Special Issue "The Neonate: Care and Immunity"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Tadeusz Stefaniak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu, Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: neonate; passive immunity; subunit vaccines; cattle; acute-phase proteins; IgY
Dr. Paulina Jawor
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu, Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: acute phase proteins in cattle, diagnostics of the reasons for the birth of stillborn calves in dairy cattle
Prof. Dr. Anna Rząsa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Immunology, Pathophysiology and Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
Interests: problems with different parameters influencing pig health and production
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The neonates’ metabolism differs markedly from adolescent and adults. The immune system develops in mammals at prenatal period and majority of neonates are able to respond against majority of environmental antigens at birth, however this response is weaker and easier to break comparing to adults The passive transfer of maternal immunity happens in mammals via placenta or/and via colostrum. The intensity, quality of this process influence significantly the immune protection of the neonate at first weeks and months of life. Moreover, during first weeks of life the significant changes associated with maturation of the gastrointestinal, as well as urinary tract happen. The complicated process of maturation and development may be disturbed by factors affecting in the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal periods. Changes/disturbances in the course of pregnancy (like intrauterine growth retardation), the course of parturition and interactions of neonates after birth with the environment factors influence the health, development, survival and longevity of animals. Comparing to human medicine there is a gap of knowledge in animals. This special issue will present the findings of some research groups involved in the neonatal problems of livestock animals.

Prof. Tadeusz Stefaniak
Prof. Paulina Jawor
Prof. Anna Rząsa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Neonate
  • Perinatal mortality
  • Passive immunity
  • Intrauterine growth retardation
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Calf
  • Piglet
  • Growth and maturation.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Supplementing Colostrum from Multiparous Sows: Effects on Performance and Health in Piglets from Gilts in Farm Conditions
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092563 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Gilts produce less colostrum with lower immunoglobulin G concentration than multiparous sows do. An extra dose of colostrum (30 mL) from multiparous sows was administered to piglets from gilts to ascertain its effects on performance and health in farm conditions, especially in the [...] Read more.
Gilts produce less colostrum with lower immunoglobulin G concentration than multiparous sows do. An extra dose of colostrum (30 mL) from multiparous sows was administered to piglets from gilts to ascertain its effects on performance and health in farm conditions, especially in the smallest piglets (birth weight < 1.100 kg; Q1). The control group (CON) consisted of 200 piglets from 18 gilts (50 smallest piglets) and 201 piglets from 16 gilts (52 smallest piglets) formed the supplemented group (SUP). Colostrum supplementation increased the homogeneity of weight (days 21 and 60) and average daily gain (ADG; days 0–10, 0–21, and 0–60) and a decreased use of antibiotics and mortality by diarrhoea (p < 0.05). SUP piglets showed better immune response (presence of antibodies, p = 0.033) against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (day 21), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS; day 60), and influenza (day 60). In the smallest piglets, colostrum supplementation had important effects on mean weight in the first day of life (p = 0.009) and ADG until day 21 (p < 0.05). The smallest piglets had decreased the use of antibiotic treatment use when supplemented (p < 0.05). Colostrum supplementation can improve piglets´ performance and health, although doing so requires increased time and labour in maternity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
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Article
Differences in Intestinal Barrier Development between Intrauterine Growth Restricted and Normal Birth Weight Piglets
Animals 2021, 11(4), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040990 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) piglets are born at term but have low birth mass and a characteristic shape of the head. Impaired general condition, especially in intestinal function, leads to an increase in the occurrence of diarrhoea and high mortality in the first [...] Read more.
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) piglets are born at term but have low birth mass and a characteristic shape of the head. Impaired general condition, especially in intestinal function, leads to an increase in the occurrence of diarrhoea and high mortality in the first days of life. So far, the mechanical and immunological gut barrier functions in IUGR are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to microscopically evaluate the early postnatal changes in the gut mucosa occurring in IUGR piglets. Whole-tissue small intestine samples were collected from littermate pairs (IUGR and normal) on postnatal day (PD) 7, 14 and 180 and analysed by light microscopy. We found that in the IUGR piglets, the percentage of intraepithelial leukocytes was reduced in the duodenum on PD 7, but it increased in the proximal and middle jejunum both on PD 7 and PD 14, which suggested the development of an inflammatory process. The number of goblet cells was also reduced on PD 14. The average size of the Peyer’s patches in the distal jejunum and ileum showed significant reduction on PD 7 as compared to normal pigs; however, on PD 14, it returned to normal. On PD 180, we did not find any differences in the measured parameters between the IUGR and the normal pigs. In conclusion, we found that in one-week-old IUGR pig neonates, the gut barrier and the immune system structures display signs of retarded development but recover within the second postnatal week of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
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Article
Effect of Age on the Immune and Visceral Organ Weights and Cecal Traits in Modern Broilers
Animals 2021, 11(3), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030845 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 532
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effect of age on the immune and visceral organ weights and cecal traits in modern broilers. 200 male Ross® 308 broilers were randomly selected, then 20 broilers were slaughtered every day (up to 10 days old) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effect of age on the immune and visceral organ weights and cecal traits in modern broilers. 200 male Ross® 308 broilers were randomly selected, then 20 broilers were slaughtered every day (up to 10 days old) after six hours of fasting. All the organs measured had a progressive increase in absolute weight as the days progressed, apart from the spleen, which decreased its absolute weight on day 5, even though on day 10 it showed the highest values. Moreover, the small intestine relative weight increased from the fourth to the ninth day and was correlated (p ≤ 0.05) with the relative weight of the proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, and cecum, although without statistical association with the of the heart. There was a correlation between the cecum relative weight and the cecal lactic acid bacteria, and between the primary lymphoid organs. The pH (from 5.74 to 7.40) and cecal lactic acid bacteria (from 6.11 to 8.79 log 10 CFU/g) changed according to the age of the broilers. The results could contribute to the understanding of the physiology and intestinal microbiology of the first 10 days old of modern broilers, which is crucial to improve the genetic expression of these animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
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Article
Effects of Selected Prebiotics or Synbiotics Administered in ovo on Lymphocyte Subsets in Bursa of the Fabricius, Thymus, and Spleen in Non-Immunized and Immunized Chicken Broilers
Animals 2021, 11(2), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020476 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 767
Abstract
The effects of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on the lymphocyte subsets of the lymphoid organs in non-immunized 7-day-old broiler chickens and in non-immunized, sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-immunized, and dextran (DEX)-immunized 21- and 35-day-old birds were studied. The substances were injected on [...] Read more.
The effects of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on the lymphocyte subsets of the lymphoid organs in non-immunized 7-day-old broiler chickens and in non-immunized, sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-immunized, and dextran (DEX)-immunized 21- and 35-day-old birds were studied. The substances were injected on the 12th day of egg incubation: Prebiotic1 group (Pre1) with a solution of inulin, Prebiotic2 group (Pre2) with a solution of Bi2tos (non-digestive transgalacto-oligosaccharides), Synbiotic1 group (Syn1) with inulin and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB SL1, and Synbiotic2 group (Syn2) with Bi2tos and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1. In 7-day-old chicks, a decrease in T splenocytes was noticed in all groups. The most pronounced effect in 21- and 35-day-old birds was an increase in TCRγδ+ cells in Syn1 and Syn2 groups. A decrease in bursal B cells was observed in DEX-immunized Pre1 group (21-day-old birds), and in the Syn1 group in non-immunized and SRBC-immunized 35-day-old birds. An increase in double-positive lymphocytes was observed in Pre1 (35-day-old birds) and Pre2 (immunized 21-day-old birds) groups. In Pre1 and Syn1 groups (21- and 35-day-old), an increase in B splenocytes and a decrease in T splenocytes were observed. We concluded that Syn1 was the most effective in the stimulation of the chicken immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
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Article
Performance and Meat Quality of Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pigs
Animals 2021, 11(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020254 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) pigs are characterized by high perinatal mortality and dysfunction of internal organs, adipose, and muscle tissues. However, little is known about the post-weaning performance and meat quality of the IUGR pigs. The aim of this study was to compare [...] Read more.
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) pigs are characterized by high perinatal mortality and dysfunction of internal organs, adipose, and muscle tissues. However, little is known about the post-weaning performance and meat quality of the IUGR pigs. The aim of this study was to compare normal pigs and pigs with IUGR from birth until slaughter, also with respect to their meat quality. Pigs with the IUGR achieved lower slaughter weight but did not differ significantly from normal pigs in terms of their meat content. The IUGR did not negatively affect the culinary quality of the obtained meat, including its content of basic chemical components and energy value, as well as hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, elasticity, and penetration force. The meat of the IUGR pigs, when compared to the meat of normal pigs, was characterized by higher pH, lower EC (Electrical Conductivity) and drip loss; it was also tenderer and obtained higher scores in sensory evaluation of taste, smell, and general desirability. Therefore, such raw material can be appreciated by the consumers and can be used for the production of culinary portions similarly to the raw material obtained from normal pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
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Review

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Review
Role of Infection and Immunity in Bovine Perinatal Mortality: Part 2. Fetomaternal Response to Infection and Novel Diagnostic Perspectives
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072102 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Bovine perinatal mortality due to infection may result either from the direct effects of intrauterine infection and/or the fetal response to such infection, leading to the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). Both intrauterine infection and FIRS, which causes multi-organ damage and involution of [...] Read more.
Bovine perinatal mortality due to infection may result either from the direct effects of intrauterine infection and/or the fetal response to such infection, leading to the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). Both intrauterine infection and FIRS, which causes multi-organ damage and involution of immune organs, compromise fetal survivability, sometimes fatally. Organ injury associated with FIRS may, in addition to causing fetal mortality, irreversibly compromise extrauterine adaptation of the neonate, a recognized problem in human fetuses. Diagnosis of intrauterine infection and of FIRS requires related, but independent analytical approaches. In addition to detection of pathogens, the immune and inflammatory responses of the bovine fetus may be utilized to diagnose intrauterine infection. This can be done by detection of specific changes in internal organs and the measurement of antibodies and/or elements of the acute phase reaction. Currently our ability to diagnose FIRS in bovine fetuses and neonates is limited to research studies. This review focuses on both the fetomaternal response to infection and diagnostic methods which rely on the response of the fetus to infection and inflammatory changes, as well other methods which may improve diagnosis of intrauterine infection in cases of bovine perinatal mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
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Review
Role of Infection and Immunity in Bovine Perinatal Mortality: Part 1. Causes and Current Diagnostic Approaches
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041033 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
While non-infectious causes are more commonly diagnosed in cases of bovine perinatal mortality (PM), the proportion caused by infections is highly variable between studies (~5–35%); the reasons for this variation, and possible underestimation, are discussed. The most important pathogen-specific infectious causes of PM [...] Read more.
While non-infectious causes are more commonly diagnosed in cases of bovine perinatal mortality (PM), the proportion caused by infections is highly variable between studies (~5–35%); the reasons for this variation, and possible underestimation, are discussed. The most important pathogen-specific infectious causes of PM are bacteria (in particular, Bacillus licheniformis and Leptospira spp.), viruses (in particular BVDv) and a parasite (Neospora caninum). However, co-infection may occur in a small proportion of cases and in many cases no single pathogen is detected but gross or microscopic lesions of an inflammatory response are identified. Diagnosis is complicated by the criteria required to establish exposure, infection and causation. Additionally, pathogens can be classified as primary or secondary though such differentiation can be arbitrary. The majority of infectious cases of PM are due to in utero infections but postnatal infections (0–2 days) can also cause PM. Diagnosis of infectious PM is based on a systematic investigation of the herd health history and dam and cohort sampling and examination of the perinate and its placenta. Gross and histopathologic examinations and maternal/herd and perinate serology form the basis of current infectious PM investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Urinary protein excretion in calves during the first week of life.
Authors: Skrzypczak Wiesław; Ożgo Małgorzata; Dratwa Alicja; Drzeżdżon Dariusz; Boniecka Karolina
Affiliation: West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin; Szczecin; Poland

Title: Effects of selected prebiotics or synbiotics administered in ovo on lymphocyte subsets in bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen in non-immunized and immunized chicken broilers.
Authors: Marianna Szczypka; Agnieszka Suszko-Pawłowska; Maciej Kuczkowski; Michał Gorczykowski; Magdalena Lis; Artur Kowalczyk; Ewa Łukaszewicz; Dominik Poradowski; Iwona Zbyryt; Tadeusz Stefaniak; Marek Bednarczyk
Affiliation: Uniwersytet Technologiczno - Przyrodniczy w Bydgoszczy, Bydgoszcz, Poland

Title: Role of infection and immunity in bovine perinatal mortality
Authors: Paulina Jawor; John Mee; Tadeusz Stefaniak
Affiliation: Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland

Title: Differences in intestinal barrier development in intrauterine growth restricted and normal birth-weight piglets
Authors: Jarosław Olszewski; Romuald Zabielski; Piotr Matyba; Małgorzata Wielgosz; Antoni Adamski; Zdzisław Gajewski; Karolina Ferenc
Affiliation: Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw, Poland

Title: Intrauterine growth retarded pig from farm to table
Authors: Piotr Matyba; Tomasz Florowski; Krzysztof Dasiewicz; Karolina Ferenc; Jarosław Olszewski; Michał Trela; Gilbert Galemba; Mirosław Słowiński; Zdzisław Gajewski; Romuald Zabielski
Affiliation: Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw, Poland

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