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Actuators, Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): It is important to comprehensively evaluate which type of motor is most suitable when designing mechanical systems. This paper presents the results of a survey of the performance of electric and hydraulic servo motors which are commonly used in many mechanical systems and aims to provide quantitative data that can be used as a reference for selecting appropriate motors. We collected data on the characteristics of electric and hydraulic motors and compared and evaluated the characteristics of these servo motors using indexes such as torque, rotating speed, output power, power density, and power rate. View this paper
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Article
Study on Multidegree-of-Freedom Ultrasonic Motor Using Vibration Mode Rotation of Metal Spherical Stator
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010027 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Most of the multidegree-of-freedom ultrasonic motors (MDOF-USMs) use a spherical rotor, and the design of the stator is restricted due to the use of the resonance mode. (1) Therefore, there is almost impossible to freely design the overall shape, resulting in a complicated [...] Read more.
Most of the multidegree-of-freedom ultrasonic motors (MDOF-USMs) use a spherical rotor, and the design of the stator is restricted due to the use of the resonance mode. (1) Therefore, there is almost impossible to freely design the overall shape, resulting in a complicated structure. (2) To solve such an inconvenience, an MDOF-USM using a metal spherical stator was proposed. The vibration mode rotation on the stator was designed by theoretical analysis of spherical vibration and finite element method analysis. Multilayer piezoelectric actuators (MPAs) were embedded in the sphere to excite the vibration mode. Cylindrical projections were attached to the surface of the stator to magnify the vibration displacement and worked as the driving part. Their effects were evaluated using an electronic circuit simulator method of performance analysis. (3) As a result, two types of vibration mode rotation methods for the 3-DOF rotation were confirmed. It was also confirmed that the rotor covering the outside stator rotates around three axes. However, tiny torque, low power factor, and slow speed were obtained. (4) An MDOF-USM using a spherical stator was realized according to the operating principle. However, since the cause of such a low performance is the excitation method of the sphere and the rotor structure, research for improvement is required in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators and Ultrasonic Motors: Future Perspectives)
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Article
A Portable Non-Contact Tremor Vibration Measurement and Classification Apparatus
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010026 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Tremors are the most common type of movement disorder and affect the lives of those experiencing them. The efficacy of tremor therapies varies according to the aetiology of the tremor and its correct diagnosis. This study develops a portable measurement device capable of [...] Read more.
Tremors are the most common type of movement disorder and affect the lives of those experiencing them. The efficacy of tremor therapies varies according to the aetiology of the tremor and its correct diagnosis. This study develops a portable measurement device capable of non-contact measurement of the tremor, which could assist in tremor diagnosis and classification. The performance of this device was assessed through a validation process using a shaker at a controlled frequency to measure human tremors, and the device was able to measure vibrations of 50 Hz accurately, which is more than twice the frequency of tremors produced by humans. Then, the device is tested to measure the tremors for two different activation conditions: rest and postural, for both hand and leg. The measured non-contact tremor vibration data successfully led to tremor classification in the subjects already diagnosed using a contact accelerometer. Full article
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Article
Equivalent Rope Length-Based Trajectory Planning for Double Pendulum Bridge Cranes with Distributed Mass Payloads
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010025 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 690
Abstract
The hoisting form in which the payload is hung on the hook by two rigging ropes is widely used in the industry, but it also results in the complex double pendulum dynamic of the bridge crane, making the anti-swing trajectory planning full of [...] Read more.
The hoisting form in which the payload is hung on the hook by two rigging ropes is widely used in the industry, but it also results in the complex double pendulum dynamic of the bridge crane, making the anti-swing trajectory planning full of challenges. In this paper, based on the concept of the equivalent rope length, an equivalent single pendulum model of the double pendulum bridge crane with the distributed mass payload is established. On this basis, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted to solve the equivalent rope length and calculate the parameters of the anti-swing velocity trajectory based on the phase plane method. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments with a laboratory double pendulum bridge crane are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the residual oscillation angle of the payload of the proposed method is smaller than those of the existing methods, such as the trajectory planning without the equivalent rope length, input shaping and command smoothing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Control of Underactuated Mechanical System)
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Article
Experimental Evaluation on Haptic Feedback Accuracy by Using Two Self-Made Haptic Devices and One Additional Interface in Robotic Teleoperation
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010024 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 633
Abstract
The goal of haptic feedback in robotic teleoperation is to enable users to accurately feel the interaction force measured at the slave side and precisely understand what is happening in the slave environment. The accuracy of the feedback force describing the error between [...] Read more.
The goal of haptic feedback in robotic teleoperation is to enable users to accurately feel the interaction force measured at the slave side and precisely understand what is happening in the slave environment. The accuracy of the feedback force describing the error between the actual feedback force felt by a user at the master side and the measured interaction force at the slave side is the key performance indicator for haptic display in robotic teleoperation. In this paper, we evaluate the haptic feedback accuracy in robotic teleoperation via experimental method. A special interface iHandle and two haptic devices, iGrasp-T and iGrasp-R, designed for robotic teleoperation are developed for experimental evaluation. The device iHandle integrates a high-performance force sensor and a micro attitude and heading reference system which can be used to identify human upper limb motor abilities, such as posture maintenance and force application. When a user is asked to grasp the iHandle and maintain a fixed position and posture, the fluctuation value of hand posture is measured to be between 2 and 8 degrees. Based on the experimental results, human hand tremble as input noise sensed by the haptic device is found to be a major reason that results in the noise of output force from haptic device if the spring-damping model is used to render feedback force. Therefore, haptic rendering algorithms should be independent of hand motion information to avoid input noise from human hand to the haptic control loop in teleoperation. Moreover, the iHandle can be fixed at the end effector of haptic devices; iGrasp-T or iGrasp-R, to measure the output force/torque from iGrasp-T or iGrasp-Rand to the user. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the output force from haptic device iGrasp-T is approximately 0.92 N, and using the force sensor in the iHandle can compensate for the output force inaccuracy of device iGrasp-T to 0.1 N. Using a force sensor as the feedback link to form a closed-loop feedback force control system is an effective way to improve the accuracy of feedback force and guarantee high-fidelity of feedback forces at the master side in robotic teleoperation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
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Article
Lodged Sugarcane/Crop Dividers Interaction: Analysis of Robotic Sugarcane Harvester in Agriculture via a Rigid-Flexible Coupled Simulation Method
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010023 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
As a critical component of the sugarcane harvester, the primary function of the crop dividers is to lift the lodged sugarcane (LS) and reduce the loss rate of the sugarcane harvest. In this study, a rigid-flexible coupling simulation method is proposed to improve [...] Read more.
As a critical component of the sugarcane harvester, the primary function of the crop dividers is to lift the lodged sugarcane (LS) and reduce the loss rate of the sugarcane harvest. In this study, a rigid-flexible coupling simulation method is proposed to improve the lifting efficiency of the crop dividers on severely LS and analyze the nature of interaction between the sugarcane stalk and the crop dividers. The model’s accuracy was verified using field experiments, and the operational performance of the crop dividers on sugarcane in different lodging postures was investigated. The results showed that the curve of the vertical height of the center (VHC) fluctuated more and slipped with highest frequency during the lifting process of side and forward LS. The speed of VHC was fastest during the lifting operation of side LS. The effect of side angle on the lifting effect of sugarcane was significant; the qualified values of the VHC of sugarcane being lifted in different lodged postures were: side and reverse lodged > side lodged > side and forward lodged. The coupling method and experimental results described in this paper can provide guidance for the optimal design and field operation of the crop dividers. Full article
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Article
Path Tracking Control of an Autonomous Tractor Using Improved Stanley Controller Optimized with Multiple-Population Genetic Algorithm
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010022 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
To improve the path tracking accuracy of autonomous tractors in operation, an improved Stanley controller (IMP-ST) is proposed in this paper. The controller was applied to a two-wheel tractor dynamics model. The parameters of the IMP-ST were optimized by multiple-population genetic algorithm (MPGA) [...] Read more.
To improve the path tracking accuracy of autonomous tractors in operation, an improved Stanley controller (IMP-ST) is proposed in this paper. The controller was applied to a two-wheel tractor dynamics model. The parameters of the IMP-ST were optimized by multiple-population genetic algorithm (MPGA) to obtain better tracking performance. The main purpose of this paper is to implement path tracking control on an autonomous tractor. Thus, it is significant to study this field because of smart agricultural development. According to the turning strategy of tractors in field operations, five working routes for tractors were designed, including straight, U, Ω, acute-angle and obtuse-angle routes. Simulation tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed IMP-ST in tractor path tracking for all routes. The lateral root-mean-square (RMS) error of the IMP-ST was reduced by up to 36.84% and 48.61% compared to the extended Stanley controller and the original Stanley controller, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the IMP-ST performed well in guiding the tractor to follow all planned working routes. In particular, for the U and Ω routes, the two most common turning methods in tractor field operations, the path tracking performance of the IMP-ST was improved by 41.72% and 48.61% compared to the ST, respectively. Comparing and analyzing the e-Ψ and β-γ phase plane of the three controllers, the results indicate that the IMP-ST has the best control stability. Full article
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Article
Novel Strategy of Adaptive Predictive Control Based on a MIMO-ARX Model
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010021 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
Many industrial processes include MIMO (multiple-input, multiple-output) systems that are difficult to control by standard commercial controllers. This paper describes a MIMO case of a class of SISO-APC (single-input, single-output adaptive predictive controller) based upon an ARX (autoregressive with exogenous variable) model. This [...] Read more.
Many industrial processes include MIMO (multiple-input, multiple-output) systems that are difficult to control by standard commercial controllers. This paper describes a MIMO case of a class of SISO-APC (single-input, single-output adaptive predictive controller) based upon an ARX (autoregressive with exogenous variable) model. This class of SISO-APC based on ARX models has been successfully and extensively used in many industrial applications. This approach aims to minimize the barriers between the theory of predictive adaptive control and its application in the industrial environment. The proposed MIMO-APC (MIMO adaptive predictive controller) performance is validated with two simulated processes: a quadrotor drone and the quadruple tank process. In the first experiment the proposed MIMO APC shows ISE-IAE-ITAE performance indices improvements of up to 25%, 25.4% and 38.9%, respectively. For the quadruple tank process the water levels in the lower tanks follow closely the set points, with the exception of a 13% overshoot in tank 1 for the minimum phase behavior response. The controller responses show significant performance improvements when compared with previously published MIMO control strategies. Full article
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Article
Design and Experimental Analysis of Charge Recovery for Piezoelectric Fan
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010020 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The piezoelectric (PE) fan is widely adopted in the field of microelectronics cooling due to its advantages of high reliability and good heat dissipation characteristics. However, PE fans driven by conventional circuits suffer from plenty of energy loss. To save energy, we propose [...] Read more.
The piezoelectric (PE) fan is widely adopted in the field of microelectronics cooling due to its advantages of high reliability and good heat dissipation characteristics. However, PE fans driven by conventional circuits suffer from plenty of energy loss. To save energy, we propose an inductor-based charge recovery method and apply it to the driving circuit for the PE fan. Two inductor-based driving circuits, a single inductor-based driving (SID) circuit and a double inductor-based driving (DID) circuit are compared. The SID circuit has a simple structure and a slightly higher energy-saving rate, while the DID circuit introduces no additional oscillations and is more stable. The experimental results show that when the supply voltage changes, both circuits have a relatively stable energy-saving rate, which is about 30% for the SID circuit and 28% for the DID circuit. Moreover, the proposed circuits enjoy the same driving capacity as the conventional circuit, and the driven fan has the same cooling performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
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Article
Modeling and Experiments of an Annular Multi-Channel Magnetorheological Valve
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010019 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
With the increasing number of cars, the demand for vehicle maintenance lifts is also increasing. The hydraulic valve is one of its core components, but there are problems with it such as inaccurate positioning and failure. In order to improve the service performance [...] Read more.
With the increasing number of cars, the demand for vehicle maintenance lifts is also increasing. The hydraulic valve is one of its core components, but there are problems with it such as inaccurate positioning and failure. In order to improve the service performance of vehicle maintenance elevators, a novel annular multi-channel magnetorheological (MR) valve structure was creatively proposed based on intelligent material MR fluid (MRF), and its magnetic circuit was designed. The influence of current, damping gap and coil turns on the pressure drop performance of the annular multi-channel MR valve was numerically studied and compared with ordinary type magnetorheological valve pressure drop performance through contrast and analysis. The influence of different loads and currents on the pressure drop performance of annular multi-channel magnetorheological valve was verified by experiments, and the reliability of numerical analysis results was verified. The results show that the single winding excitation coil is 321 to meet the demand. The pressure drop performance of the annular multi-channel magnetorheological valve is 5.6 times that of the ordinary magnetorheological valve. The load has little influence on the regulating range and performance of pressure drop of the MR valve. Compared with the common type, the pressure drop performance of the annular multi-channel MR Valve is improved by 3.7 times, which is basically consistent with the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Land Transport)
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Article
An Enhanced Sliding Mode Speed Control for Induction Motor Drives
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010018 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 622
Abstract
In this paper, an enhanced Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC) for mechanical speed of an Induction Motor (IM) is presented and experimentally validated. The design of the proposed controller has been done in the d-q synchronous reference frame and indirect Field Oriented Control [...] Read more.
In this paper, an enhanced Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC) for mechanical speed of an Induction Motor (IM) is presented and experimentally validated. The design of the proposed controller has been done in the d-q synchronous reference frame and indirect Field Oriented Control (FOC). Global asymptotic speed tracking in the presence of model uncertainties and load torque variations has been guaranteed by using an enhanced ISMC surface. Moreover, this controller provides a faster speed convergence rate compared to the conventional ISMC and the Proportional Integral methods, and it eliminates the steady-state error. Furthermore, the chattering phenomenon is reduced by using a switching sigmoid function. The stability of the proposed controller under parameter uncertainties and load disturbances has been provided by using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the performance of this control method is verified through numerical simulations and experimental tests, getting fast dynamics and good robustness for IM drives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Control Schemes for Actuators)
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Article
Real-Time Numerical Simulation for Accurate Soft Tissues Modeling during Haptic Interaction
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010017 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
The simulation of fabrics physics and its interaction with the human body has been largely studied in recent years to provide realistic-looking garments and wears specifically in the entertainment business. When the purpose of the simulation is to obtain scientific measures and detailed [...] Read more.
The simulation of fabrics physics and its interaction with the human body has been largely studied in recent years to provide realistic-looking garments and wears specifically in the entertainment business. When the purpose of the simulation is to obtain scientific measures and detailed mechanical properties of the interaction, the underlying physical models should be enhanced to obtain better simulation accuracy increasing the modeling complexity and relaxing the simulation timing constraints to properly solve the set of equations under analysis. However, in the specific field of haptic interaction, the desiderata are to have both physical consistency and high frame rate to display stable and coherent stimuli as feedback to the user requiring a tradeoff between accuracy and real-time interaction. This work introduces a haptic system for the evaluation of the fabric hand of specific garments either existing or yet to be produced in a virtual reality simulation. The modeling is based on the co-rotational Finite Element approach that allows for large displacements but the small deformation of the elements. The proposed system can be beneficial for the fabrics industry both in the design phase or in the presentation phase, where a virtual fabric portfolio can be shown to customers around the world. Results exhibit the feasibility of high-frequency real-time simulation for haptic interaction with virtual garments employing realistic mechanical properties of the fabric materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators for Haptics)
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Article
Development of Sliding Mode Controller Based on Internal Model Controller for Higher Precision Electro-Optical Tracking System
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010016 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 642
Abstract
The electro-optical tracking system (ETS) on moving platforms is affected by the vibration of the moving carrier, the wind resistance torque in motion, the uncertainty of mechanisms and the nonlinear friction between frames and other disturbances, which may lead to the instability of [...] Read more.
The electro-optical tracking system (ETS) on moving platforms is affected by the vibration of the moving carrier, the wind resistance torque in motion, the uncertainty of mechanisms and the nonlinear friction between frames and other disturbances, which may lead to the instability of the electro-optical tracking platform. Sliding mode control (SMC) has strong robustness to system disturbances and unknown dynamic external signals, which can enhance the disturbance suppression ability of ETSs. However, the strong robustness of SMC requires greater switching gain, which causes serious chattering. At the same time, the tracking accuracy of SMC has room for further improvement. Therefore, in order to solve the chattering problem of SMC and improve the tracking accuracy of SMC, an SMC controller based on internal model control (IMC) is proposed. Compared with traditional SMC, the proposed method can be used to suppress the strongest disturbance with the smallest switching gain, effectively solving the chattering problem of the SMC, while improving the tracking accuracy of the system. In addition, to reduce the adverse influence of sensor noise on the control effect, lifting wavelet threshold de-noising is introduced into the control structure to further improve the tracking accuracy of the system. The simulation and experimental results verify the superiority of the proposed control method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Control of High-Precision Motion Systems)
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Article
Intermediate-Variable-Based Distributed Fusion Estimation for Wind Turbine Systems
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010015 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 531
Abstract
In wind turbine systems, the state of the generator is always disturbed by various unknown perturbances, which leads to system instability and inaccurate state estimation. In this paper, an intermediate-variable-based distributed fusion estimation method is proposed for the state estimation problem in wind [...] Read more.
In wind turbine systems, the state of the generator is always disturbed by various unknown perturbances, which leads to system instability and inaccurate state estimation. In this paper, an intermediate-variable-based distributed fusion estimation method is proposed for the state estimation problem in wind turbine systems. By constructing an augmented state error system and using the idea of bounded recursive optimization, the local estimators and distributed fusion criterion are designed, which can be used to estimate the disturbance signals and system states. Then, the local estimator gains and the distributed weighting fusion matrices are obtained by solving the established convex optimization problems. Furthermore, a compensation strategy is designed by using the estimated disturbance signals, which can potentially reduce the influence of the disturbance signals on the system state. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of the estimation of the wind turbine state and disturbance, and the superiority of the proposed method is illustrated as a comparison to the Kalman fusion method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Control and Estimation in Networked Systems)
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Article
Development of a Mechatronic System for the Mirror Therapy
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010014 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 645
Abstract
This paper fits into the field of research concerning robotic systems for rehabilitation. Robotic systems are going to be increasingly used to assist fragile persons and to perform rehabilitation tasks for persons affected by motion injuries. Among the recovery therapies, the mirror therapy [...] Read more.
This paper fits into the field of research concerning robotic systems for rehabilitation. Robotic systems are going to be increasingly used to assist fragile persons and to perform rehabilitation tasks for persons affected by motion injuries. Among the recovery therapies, the mirror therapy was shown to be effective for the functional recovery of an arm after stroke. In this paper we present a master/slave robotic device based on the mirror therapy paradigm for wrist rehabilitation. The device is designed to orient the affected wrist in real time according to the imposed motion of the healthy wrist. The paper shows the kinematic analysis of the system, the numerical simulations, an experimental mechatronic set-up, and a built 3D-printed prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Control of Robot Manipulators)
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Article
3D Object Recognition and Localization with a Dense LiDAR Scanner
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010013 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Dense scanning is an effective solution for refined geometrical modeling applications. The previous studies in dense environment modeling mostly focused on data acquisition techniques without emphasizing autonomous target recognition and accurate 3D localization. Therefore, they lacked the capability to output semantic information in [...] Read more.
Dense scanning is an effective solution for refined geometrical modeling applications. The previous studies in dense environment modeling mostly focused on data acquisition techniques without emphasizing autonomous target recognition and accurate 3D localization. Therefore, they lacked the capability to output semantic information in the scenes. This article aims to make complementation in this aspect. The critical problems we solved are mainly in two aspects: (1) system calibration to ensure detail-fidelity for the 3D objects with fine structures, (2) fast outlier exclusion to improve 3D boxing accuracy. A lightweight fuzzy neural network is proposed to remove most background outliers, which was proven in experiments to be effective for various objects in different situations. With precise and clean data ensured by the two abovementioned techniques, our system can extract target objects from the original point clouds, and more importantly, accurately estimate their center locations and orientations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Servoing of Mobile Robots)
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Article
Evaluation of Dynamic Load Reduction for a Tractor Semi-Trailer Using the Air Suspension System at all Axles of the Semi-Trailer
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010012 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 416
Abstract
The air suspension system has become more and more popular in heavy vehicles and buses to improve ride comfort and road holding. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the dynamic load reduction at all axles of a semi-trailer with an air suspension [...] Read more.
The air suspension system has become more and more popular in heavy vehicles and buses to improve ride comfort and road holding. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the dynamic load reduction at all axles of a semi-trailer with an air suspension system, in comparison with the one using a leaf spring suspension system on variable speed and road types. First, a full vertical dynamic model is proposed for a tractor semi-trailer (full model) with two types of suspension systems (leaf spring and air spring) for three axles at the semi-trailer, while the tractor’s axles use leaf spring suspension systems. The air suspension systems are built based on the GENSYS model; meanwhile, the remaining structural parameters are considered equally. The full model has been validated by experimental results, and closely follows the dynamical characteristics of the real tractor semi-trailer, with the percent error of the highest value being 6.23% and Pearson correlation coefficient being higher than 0.8, corresponding to different speeds. The survey results showed that the semi-trailer with the air suspension system can reduce the dynamic load of the entire field of speed from 20 to 100 km/h, given random road types from A to F according to the ISO 8608:2016 standard. The dynamic load coefficient (DLC) with the semi-trailer using the air spring suspension system can be reduced on average from 14.8% to 29.3%, in comparison with the semi-trailer using the leaf spring suspension system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Modeling and Control)
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Review
Characteristics of Hydraulic and Electric Servo Motors
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010011 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Until the 1970s, hydraulic actuators were widely used in many mechanical systems; however, recently, electric motors have become mainstream by virtue of their improved performance, and hydraulic motors have largely been replaced by electric motors in many applications. Although this trend is expected [...] Read more.
Until the 1970s, hydraulic actuators were widely used in many mechanical systems; however, recently, electric motors have become mainstream by virtue of their improved performance, and hydraulic motors have largely been replaced by electric motors in many applications. Although this trend is expected to continue into the future, it is important to comprehensively evaluate which motor is most suitable when designing mechanical systems. This paper presents the results of a survey of the performance of electric and hydraulic servo motors and aims to provide quantitative data that can be used as a reference for selecting appropriate motors. We surveyed AC, AC direct, brushless DC, and brushed DC electric motors and swash plate-type axial piston, bent axis-type axial piston, crank-type radial piston, and multistroke-type radial piston hydraulic motors. Performance data were collected from catalogs and nonpublic data. We compared and evaluated the characteristics of these diverse servo motors using indexes such as torque, rotating speed, output power, power density, and power rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Torque/Power Density Actuators)
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Article
An Intelligent Process to Estimate the Nonlinear Behaviors of an Elasto-Plastic Steel Coil Damper Using Artificial Neural Networks
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010009 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
This study developed a nonlinear behavior prediction model for elasto-plastic steel coil dampers (SCDs) using artificial neural networks (ANN). To train the ANN, first, the input and output data of the behavior of the elasto-plastic SCD was prepared. This study utilized the design [...] Read more.
This study developed a nonlinear behavior prediction model for elasto-plastic steel coil dampers (SCDs) using artificial neural networks (ANN). To train the ANN, first, the input and output data of the behavior of the elasto-plastic SCD was prepared. This study utilized the design parameters and load–displacement curves of the SCD to train the ANN. The elasto-plastic load–displacement curve of the SCD was obtained from simulation results using an ANSYS workbench. The design parameters (wire diameter, internal diameter, number of active windings, yield strength) of the SCD were defined as the input patterns, while the yield deformation, first stiffness, and second stiffness were output patterns. During learning of the neural network model, 60 datasets of the SCD were used as the learning pattern, and the remaining 21 were used to verify the model. Although this study used a small number of learning patterns, the ANN predicted accurate results for yield displacement, first stiffness, and second stiffness. In this study, the ANN was found to perform very well, predicting the nonlinear response of the SCD, compared with the values obtained from a finite element analysis program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuator Materials)
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Article
Modeling and Experimental Research of One Kind of New Planar Vortex Actuator Based on Shape Memory Alloy
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010008 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
In order to alleviate the problems of complex structure and low reliability of traditional Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) rotary actuator, a planar vortex actuator (PVA) based on SMA material was proposed to directly output torque and angular displacement. Based on the calculation method [...] Read more.
In order to alleviate the problems of complex structure and low reliability of traditional Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) rotary actuator, a planar vortex actuator (PVA) based on SMA material was proposed to directly output torque and angular displacement. Based on the calculation method of PVA and the constitutive model of the phase transition equation of SMA, the mechanical model is established, and the pre-tightening torque, temperature, output torque, and rotation angle are obtained. The relationship expression between the tests has verified the mechanical model. The results show that the relationship between the excitation temperature and the output torque, the coefficient of determination between the calculated value and the tested value, is 0.938, the minimum error is 0.46%, and the maximum error is 49.8%. In the relationship between angular displacement and torque, the coefficient of determination between the calculated value and the test value is 0.939, the maximum error is 58.5%, and the minimum error is 28.0%. The test results show that the calculated values of mechanical model and experimental data have similar representation form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloy Actuators)
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Article
Analysis of a Low-Speed Drive System Using Intelligent Materials
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010010 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 383
Abstract
This paper presents a low speed drive system with a simple and reliable construction, which can be used in an area where there is no power supply (isolated areas, forests, agricultural fields, etc.) and which operates on the basis of two heat sources, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a low speed drive system with a simple and reliable construction, which can be used in an area where there is no power supply (isolated areas, forests, agricultural fields, etc.) and which operates on the basis of two heat sources, one from solar radiation and one provided by water. Alternatively, this system can be used to recover energy from wastewater from industry. The operation and role of the parameters that can influence the value of the rotation speed of the drive system are analyzed through a simulation, maintaining a constant speed in the case of the prototype is achieved through the control system because in real situations the temperature of heat sources can vary within certain limits. The models and tests performed highlight the parameters of the analyzed drive system and the limits of the range in which its speed can vary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Manufacturing Systems)
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Communication
A Dynamic Modeling Method for the Bi-Directional Pneumatic Actuator Using Dynamic Equilibrium Equation
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010007 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Dynamic modeling of soft pneumatic actuators are a challenging research field. In this paper, a dynamic modeling method used for a bi-directionaly soft pneumatic actuator with symmetrical chambers is proposed. In this dynamic model, the effect of uninflated rubber block on bending deformation [...] Read more.
Dynamic modeling of soft pneumatic actuators are a challenging research field. In this paper, a dynamic modeling method used for a bi-directionaly soft pneumatic actuator with symmetrical chambers is proposed. In this dynamic model, the effect of uninflated rubber block on bending deformation is considered. The errors resulting from the proposed dynamic equilibrium equation are analyzed, and a compensation method for the dynamic equilibrium equation is proposed. The equation can be solved quickly after simplification. The results show that the proposed dynamic model can describe the motion process of the bi-directional pneumatic actuator effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
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Article
Design and Analysis of a Novel Composited Electromagnetic Linear Actuator
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010006 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Electromagnetic linear actuators, as key executive components, have a vital impact on the performance of fully flexible variable valve trains. Considering that the conventional moving coil electromagnetic linear actuator (MCELA) has the disadvantages of low force density and a lack of end-passive self-holding [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic linear actuators, as key executive components, have a vital impact on the performance of fully flexible variable valve trains. Considering that the conventional moving coil electromagnetic linear actuator (MCELA) has the disadvantages of low force density and a lack of end-passive self-holding ability, a novel composited electromagnetic linear actuator (CELA) is proposed by combining the performance advantages of MCELA and moving iron electromagnetic linear actuator (MIELA) in this work. Firstly, the structure and magnetic circuit design scheme of the proposed actuator are introduced and the finite element simulation model is established. The magnetic field distribution and force characteristics of the actuators are assessed by finite element simulation. Secondly, the construction of the prototype of the actuator is outlined, based on which the feasibility of the design scheme and the steady-state performance of the actuator are verified. Finally, the coordinated control strategy is proposed to realize the multi motion coordination control of the actuator. The research results show that the maximum starting force of the CELA with the end-passive self-holding ability is 574.92 N while the holding force can approach 229.25 N. Moreover, the CELA is proven to have excellent dynamic characteristics and control precision under different motion modes and to have an improved adaptability to the complex working conditions of internal combustion engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Land Transport)
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Article
An IDA-PBC Design with Integral Action for Output Voltage Regulation in an Interleaved Boost Converter for DC Microgrid Applications
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010005 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 387
Abstract
This paper describes the output voltage regulation control for an interleaved connected to a direct current (DC) microgrid considering bidirectional current flows. The proposed controller is based on an interconnection and damping passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) approach with integral action that regulates the output [...] Read more.
This paper describes the output voltage regulation control for an interleaved connected to a direct current (DC) microgrid considering bidirectional current flows. The proposed controller is based on an interconnection and damping passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) approach with integral action that regulates the output voltage profile at its assigned reference. This approach designs a control law via nonlinear feedback that ensures asymptotic stability in a closed-loop in the sense of Lyapunov. Moreover, the IDA-PBC design adds an integral gain to eliminate the possible tracking errors in steady-state conditions. Numerical simulations in the Piecewise Linear Electrical Circuit Simulation (PLECS) package for MATLAB/Simulink demonstrate that the effectiveness of the proposed controller is assessed and compared with a conventional proportional-integral controller under different scenarios considering strong variations in the current injected/absorbed by the DC microgrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Control Schemes for Actuators)
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Article
Multi-UAV Optimal Mission Assignment and Path Planning for Disaster Rescue Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm and Improved Artificial Bee Colony Method
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010004 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
An optimal mission assignment and path planning method of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for disaster rescue is proposed. In this application, the UAVs include the drug delivery UAV, image collection UAV, and communication relay UAV. When implementing the modeling and simulation, first, [...] Read more.
An optimal mission assignment and path planning method of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for disaster rescue is proposed. In this application, the UAVs include the drug delivery UAV, image collection UAV, and communication relay UAV. When implementing the modeling and simulation, first, three threat sources are built: the weather threat source, transmission tower threat source, and upland threat source. Second, a cost-revenue function is constructed. The flight distance, oil consumption, function descriptions of UAV, and threat source factors above are considered. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is utilized to estimate the weights of cost-revenue function. Third, an adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) is designed to solve the mission allocation task. A fitness function which considers the current and maximum iteration numbers is proposed to improve the AGA convergence performance. Finally, an optimal path plan between the neighboring mission points is computed by an improved artificial bee colony (IABC) method. A balanced searching strategy is developed to modify the IABC computational effect. Extensive simulation experiments have shown the effectiveness of our method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Motion Planning and Control for Robotics)
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Article
A Pneumatic Novel Combined Soft Robotic Gripper with High Load Capacity and Large Grasping Range
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010003 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Pneumatic soft grippers have been widely studied. However, the structures and material properties of existing pneumatic soft grippers limit their load capacity and manipulation range. In this article, inspired by sea lampreys, we present a pneumatic novel combined soft gripper to achieve a [...] Read more.
Pneumatic soft grippers have been widely studied. However, the structures and material properties of existing pneumatic soft grippers limit their load capacity and manipulation range. In this article, inspired by sea lampreys, we present a pneumatic novel combined soft gripper to achieve a high load capacity and a large grasping range. This soft gripper consists of a cylindrical soft actuator and a detachable sucker. Three internal air chambers of the cylindrical soft actuator are inflated, which enables them to hold objects. Under vacuum pressure, the cylindrical soft actuator and the detachable sucker can both adsorb objects. A finite element model was constructed to simulate three inflation chambers for predicting the grasping range of the cylindrical soft actuator. The validity of the finite element model was established by an experiment. The mechanism of holding force and adsorption force were analyzed. Several groups of experiments were conducted to determine adsorption range, holding force, and adsorption force. In addition, practical applications further indicated that the novel combined soft gripper has a high load capacity (10.85 kg) at a low pressure (16 kPa) and a large grasping range (minimum diameter of the object: d = 6 mm), being able to lift a variety of objects with different weights, material properties, and shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
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Article
A New Method for Identifying Kinetic Parameters of Industrial Robots
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010002 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Identifying the kinetic parameters of an industrial robot is the basis for designing a controller for it. To solve the problems of the poor accuracy and easy premature convergence of common bionic algorithms for identifying the dynamic parameters of such robots, this study [...] Read more.
Identifying the kinetic parameters of an industrial robot is the basis for designing a controller for it. To solve the problems of the poor accuracy and easy premature convergence of common bionic algorithms for identifying the dynamic parameters of such robots, this study proposed simulated annealing with similar exponential changes based on the beetle swarm optimization (SEDSABSO) algorithm. Expressions for the dynamics of the industrial robot were first obtained through the SymPyBotics toolkit in Python, and the required trajectories of excitation were then designed to identify its dynamic parameters. Following this, the search pattern of the global optimal solution for the beetle swarm optimization algorithm was improved in the context of solving for these parameters. The global convergence of the algorithm was improved by improving the iterative form of the number N of skinks in it by considering random perturbations and the simulated annealing algorithm, whereas its accuracy of convergence was improved through the class exponential change model. The improved beetle swarm optimization algorithm was used to identify the kinetic parameters of the Zhichang Kawasaki RS010N industrial robot. The results of experiments showed that the proposed algorithm was fast and highly accurate in identifying the kinetic parameters of the industrial robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Control of Robot Manipulators)
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Article
Estimation of the Dynamic Parameters of the Bearings in a Flexible Rotor System Utilizing Electromagnetic Excitation by a Built-In Motor
Actuators 2022, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010001 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Estimation of the dynamic parameters of bearings is essential in order to be able to interpret the performance of rotating machinery. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the dynamic parameters of the bearings in a flexible rotor system. By utilizing [...] Read more.
Estimation of the dynamic parameters of bearings is essential in order to be able to interpret the performance of rotating machinery. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the dynamic parameters of the bearings in a flexible rotor system. By utilizing the electromagnetic excitation generated by a built-in PM motor and finite element (FE) modeling of the rotor, safe, low-cost, and real-time monitoring of the bearing dynamics can be achieved. The radial excitation force is generated by injecting an alternating d-axis current into the motor windings. The FE model of the rotor and the measured frequency responses at the motor and bearing locations are used to estimate the dynamic parameters of the bearings. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method, numerical simulation and experiments were carried out on a flexible rotor system combined with a bearingless motor (BELM) having both motor windings and suspension windings. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately estimate the dynamic parameters of the bearings. In the experiment, the estimates made when utilizing the excitation force generated by the motor windings are compared with the estimates made when utilizing the excitation force generated by the suspension windings. The results show that most of the stiffness and damping coefficients for the two experiments are in good agreement, within a maximum error of 8.92%. The errors for some coefficients are large because the base values of these coefficients are small in our test rig, so these coefficients are sensitive to deviations. The natural frequencies calculated from the dynamic parameters estimated from the two experiments are also in good agreement, within a maximum relative error of 3.04%. The proposed method is effective and feasible for turbomachines directly connected to motors, which is highly significant for field tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
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