# Modeling and Experiments of an Annular Multi-Channel Magnetorheological Valve

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Design of Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve

#### 2.1. Working Principle and Structure

#### 2.2. Magnetic Circuit Design

#### 2.3. Pressure Drop Analysis of Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve

## 3. Numerical Analysis Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Influence of Current on Pressure Drop Performance of Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve

#### 3.2. Influence of Damping Gap Width on Pressure Drop Performance of Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve

#### 3.3. Influence of Coil Turns on Pressure Drop Performance of Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve

## 4. Experimental Study on Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve

## 5. Analysis and Discussion of Experimental Results

#### 5.1. Influence of Different Loads on Pressure Drop Performance of Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve

#### 5.2. Comparison of Annular Multi-Channel MR Valve and Common MR Valve

#### 5.3. The Simulation Results Are Compared with the Experimental Results

## 6. Conclusions

- (1)
- Display of magnetic circuit design results: The number of turns required by a single excitation coil is greater than 321.
- (2)
- Electromagnetic field finite element analysis results: The pressure drop performance of annular multi-channel MR valve increases with the increase of current and coil turns and decreases with the increase of spool thickness and damping clearance. Compared with the common MR valve, the pressure drop performance of the annular multi-channel MR valve is 5.6 times better than that of the common MR valve. This is because the effective flow length of the annular multi-channel MR valve is 3.2 times that of the ordinary magnetorheological valve, and the magnetic flux density that passes through the damping gap vertically is the same. Therefore, the longer the effective flow length, the better the pressure drop performance of the magnetorheological valve. Second, when MRF flows in a small gap, it is forced to change the flow direction at the shoulder of the shaft, which will consume part of the energy. Therefore, the performance of the annular multi-channel MR valve far exceeds the pressure drop performance of the ordinary MR valve.
- (3)
- Experimental results show that the pressure drop performance curves of the annular multi-channel MR valve coincide under different loads, so the load has little influence on the pressure drop performance of the annular multi-channel MR valve. Compared with the common type, the pressure drop performance of the annular multi-channel MR valve is improved 2–3.7 times, which is basically consistent with the simulation results.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**Magnetic circuit of annular multi-channel MR valve: (

**a**) magnetic circuit diagram and (

**b**) equivalent magnetic circuit diagram.

**Figure 5.**Division of damping channels and flow direction diagram of annular multi-channel MR valve.

**Figure 6.**(

**a**) simulation model diagram of the annular multi-channel MR valve; (

**b**) shows the magnetic field line distribution of the annular multi-channel MR valve.

**Figure 8.**(

**a**) Influence of current size on magnetic flux density of the valve; (

**b**) influence of current size on valve pressure drop performance.

**Figure 9.**(

**a**) Influence of damping clearance on magnetic flux density of annular multi-channel type; (

**b**) influence of damping clearance on annular multi-channel pressure drop performance.

**Figure 10.**(

**a**) Influence of coil turns on magnetic flux density of valve; (

**b**) influence of coil turns on valve pressure drop performance.

**Figure 11.**(

**a**) Schematic diagram of the experimental system; (

**b**) test rig picture; (

**c**) three-dimensional assembly drawing of annular multi-channel MR valve.

**Figure 12.**(

**a**) Pressure variation diagram of load 1. (

**b**) Pressure change diagram of load 2. (

**c**) Pressure change diagram of load 3. (

**d**) Influence of different loads on the performance of annular multi-channel MR valve.

**Figure 13.**Comparison of pressure drop between annular multi-channel MR valve and ordinary MR valve.

**Figure 14.**Comparison between experimental results and simulation results of annular multi-channel MR valve.

Project | Parameter |
---|---|

density | 2.65 g/cm^{3} |

Zero field viscosity (r = 10/s, 20 °C) | 0.8 Pa s |

Shear stress (5000 Gs) | 50 kPa |

temperature range | −40~130 °C |

Magnetization performance (Ms) | 365.29 KA/m |

Numerical Value (mm) | Parameter | Numerical Value (mm) | |
---|---|---|---|

The damping clearance (r_{1}) | 1 | Magnetic disk 11 width (h_{2}) | 10 |

The thickness of the valve core (r_{2}) | 10 | Left magnetic block 14 width (h_{3}) | 24 |

Magnetic block thickness (r_{3}) | 19 | Middle magnetic block 12 width (h_{4}) | 48 |

The thickness of the shell (r_{4}) | 8 | Left coil holder 4 width (h_{5}) | 15 |

Height of the coil (w) | 12 | Middle coil stand 4 width (h_{6}) | 30 |

The width of the coil (t) | 30 | The shell width (h_{7}) | 120 |

The width of the valve core (h_{1}) | 108 | The end cover width (h_{8}) | 20 |

Magnetic Resistance | Value (H/mm) | Magnetic Resistance | Value (H/mm) |
---|---|---|---|

r_{a1} | 20.65 | ${r}_{d2}$ | 21.52 |

${r}_{b1}$ | 3.34 | ${r}_{b4}$ | 2.36 |

${r}_{c1}$ | 91.78 | ${r}_{c3}$ | 91.78 |

${r}_{b2}$ | 2.36 | ${r}_{b3}$ | 3.34 |

${r}_{c2}$ | 175.93 | ${r}_{a2}$ | 20.65 |

${r}_{b6}$ | 4.72 | ${r}_{c4}$ | 37.28 |

${r}_{c7}$ | 183.56 | ${r}_{b5}$ | 12.75 |

${r}_{b7}$ | 6.68 | ${r}_{c5}$ | 45.89 |

${r}_{c6}$ | 351.86 | ${r}_{d1}$ | 21.52 |

${r}_{d2}$ | 21.52 | ${r}_{e}$ | 315.58 |

${r}_{f}$ | 546.82 | ${r}_{g}$ | 162.44 |

$r$ | 654.06 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yang, X.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, R.
Modeling and Experiments of an Annular Multi-Channel Magnetorheological Valve. *Actuators* **2022**, *11*, 19.
https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010019

**AMA Style**

Yang X, Chen Y, Liu Y, Zhang R.
Modeling and Experiments of an Annular Multi-Channel Magnetorheological Valve. *Actuators*. 2022; 11(1):19.
https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010019

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yang, Xiaolong, Yingjie Chen, Yuting Liu, and Ruibo Zhang.
2022. "Modeling and Experiments of an Annular Multi-Channel Magnetorheological Valve" *Actuators* 11, no. 1: 19.
https://doi.org/10.3390/act11010019