0.071). Meat from rabbits fed with TGS diets had higher levels of linoleic acid, γ-linolenic, ∑ω-6, ∑PUFA, and ∑PUFA/∑SFA ratio compared to rabbits fed with the C diet. Results indicated that grape stalks (UGS and TGS) could be effectively used as an alternative raw material in rabbits’ diets without compromising animal performance. Full article
Article
The Effect of Yeast and Roughage Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal pH and Protozoal Population in Thai Native Beef Cattle
Animals 2022, 12(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12010053 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) adding and roughage-to-concentrate ratio (R:C ratio) on nutrients utilization, rumen fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis, and protozoal population in Thai native beef cattle. Four Thai native beef [...] Read more.
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) adding and roughage-to-concentrate ratio (R:C ratio) on nutrients utilization, rumen fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis, and protozoal population in Thai native beef cattle. Four Thai native beef cattle, weighing an average of 120 ± 10 kg live weight, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was the level of roughage-to-concentrate ratio (R:C ratio) at 60:40 and 40:60; factor B was the levels of live yeast (LY) supplementation at 0 and 4 g/hd/d; urea–calcium-hydroxide-treated rice straw were used as a roughage source. Findings revealed that total intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) were increased (p < 0.05) by both factors, being greater for steers fed a R:C ratio of 40:60 supplemented with 4 g LY/hd/d. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen, total volatile fatty acid (VFA), and propionate (C3) were increased (p < 0.05) at the R:C ratio of 40:60 with LY supplementation at 4 g/hd/d, whereas rumen acetate (C2) and the C2 to C3 ratio were decreased (p < 0.05). With a high level of concentrate, LY addition increased total bacterial direct counts and fungal zoospores (p < 0.05), but decreased protozoal populations (p < 0.05). High-concentrate diet and LY supplementation increased nitrogen absorption and the efficiency of microbial nitrogen protein production. In conclusion, feeding beef cattle with 4 g/hd/d LY at a R:C ratio of 40:60 increased C3 and nutritional digestibility while lowering protozoal population. Full article
Article
Characterization and Biological Activity of a Novel Exopolysaccharide Produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus SSC–12 from Silage
Microorganisms 2022, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10010018 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, 22 strains of exopolysaccharides-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from silage, and the strain SSC–12 with the highest exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was used as the test strain. The SSC–12 was identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, based upon 16S rDNA gene [...] Read more.
In this study, 22 strains of exopolysaccharides-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from silage, and the strain SSC–12 with the highest exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was used as the test strain. The SSC–12 was identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, based upon 16S rDNA gene sequencing and Neighbor Joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of the kinetic results of EPS generation of SSC–12 showed that the EPS generation reached the maximum value at 20 h of culture. The characterization study showed the EPS produced by SSC–12 was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide comprising glucose (42.6%), mannose (28.9%), galactose (16.2%), arabinose (9.4%), and rhamnose (2.9%). The EPS had good antioxidant activity, especially the activity of scavenging hydroxyl free radicals. At the same time, the EPS also had strong antibacterial ability and could completely inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The EPS produced by the Pediococcus pentosaceus SSC–12 can be used as a biologically active product with potential application prospects in the feed, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Rearing Conditions on Carcass Traits, Meat Quality and the Compositions of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid of LTL in Heigai Pigs
Animals 2022, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12010014 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study evaluates the influence of captivity and grazing rearing conditions on the carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of Heigai pigs. Ten Heigai pigs with market weight were randomly selected from both the indoor feeding farm and outdoor grazing [...] Read more.
The present study evaluates the influence of captivity and grazing rearing conditions on the carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of Heigai pigs. Ten Heigai pigs with market weight were randomly selected from both the indoor feeding farm and outdoor grazing farm groups (FF and GF; five pigs per group) for measuring production performance. The results showed that the shear force of longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) in the GF group tended to increase (p = 0.06), and triglyceride and cholesterol contents in LTL and psoas major muscle (PMM) of the GF group significantly increased and decreased, respectively (p < 0.05). The proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the GF group. Meanwhile, the ratios of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and the content of flavor amino acid of the LTL in the GF group were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The GF upregulated the expression of MyHC-IIb and lipogenic genes, such as GLUT4 and LPL (p < 0.05), in LTL and PMM, but downregulated the expression of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, PPARγ and leptin (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested that the different rearing conditions can alter the meat qualities by mediating the muscle fiber type and lipid metabolism of Heigai pigs. Full article
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Article
Exploring the Ruminal Microbial Community Associated with Fat Deposition in Lambs
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123584 - 17 Dec 2021
Abstract
Microbial communities of the sheep rumen have been studied extensively; however, their involvement in the regulation of fat deposition is unknown. Herein, we aimed to identify the correlations among fat deposition-related phenotypes and the effect of microbiota on changes in body fat accumulation. [...] Read more.
Microbial communities of the sheep rumen have been studied extensively; however, their involvement in the regulation of fat deposition is unknown. Herein, we aimed to identify the correlations among fat deposition-related phenotypes and the effect of microbiota on changes in body fat accumulation. The rumen microbiota of 141 lambs was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and the volatile fatty acids’ (VFAs’) concentrations were quantified by gas chromatography. Subsequently, the animals were grouped according to body mass index (BMI) to compare the microbiota of the rumen among the sheep with different fat deposition levels. Results further revealed differences in terms of the species abundance, diversity, and microbial composition between sheep with different fat deposition levels. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis and Random Forest (RF) regression analysis identified changes in 29 ruminal bacteria, which may be the main driver for different fat deposition. Full article
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Article
Effects of Lactic Acid Bacterial Inoculants on Fermentation Quality, Bacterial Community, and Mycotoxins of Alfalfa Silage under Vacuum or Nonvacuum Treatment
Microorganisms 2021, 9(12), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122614 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
To investigate the effects of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) inoculants and vacuuming on the fermentation quality and bacterial community, alfalfas were ensiled with or without a commercial LAB YX or Lactobacillus plantarum strain ZZUA493 for 10, 30, 60, and 90 days while undergoing [...] Read more.
To investigate the effects of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) inoculants and vacuuming on the fermentation quality and bacterial community, alfalfas were ensiled with or without a commercial LAB YX or Lactobacillus plantarum strain ZZUA493 for 10, 30, 60, and 90 days while undergoing either vacuum (V) or nonvacuum (NV) treatment. At 90 days, analysis of the microbial community by high-throughput sequencing was performed, and contents of aflatoxin B1 and deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxins in alfalfa silage were determined. In all inoculated alfalfa silage, irrespective of V or NV treatment, lactic acid (LA) content increased, pH (p < 0.05), and ammonia nitrogen (p < 0.05) content decreased, and no butyric acid was detected. Lactobacillus or Pediococcus became the dominant genus, and the abundance of Garciella decreased in alfalfa silage with the addition of either inoculant. The LAB inoculants YX and ZZUA493 helped reduce the mycotoxin content in alfalfa silage. The abundance of Garciella in the control and DON content in all alfalfa silage groups were higher (p < 0.05) in NV than V. In summary, LAB inoculants and vacuuming had a positive influence on alfalfa silage quality, and LAB inoculants were effective in reducing mycotoxins in silage alfalfa. Full article
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Article
Effects of Microencapsulated Methionine on Milk Production and Manure Nitrogen Excretions of Lactating Dairy Cows
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123545 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The study objective was to determine the effects of rumen-protected methionine (Met) by microencapsulation (RPM) on amino acid (AA) supply to the udder, milk production, and manure nitrogen (N) losses of dairy cows. A corn and soybean-based diet deficient in metabolizable Met (~10 [...] Read more.
The study objective was to determine the effects of rumen-protected methionine (Met) by microencapsulation (RPM) on amino acid (AA) supply to the udder, milk production, and manure nitrogen (N) losses of dairy cows. A corn and soybean-based diet deficient in metabolizable Met (~10 g/d) was supplemented with RPM providing 0, 11.0, 19.3, and 27.5 g/d of Met. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, plasma essential AA (EAA), mammary plasma flow (MPF), and fecal (FN) and urinary N (UN) outputs (g/d) were determined. The RPM increased linearly milk yield, milk protein yield, and energy corrected milk yield (p < 0.040) without affecting DMI. Milk protein yield increased by 50 g/d for the 19.3 vs. 0 g/d dose (p = 0.006) but the rate of increment decreased for 27.5 g/d dose. Plasma Met, and MPF increased linearly with RPM dose (p < 0.050). Apparent total tract digestibility of crude protein (p = 0.020) and FN (p = 0.081) decreased linearly with RPM. The UN did not change but total manure N decreased linearly with RPM (p = 0.054). The RPM (19.3 g/d) seemed to help cows overcome the metabolizable Met deficiency while mitigating manure N excretions to the environment. Full article
Article
The Effects of Non-Fiber Carbohydrate Content and Forage Type on Rumen Microbiome of Dairy Cows
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123519 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The main objective of our current study was evaluating the effects of NFC supplementation and forage type on rumen microbiota and metabolism, by comparing microbial structures and composition among samples collected from cows fed AH (alfalfa-based diet), H-NFC (CS-based diet with high NFC) [...] Read more.
The main objective of our current study was evaluating the effects of NFC supplementation and forage type on rumen microbiota and metabolism, by comparing microbial structures and composition among samples collected from cows fed AH (alfalfa-based diet), H-NFC (CS-based diet with high NFC) and L-NFC (CS-based diet with low NFC) diets. Our results show that microbial communities were structurally different but functionally similar among groups. When compared with L-HFC, NFC increased the population of Treponema, Ruminobacter, Selenomonas and Succinimonas that were negatively correlated with ruminal NH3-N, and urea nitrogen in blood, milk and urine, as well as significantly increasing the number of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. However, when compared to the AH group, H-NFC showed a higher abundance of bacteria relating to starch degradation and lactate production, but a lower abundance of bacteria utilizing pectin and other soluble fibers. This may lead to a slower proliferation of lignocellulose bacteria, such as Ruminococcus, Marvinbryantia and Syntrophococcus. Lower fibrolytic capacity in the rumen may reduce rumen rotation rate and may limit dry matter intake and milk yield in cows fed H-NFC. The enzyme activity assays further confirmed that cellulase and xylanase activity in AH were significantly higher than H-NFC. In addition, the lower cobalt content in Gramineae plants compared to legumes, might have led to the significantly down-regulated microbial genes involved in vitamin B12 biosynthesis in H-NFC compared to AH. A lower dietary supply with vitamin B12 may restrict the synthesis of milk lactose, one of the key factors influencing milk yield. In conclusion, supplementation of a CS-based diet with additional NFC was beneficial for nitrogen conversion by increasing the activity of amino acid biosynthesis in rumen microbiota in dairy cattle. However, lower levels of fibrolytic capacity may limit dry matter intake of cows fed H-NFC and may prevent increased milk yield. Full article
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Article
Effects of Additives on Silage Fermentation Characteristic and In Vitro Digestibility of Perennial Oat at Different Maturity Stages on the Qinghai Tibetan
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112403 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
To effectively use local grass resources to cover the winter feed shortage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of perennial oat (Helictotrichonvirescens Henr.) were investigated. Perennial oat was harvested at the heading/flowering stage, wilted under sunny [...] Read more.
To effectively use local grass resources to cover the winter feed shortage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of perennial oat (Helictotrichonvirescens Henr.) were investigated. Perennial oat was harvested at the heading/flowering stage, wilted under sunny conditions, chopped, vacuumed in small bag silos, and stored at ambient temperatures (5–15 °C) for 60 days. The silages were treated without (CK) or with local lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant (IN1), commercial LAB inoculant (IN2), and sodium benzoate (BL). Control silages of perennial oat at early heading stage showed higher (p < 0.05) lactate and acetate contents and lower (p < 0.05) final pH, butyrate, and ammonia-N contents than those at the flowering stage. High levels of dry matter recovery (DMR) and crude protein (CP) were observed in IN1- and BL-treated silages, with high in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility. Compared to CK, additives increased (p < 0.05) aerobic stability by inhibiting yeasts, aerobic bacteria, and coliform bacteria during ensiling. In particular, the local LAB inoculant increased (p < 0.05) concentrations of lactate, acetate and propionate, and decreased concentrations of butyrate and ammonia-N in silages. This study confirmed that local LAB inoculant could improve the silage quality of perennial oat, and this could be a potential winter feed for animals such as yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. Full article
Article
The Effects of Feeding a Whole-in-Shell Peanut-Containing Diet on Layer Performance and the Quality and Chemistry of Eggs Produced
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111176 - 22 Nov 2021
Abstract
The abundance of peanut and poultry production within the state of North Carolina and the US Southeast, led us to conduct a layer feeding trial to determine the utilization of whole-in-shell high-oleic peanuts (WPN) and/or unblanched high-oleic peanuts (HOPN) as an alternative feed [...] Read more.
The abundance of peanut and poultry production within the state of North Carolina and the US Southeast, led us to conduct a layer feeding trial to determine the utilization of whole-in-shell high-oleic peanuts (WPN) and/or unblanched high-oleic peanuts (HOPN) as an alternative feed ingredient for poultry. To meet this objective, we randomly assigned 576 shaver hens to 4 dietary treatments (4 rep/trt). The dietary treatments consisted of a conventional control diet (C1), a diet containing 4% WPN, an 8% HOPN diet, and a control diet containing soy protein isolate (C2). Feed and water were provided for 6 weeks ad libitum. Pen body weights (BW) were recorded at week 0 and week 6 (wk6), and feed weights were recorded bi-weekly. Shell eggs were collected daily and enumerated. Bi-weekly 120 eggs/treatment were collected for quality assessment and egg weight (EW), while 16 eggs/treatment were collected for chemical analysis. There were no significant differences in BW or EW at week 6. Hens fed the C2 produced more total dozen eggs relative to C1 hens over the feeding trial (p < 0.05). Hens fed the C1 diet consumed less total feed relative to the other treatments with the best feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05). Most eggs produced from each treatment were USDA grade A, large eggs. There were no differences in egg quality, with the exception of yolk color, with significantly higher yolk color scores in eggs produced from the C1 and C2 treatments relative to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Eggs produced from the HOPN treatment had significantly reduced stearic and linoleic fatty acid levels relative to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Eggs produced from hens fed the WPN diet had significantly greater β-carotene content relative to eggs from the other treatment groups (p < 0.05). In summary, this study suggests that WPN and/or HOPN may be a suitable alternative layer feed ingredient and a dietary means to enrich the eggs produced while not adversely affecting hen performance. Full article
Article
Effects of Supplementation with a Quebracho Tannin Product as an Alternative to Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Diarrhea, and Overall Health in Early-Weaned Piglets
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113316 - 19 Nov 2021
Abstract
This study assessed the feasibility of using a vegetable extract, MGM-P (quebracho tannin product), as an alternative to antibiotics for weaned piglets; it investigated MGM-P effects on growth performance, diarrhea, and overall health in early-weaned piglets. In total, 24 piglets were allocated to [...] Read more.
This study assessed the feasibility of using a vegetable extract, MGM-P (quebracho tannin product), as an alternative to antibiotics for weaned piglets; it investigated MGM-P effects on growth performance, diarrhea, and overall health in early-weaned piglets. In total, 24 piglets were allocated to three treatment groups fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.2%, or 0.3% MGM-P for 20 days. The addition of 0.3% MGM-P to the diet of early-weaned piglets improved diarrhea incidence, hematological parameters, and intestinal mucosa structure. Furthermore, the addition of 0.2% or 0.3% MGM-P to the diet of early-weaned piglets did not affect their overall health. Importantly, MGM-P had no effects on average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Gut morphology analysis showed that treatment with 0.3% MGM-P enhanced the jejunal villus height (p < 0.05) while reducing the ileal crypt depth (p < 0.05) and colon mucosal thickness (p < 0.05). Collectively, the findings suggested that the use of MGM-P as an alternative to dietary antibiotics could improve diarrhea incidence in early-weaned piglets without negative effects on growth performance or overall health. Full article
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Article
Structural and Emulsifying Properties of Soybean Protein Isolate–Sodium Alginate Conjugates under High Hydrostatic Pressure
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112829 - 17 Nov 2021
Abstract
Soybean protein isolate (SPI) is a kind of plant derived protein with high nutritional value, but it is underutilized due to its structural limitations and poor functionalities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on SPI and [...] Read more.
Soybean protein isolate (SPI) is a kind of plant derived protein with high nutritional value, but it is underutilized due to its structural limitations and poor functionalities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on SPI and sodium alginate (SA) conjugates prepared through the Maillard reaction. The physicochemical properties of the conjugate synthesized under 200 MPa at 60 °C for 24 h (SPI–SA–200) were compared with those of the conjugate synthesized under atmospheric pressure (SPI–SA–0.1), SPI-SA mixture, and SPI. The HHP (200 MPa) significantly hindered the Maillard reaction. This effect was confirmed by performing SDS-PAGE. The alterations in the secondary structures, such as α-helices, were analyzed using circular dichroism spectroscopy and the fluorescence intensity was determined. Emulsifying activity and stability indices of SPI-SA-200 increased by 33.56% and 31.96% respectively in comparison with the SPI–SA–0.1 conjugate. Furthermore, reduced particle sizes (356.18 nm), enhanced zeta potential (‒40.95 mV), and homogeneous droplet sizes were observed for the SPI-SA-200 emulsion. The present study details a practical method to prepare desirable emulsifiers for food processing by controlling the Maillard reaction and improving the functionality of SPI. Full article
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Article
Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, and Volatile Compounds of Lamb Meat from Different Restricted Grazing Time and Indoor Supplementary Feeding Systems
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112822 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits, meat quality, and volatile compounds of growing lambs under different restricted grazing time and indoor supplementary feeding systems. Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (with similar body weight) were divided into five groups randomly according [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits, meat quality, and volatile compounds of growing lambs under different restricted grazing time and indoor supplementary feeding systems. Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (with similar body weight) were divided into five groups randomly according to grazing time 12 h/d (G12), 8 h/d(G8), 4 h/d(G4), 2 h/d (G2), and 0 h (G0, indoor supplementary feeding). Animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment, and the longissimus thoracis (LT) samples were collected for further analysis. The results indicated that indoor supplementary feeding improved the percentages of carcass fat and non-carcass fat of pre-slaughter weight (PSW) and decreased the cooking loss of lamb meat. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d enhanced PSW, carcass, and meat percentages of PSW. Lambs grazing for 2 h/d with supplement and indoor supplementary feeding lambs had a higher level of intramuscular fat and lightness (L*) value and lower cooking loss in the LT muscle, but higher yellowness (b*) and fat content were found in indoor supplementary feeding lambs. More categories of volatile compounds were identified in meat from grazing lambs than from indoor supplementary feeding lambs, but lower content of aldehydes and total volatile flavor compounds was detected in grazing lambs. Overall, the results demonstrated that the feeding system is a main factor that affects lamb meat quality, and proper grazing time can improve the quantity and quality of lamb meat and provide meat with different flavors to the consumers. Full article
Article
Understanding the Role of Prevotella Genus in the Digestion of Lignocellulose and Other Substrates in Vietnamese Native Goats’ Rumen by Metagenomic Deep Sequencing
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113257 - 14 Nov 2021
Abstract
Bacteria in rumen play pivotal roles in the digestion of nutrients to support energy for the host. In this study, metagenomic deep sequencing of bacterial metagenome extracted from the goats’ rumen generated 48.66 GB of data with 3,411,867 contigs and 5,367,270 genes. The [...] Read more.
Bacteria in rumen play pivotal roles in the digestion of nutrients to support energy for the host. In this study, metagenomic deep sequencing of bacterial metagenome extracted from the goats’ rumen generated 48.66 GB of data with 3,411,867 contigs and 5,367,270 genes. The genes were mainly functionally annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZy), and HMMER database, and taxonomically classified by MEGAN. As a result, 65,554 genes encoding for 30 enzymes/proteins related to lignocellulose conversion were exploited, in which nine enzymes were seen for the first time in goat rumen. Prevotella was the most abundant genus, contributing 30% hemicellulases and 36% enzymes/proteins for lignocellulose pretreatment, and supporting 98.8% of feruloyl esterases and 71.7% acetylxylan esterases. In addition, 18 of the 22 most lignocellulose digesting- potential contigs belonged to Prevotella. Besides, Prevotella possessed many genes coding for amylolytic enzymes. One gene encoding for endoxylanase was successfully expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme had high Vmax, was tolerant to some salts and detergents, worked better at pH 5.5–6.5, temperature 40–50 °C, and was capable to be used in practices. Based on these findings, we confirm that Prevotella plays a pivotal role for hemicellulose digestion and significantly participates in starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin digestion in the goat rumen. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Ruminal Degradability, Indigestible Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Total-Tract Digestibility of Three Main Crop Straws with Alfalfa Hay and Corn Silage
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113218 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Three main crop straws including corn straw (Zea mays, CS), rice straw (Oryza sativa, RS), and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, WS), and two forages including alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, AH) and corn silage (Zea [...] Read more.
Three main crop straws including corn straw (Zea mays, CS), rice straw (Oryza sativa, RS), and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, WS), and two forages including alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, AH) and corn silage (Zea mays, CSil) were analyzed in order to compare their ruminal degradability, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF), intestinal digestibility (ID), and their total-tract digestibility (TTD) of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) using both an in situ nylon bag technique and a mobile nylon bag technique. The forage samples were incubated in the rumen for 6, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 288 h, respectively, to determine their ruminal degradability. Prior to intestinal incubation, forage samples were incubated in the rumen for 12 h and 24 h to determine the ruminal degradable content of CP, NDF, and ADF, respectively, and for 288 h to determine their iNDF288 content. Residues from the ruminal undegradable fractions (12 h for CP, 24 h for NDF and ADF) were subsequently inserted into the duodenum through a cannula to determine their intestinal digestible content. Here, the TTD of CP, NDF, and ADF were determined as the ruminal degradable content + intestinal digestible content. The results showed that AH had the highest iNDF2.4 (calculated as acid detergent lignin content × 2.4) and iNDF288 values (379.42 and 473.40 g/kg of NDF), while CS and CSil had the lowest iNDF2.4 values (177.44 and 179.43 g/kg of NDF). The ruminal degradability of CP, NDF, and ADF for CS, RS, and WS were lower than those of AH and Csil during the first 48 h of incubation. The potential degradation fraction of CP, NDF, and ADF for CSil was the highest; CS, RS, and WS were intermediate; and AH was the lowest (p < 0.05). CS, RS, and WS had a lower intestinal digestibility with respect to their rumen undegradable content of NDF (p < 0.05), and lower TTD of CP, NDF, and ADF (p < 0.05) compared to AH and CSil. General regression equations with satisfactory accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.828) were derived to predict iNDF288 and TTD based on their chemical compositions and the ruminal degradation kinetics of different forages. Incorporating this information into rations could improve our ability to optimize main crop straws utilization and milk production. Full article
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Article
Effects of High-Forage Diets Containing Raw Flaxseeds or Soybean on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation, Gas Emission, and Microbial Profile
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112304 - 05 Nov 2021
Abstract
Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the energy economy of ruminants. However, its interactions of fat, rumen fermentation, gas emission, and microorganisms are not yet clear. This study evaluated the effect of adding raw oilseeds to high-forage diets on in vitro ruminal [...] Read more.
Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the energy economy of ruminants. However, its interactions of fat, rumen fermentation, gas emission, and microorganisms are not yet clear. This study evaluated the effect of adding raw oilseeds to high-forage diets on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas composition, and microbial profile. Three isoenergetic and isoproteic experimental diets were designed and used as fermentation substrate: control treatment (CON group) was the basal diet lacking oilseeds, the other two treatments were the basal diet supplemented by 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) raw whole soybean (S group) and 50 g/kg DM raw flaxseed (F group), respectively. Data showed that the acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentration of culture fluids in the S group were lower (p < 0.05) than in the F group. There was a tendency to a higher level (p = 0.094) of propionate concentration in the F group compared with the other two groups. The gas production in the F group was higher (p < 0.05) than in the control group. There was a lower abundance of Sutterella (p < 0.05) and a greater abundance of Butyrivibrio (p < 0.05) in both of the two oilseed treatments. Methanobrevibacter (p = 0.078) in the F group was the lowest. Our results suggested that CH4 emission could be inhibited with flaxseed supplementation by propionate production metabolism, biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid (FA), and toxicity to Methanobrevibacter, while regarding soybean seed supplementation, the emission of CH4 was more likely to be reduced through biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA modulated by Butyrivibrio. Full article
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Article
Isolation and Identification of a Rumen Lactobacillus Bacteria and Its Degradation Potential of Gossypol in Cottonseed Meal during Solid-State Fermentation
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112200 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an important protein feed source for dairy cows. Its inclusion in ruminant diets is limited due to the presence of the highly toxic gossypol though rumen microorganisms are believed to be capable of gossypol degrading and transforming. The objective [...] Read more.
Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an important protein feed source for dairy cows. Its inclusion in ruminant diets is limited due to the presence of the highly toxic gossypol though rumen microorganisms are believed to be capable of gossypol degrading and transforming. The objective of the present study was to isolate the gossypol-degrading bacteria from the rumen contents and to assess its potential for gossypol degradation in vitro. A strain named Lactobacillus agilis WWK129 was anaerobically isolated from dairy cows after mixed rumen microorganisms were grown on a substrate with gossypol as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the strain was applied at 5% inoculum concentration in vitro to continuously ferment CSM at 39 °C for five days, and it presented gossypol degradability as high as 83%. Meanwhile, the CSM contents of crude protein, essential amino acids increased significantly along with the increase of lactic acid yield (p < 0.01). Compared with the original CSM, the fermented CSM contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was remarkably decreased after the anaerobic fermentation (p < 0.01). In brief, the Lactobacillus strain isolated from the rumen is not only of great importance for gossypol biodegradation of CSM, but it could also be used to further explore the role of rumen microorganisms in gossypol degradation by the ruminants. Full article
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Article
Supplementation of Mixed Organic Acids Improves Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Gut Morphology and Volatile Fatty Acids of Broiler Chicken
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113020 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Organic acid as a green feed additive is increasingly favoured by enterprises and scholars, but little emphasis has been placed on the effect of organic acids on broiler meat quality. Methods: A total of 192 male chicks (one-day-old, weighted 48.40 [...] Read more.
Background: Organic acid as a green feed additive is increasingly favoured by enterprises and scholars, but little emphasis has been placed on the effect of organic acids on broiler meat quality. Methods: A total of 192 male chicks (one-day-old, weighted 48.40 ± 0.64 g) were selected to investigate the effect of mixed organic acids (MOA) on growth performance, meat quality as well as fatty acids profile. Chicks were randomly allocated to three treatments with eight replicates and eight chicks per replicate, including a corn–soybean basal diet with 0 (CON), 3000 mg/kg (low MOA; LMOA), and 6000 mg/kg (high MOA; HMOA) MOA. The experiment was divided into starter (d 1–d 21) and grower (d 22–d 42) phases. Results: Broilers supplemented with LMOA and HMOA enhanced (p < 0.05) the final body weight and average daily gain in the grower and overall phases. An improved (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio in the grower and overall phases was observed in broilers supplemented with LMOA. The breast and thigh muscles pH24h were higher (p < 0.05) in broilers fed with HMOA and the redness in thigh meat was also improved (p < 0.05). Additionally, supplementing LMOA increased (p < 0.05) the saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in breast meat. A positive effect occurred (p < 0.05) on jejunal villus height and ileal crypt depth in 21 d broilers supplemented with HMOA. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that dietary supplementation of MOA could improve the growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acids profile, as well as intestinal morphology. Furthermore, diets supplemented with mixed organic acids at 3000 mg/kg may be more desirable, considering the overall experimental results in broilers. Full article
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