Next Issue
Volume 9, June
Previous Issue
Volume 9, April

Table of Contents

Soc. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 28 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Research has found that mandatory reporting laws have positive effects on identifying child sexual [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Global Health Diplomacy Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Strategic Opportunity for Improving Health, Peace, and Well-Being in the CARICOM Region—A Systematic Review
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050088 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Increased globalization has ushered in changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. As such, global health diplomacy (GHD) has become a growing field connecting the urgencies of global health and foreign affairs. More academics and policy-makers are thinking about how to structure and utilize [...] Read more.
Increased globalization has ushered in changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. As such, global health diplomacy (GHD) has become a growing field connecting the urgencies of global health and foreign affairs. More academics and policy-makers are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. This article aims to explore how the health, peace, and well-being of people in the region can be achieved through global health diplomacy. A systematic review of the literature was conducted on various terms such as “Global Health Diplomacy OR Foreign Policy”; “Disasters”, “Infectious disease epidemics” OR “Non-Communicable diseases” AND “Caribbean” by searching PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science databases, and Google Scholar search engines. A total of 33 articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed, and the critical role of GHD was highlighted. There is an increasing need to understand the complex global health challenges, coupled with the need to design appropriate solutions. Many regional initiatives addressing infectious and chronic diseases have been successful in multiple ways by strengthening unity and also by showing directions for other nations at a global level, e.g., the Port of Spain Summit declaration. GHD has a great scope to enhance preparedness, mitigation, peace, and development in the region. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the region needs to strengthen its efforts on equity issues, health promotion, and sustainable development to promote peace and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Covid-19 and Women’s Triple Burden: Vignettes from Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam and Australia
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050087 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 2089
Abstract
During disease outbreaks, women endure additional burdens associated with paid and unpaid work, often without consideration or the alleviation of other life responsibilities. This paper draws on the concept of the triple burden in theorizing the gender divisions in productive and reproductive work [...] Read more.
During disease outbreaks, women endure additional burdens associated with paid and unpaid work, often without consideration or the alleviation of other life responsibilities. This paper draws on the concept of the triple burden in theorizing the gender divisions in productive and reproductive work and community activities in the context of disaster. Events that include famine, war, natural disaster or disease outbreak are all well documented as increasing women’s vulnerability to a worsening of gendered burdens. In the case of the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic, this is no different. Focussing on Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam and Australia, the four vignettes in this paper serve to highlight the intersections between Covid-19 and gendered burdens, particularly in frontline work, unpaid care work and community activities. While pre-disaster gender burdens are well established as strong, our analysis during the early months of the pandemic indicates that women’s burdens are escalating. We estimate that women will endure a worsening of their burdens until the pandemic is well under control, and for a long time after. Public policy and health efforts have not sufficiently acknowledged the issues concerned with the associations between gender and disease outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Work and Welfare: A Gender Lens on COVID-19)
Open AccessEssay
Elsa as Horse Whisperer in Disney’s Frozen 2: Opportunity “Nokk”s to Quash Gender Stereotypes
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050086 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 907
Abstract
Frozen 2 (2019) provided Disney with the opportunity to move past discomfort about the confluence of women’s sexuality and power in Queen Elsa portrayed in Frozen (2013). Yet in Frozen 2, Elsa remains romantically unattached, despite audience interest in her love life [...] Read more.
Frozen 2 (2019) provided Disney with the opportunity to move past discomfort about the confluence of women’s sexuality and power in Queen Elsa portrayed in Frozen (2013). Yet in Frozen 2, Elsa remains romantically unattached, despite audience interest in her love life in the six years following the release of Frozen. In Frozen 2, Elsa forms a bond with a mythological male horse, a Nokk, whom she first battles, and then tames, showcasing her horse-whispering talents while building intimacy with the equine. The symbolism of Elsa’s domestication of the willful Nokk relates to the gynocentric horse and pony genre that explores girls’ desire for intimacy within a fictional world. In Frozen 2, however, substituting a male horse for a relationship with a human allows Disney to sidestep two potential controversies: (1) a queer love interest for Elsa, and (2) the portrayal of Elsa as wielding more power than a non-magically endowed male partner. In addition, Elsa’s taming of the horse in Frozen 2 places her in the realm of equestrianism, a woman-dominated sport where femininity is nevertheless devalued. As a result, her skills as a horse whisperer do not threaten men’s ascendancy, reflecting real-life gender dynamics in equestrian sport. These themes show how Disney balked at modernizing Elsa, retreating to outdated conceptions of gender roles rather than depicting progressive gender dynamics and sexuality in Disney royalty. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Single Mothers’ Perspectives on the Combination of Motherhood and Work
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050085 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 933
Abstract
This study aims to define the perspectives taken by single mothers when combining work and motherhood in a stressful work–life constellation. One of the challenges for single mothers after divorce is to find a work–life balance in their single-parent family system. Regarding work-life [...] Read more.
This study aims to define the perspectives taken by single mothers when combining work and motherhood in a stressful work–life constellation. One of the challenges for single mothers after divorce is to find a work–life balance in their single-parent family system. Regarding work-life balance, we take a General Strain Perspective, describing the work-life conflict as a combination of financial strain and role strain. We argue that both strains are the most problematic for single mothers in comparison to their married and/or male counterparts, as both finances and parenthood ideologies are more under pressure. For this reason, we explore how single mothers coped with this strain, answering the question: ‘Which perspectives on the combination motherhood and work do single mothers take in their attempt to balance role strain and financial strain after divorce?’ To answer this research question, we used a qualitative approach, based on 202 in-depth interviews with single mothers in Belgium. These interviews involved two groups: A primary research population of 13 single mothers and an elaborative research population of 189 single mothers. Timelines were used to structure the single mothers’ narratives. The analysis resulted in the contruction of a typology of four different perspectives based on how single mothers dealt with maternal role strain and financial strain: the re-invented motherhood perspective, the work-family symbiosis perspective, the work-centered motherhood perspective and the work-family conflicted perspective. We found that perspective of single mothers in their work-life strain can be described by the flexibility and/or strictness in either their motherhood ideology and/or their work context. These results point at the needs for policymakers, employers, and practitioners to focus on initiatives improving the work–life balance of single mothers by reducing financial and role strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work–Family Arrangements: Variation across and within Countries)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Stay or Leave Abusive Dating Relationships: Portuguese Victims’ Reasons and Barriers
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050084 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
The decision to stay or leave an abusive relationship is multifactorial and frequently involves a cyclic process involving several phases. This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the reasons and barriers to stay or leave an abusive dating relationship, as well as the [...] Read more.
The decision to stay or leave an abusive relationship is multifactorial and frequently involves a cyclic process involving several phases. This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the reasons and barriers to stay or leave an abusive dating relationship, as well as the challenges that it implies. A semi-structured, in-depth interview was used to collect data from thirteen dating victims, aged 17–30 years and mainly female (n = 12). The emotional and affective dependence of the partner and the belief that behaviour may change emerge as the main reasons presented by the victims to remain in an abusive relationship. Shame, fear of losing the partner, and failure to recognize the abusive relationship were reported as the main barriers to leave the abusive relationship, thus making it difficult to seek help. Understanding reasons to stay in, or barriers to leave, an abusive relationship is fundamental to promoting help-seeking behaviours in victims of dating violence (DV), particularly in the case of young people, since it has serious implications in the developmental pathway of this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaving a Violent Relationship)
Open AccessArticle
What Is a Family and Why Does It Matter?
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050083 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 699
Abstract
The family is increasingly a site of political intervention as a locus of pervasive social inequalities and a potential resource for resolving injustices. Contemporary political theory has engaged in extensive debate about what justice in the family requires, but rather less on how [...] Read more.
The family is increasingly a site of political intervention as a locus of pervasive social inequalities and a potential resource for resolving injustices. Contemporary political theory has engaged in extensive debate about what justice in the family requires, but rather less on how family is understood: ethicists have tended to use placeholder definitions which dismiss the need to engage with real-world practices. We show that this is problematic because it obscures morally important aspects of day to day family life and risks taking privileged positions as representative. The paper proposes that theorists could gain from adopting the sociological ‘family practice’ framework, which we argue can form the basis of a distinct and plausible ethical theory of family. This can provide a fruitful basis for further research and engagement in political debate because it better conceptualizes contemporary family life. The paper therefore also illustrates how research from empirical social sciences can be helpful to the development of normative principles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Normative Power Europe as an Ingroup Projection? The EU’s Response to the Arab Uprising
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050082 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 717
Abstract
This paper aims to understand the social-psychological dimension of the Normative Power Europe discourse using ingroup projection as a discursive/cognitive practice of othering. It takes issue with most poststructuralist studies that conduct analyses of Normative Power Europe based on the dependence of identity [...] Read more.
This paper aims to understand the social-psychological dimension of the Normative Power Europe discourse using ingroup projection as a discursive/cognitive practice of othering. It takes issue with most poststructuralist studies that conduct analyses of Normative Power Europe based on the dependence of identity on difference through the discursive tendency to construct reality by opposites. Ingroup projection is based both on the need for differentiation to obtain positive distinctiveness and on the natural tendency for categorization processes by which groups share a common higher-order category. In this way, groups tend to project (ingroup projection) their traits and distinctive values onto this higher-order category to legitimate intergroup status differences. The EU’s response to the Arab uprisings serves as an empirical test for this argument, insofar as the uprisings implied a cognitive change of the EU’s “other” in the construction of the Mediterranean. Through ingroup projection, the EU (ingroup) differentiates itself from this new Arab Mediterranean other (outgroup) and projects EU’s idealized identity onto the Mediterranean region (higher-order category) to legitimate its new policies after the uprising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Open AccessArticle
Heterodox Economy in the Neoliberal Education Age
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050081 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Since the last global crisis, the critical debate on economy and the teaching of heterodox economy has resurfaced. To review the magnitude and pedagogical consequences for critical education in economics and finance is the objective of this paper, which also proposes a didactic [...] Read more.
Since the last global crisis, the critical debate on economy and the teaching of heterodox economy has resurfaced. To review the magnitude and pedagogical consequences for critical education in economics and finance is the objective of this paper, which also proposes a didactic strategy based on an experience developed at the University of Extremadura (Spain) within the framework of the Didactic Innovation Group named “Ethics of University Teaching”. For this purpose, the educational implications of teaching and learning the conventional economy that derive from behavioral and cognitive psychology and discourses on entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility are reviewed. It is concluded that the bias in the education of heterodox economy supposes a deterioration of the fundamental educational objectives, tending towards an indoctrination in the neoliberal ideology (patriarcapitalist) and to a serious loss of democratic values. For all the above, a more pluralist pedagogy at the epistemological and methodological levels—from critical psychology to critical economics or critical management studies—would help to favor a more emancipatory educational process, committed to social justice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Need for an Integrated Deprived Area “Slum” Mapping System (IDEAMAPS) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs)
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050080 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Ninety percent of the people added to the planet over the next 30 years will live in African and Asian cities, and a large portion of these populations will reside in deprived neighborhoods defined by slum conditions, informal settlement, or inadequate housing. The [...] Read more.
Ninety percent of the people added to the planet over the next 30 years will live in African and Asian cities, and a large portion of these populations will reside in deprived neighborhoods defined by slum conditions, informal settlement, or inadequate housing. The four current approaches to neighborhood deprivation mapping are largely siloed, and each fall short of producing accurate, timely, and comparable maps that reflect local contexts. The first approach, classifying “slum households” in census and survey data, reflects household-level rather than neighborhood-level deprivation. The second approach, field-based mapping, can produce the most accurate and context-relevant maps for a given neighborhood, however it requires substantial resources, preventing up-scaling. The third and fourth approaches, human (visual) interpretation and machine classification of air or spaceborne imagery, both overemphasize informal settlements, and fail to represent key social characteristics of deprived areas such as lack of tenure, exposure to pollution, and lack of public services. We summarize common areas of understanding, and present a set of requirements and a framework to produce routine, accurate maps of deprived urban areas that can be used by local-to-international stakeholders for advocacy, planning, and decision-making across Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). We suggest that machine learning models be extended to incorporate social area-level covariates and regular contributions of up-to-date and context-relevant field-based classification of deprived urban areas. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Neoliberal Reforms in Higher Education and the Import of Institutions
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050079 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The implementation of neoliberal reforms in higher education coincides with the radical institutional changes in the transition from a planned to a market economy. The modernization of higher education is also connected with the concept of the “entrepreneurial” university that represents a third-generation [...] Read more.
The implementation of neoliberal reforms in higher education coincides with the radical institutional changes in the transition from a planned to a market economy. The modernization of higher education is also connected with the concept of the “entrepreneurial” university that represents a third-generation university with an emphasis on optimization and marketing. However, economic policy aimed at reforming and developing the public sector is based on the import of institutions related to the production of public and mixed goods. In this paper, we show that neoliberal reforms threaten the welfare state in transition economies such as the Russian Federation. In addition to marketing, monetization, and commercialization, all areas of the public sector underwent an optimization policy, which primarily implied a relative reduction in the cost of producing public goods. The rhetoric of the marketing of education represents the modern state’s masked refusal to fulfill a part of its social obligations. Moreover, we argue that market channels intended for financing education are highly dependent on the income level of the population, the availability of institutions and the infrastructure for raising funds, and, most importantly, the development of the educational services market. Within this context, another significant factor is represented by the positive externalities from the prevalence and quality of education. Thence, our results show that insufficient private demand for education, including higher education, can negatively affect the prospects for the country’s socio-economic development in the medium and long run. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Migration and Conflict in a Global Warming Era: A Political Understanding of Climate Change
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050078 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 790
Abstract
This special issue explores underrepresented aspects of the political dimensions of global warming. It includes post- and decolonial perspectives on climate-related migration and conflict, intersectional approaches, and climate change politics as a new tool of governance. Its aim is to shed light on [...] Read more.
This special issue explores underrepresented aspects of the political dimensions of global warming. It includes post- and decolonial perspectives on climate-related migration and conflict, intersectional approaches, and climate change politics as a new tool of governance. Its aim is to shed light on the social phenomena associated with anthropogenic climate change. The different contributions aim to uncover its multidimensional and far-reaching political effects, including climate-induced migration movements and climate-related conflicts in different parts of the world. In doing so, the authors critically engage with securitising discourses and resulting anti-migration arguments and policies in the Global North. In this way, they identify and give a voice to alternative and hitherto underrepresented research and policy perspectives. Overall, the special issue aims to contribute to a critical and holistic approach to human mobility and conflict in the context of political and environmental crisis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Children’s Aspiration Profiles and Self-Efficacy, Life Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050077 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Limited research in the psychology literature has addressed the specifics of children’s future orientations. Using a thematic approach, the present study investigates children’s personal aspirations for their adult lives via a questionnaire that addressed (1) the types of aspiration profiles present in a [...] Read more.
Limited research in the psychology literature has addressed the specifics of children’s future orientations. Using a thematic approach, the present study investigates children’s personal aspirations for their adult lives via a questionnaire that addressed (1) the types of aspiration profiles present in a sample of 456 Italian students aged 8–13 and balanced for gender, and (2) how these profiles differ according to demographics, the number of aspirations, academic and social self-efficacy, life satisfaction, and academic achievement. Using cluster analysis, three aspiration profiles emerged, which include individualistic (focused on the possible future self), independent (concentrated on one’s own future family and independence), and social (focused on future friends and the family of origin). The independent profile demonstrated better overall psychological and academic adjustment than did the other two profiles. The article discusses the results of the study using the framework of self-determination theory in the context of Italian society. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Holding Complexity: Lessons from Team-Teaching an Interdisciplinary Collegiate Course on Urban Sustainability
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050076 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Lead instructors discuss the structure, opportunities, and pedagogical challenges of an interdisciplinary team-taught course on urban sustainability involving seven professors from six departments across four of George Washington University’s schools over five years. The teaching team prioritized presenting and exploring diverse perspectives on [...] Read more.
Lead instructors discuss the structure, opportunities, and pedagogical challenges of an interdisciplinary team-taught course on urban sustainability involving seven professors from six departments across four of George Washington University’s schools over five years. The teaching team prioritized presenting and exploring diverse perspectives on urban sustainability, seeing a key learning objective of this course in students (1) learning to make links between disciplines; (2) having opportunities to reflect, disagree, share, and develop their own perspectives; and (3) developing a life-long engagement and openness with ideas and learning. This is challenging for many students. To promote student learning and engagement in the class, we utilize active-learning and cooperative discussion techniques, and see these as times that the class reaches “interdisciplinarity”. We employ place-based pedagogical approaches, focusing the class on the case-study (and students’ adopted hometown) of Washington D.C., finding that a “layering” of perspectives on a single city helps students see disciplinary similarities and differences more clearly. For those considering a large-team interdisciplinary course, we stress the importance of a lead instructor for coordination—both conceptually and administratively—and adequate institutional support for this unique and challenging endeavor. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparing Reports of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse Using Child Welfare Agency Data in Two Jurisdictions with Different Mandatory Reporting Laws
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050075 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Empirical analysis has found that mandatory reporting legislation has positive effects on case identification of child sexual abuse both initially and over the long term. However, there is little analysis of the initial and ongoing impact on child protection systems of the rate [...] Read more.
Empirical analysis has found that mandatory reporting legislation has positive effects on case identification of child sexual abuse both initially and over the long term. However, there is little analysis of the initial and ongoing impact on child protection systems of the rate of reports that are made if a reporting duty for child sexual abuse is introduced, especially when compared with rates of reports for other kinds of child maltreatment. This research analysed government administrative data at the unique child level over a seven-year period to examine trends in reports of child sexual abuse, compared with child physical abuse, in two Australian states having different socio-legal dimensions. Data mining generated descriptive statistics and rates per 100,000 children involved in reports per annum, and time trend sequences in the seven-year period. The first state, Western Australia, introduced the legislative reporting duty in the middle of the seven-year period, and only for sexual abuse. The second state, Victoria, had possessed mandatory reporting duties for both sexual and physical abuse for over a decade. Our analysis identified substantial intra-state increases in the reporting of child sexual abuse attributable to the introduction of a new legislative reporting duty, and heightened public awareness resulting from major social events. Victoria experienced nearly three times as many reports of physical abuse as Western Australia. The relative burden on the child protection system was most clearly different in Victoria, where reports of physical abuse were relatively stable and two and a half times higher than for sexual abuse. Rates of children in reports, even at their single year peak, indicate sustainable levels of reporting for child welfare agencies. Substantial proportions of reports were made by both legislatively mandated reporters, and non-mandated community members, suggesting that government agencies would benefit from engaging with communities and professions to enhance a desirable reporting practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Debates and Developments in Child Protection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
South Korean Consumers’ Attitudes toward Small Business Owners Participating in the 2019 Anti-Japan Boycott
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050074 - 09 May 2020
Viewed by 708
Abstract
This study investigated consumer attitudes and the motivation of small business owners who participated in the 2019 anti-Japan boycott in South Korea (hereafter, Korea). The main areas of inquiry involved self-expression, the realization of justice, and consumer attitudes as elements of patriotic consumption. [...] Read more.
This study investigated consumer attitudes and the motivation of small business owners who participated in the 2019 anti-Japan boycott in South Korea (hereafter, Korea). The main areas of inquiry involved self-expression, the realization of justice, and consumer attitudes as elements of patriotic consumption. A seven-day survey was conducted among 500 adult consumers aged 18 years and older in Korea. The retrieved data were subjected to frequency analyses, reliability analyses, factor analyses, paired t-tests, and regressions. Declining Japanese product sales indicated high levels of a consumer boycott. The analyses demonstrated that consumers held positive attitudes toward small business owners who shared their boycotting beliefs and goals. Second, self-expression and the realization of justice motivation were relatively high, as were attitudes toward the participation message and small business owners who were participating in the boycott. Korean consumers had relatively high intentions to visit the stores of small business owners who were participating in the boycott. Lastly, self-expression motivations, motivations to realize justice, consumer attitudes toward the boycott participation messages of small business owners, and consumer attitudes toward the small business owners themselves had statistically significant positive effects. Small business owners holding general consumer beliefs about boycott participation should actively spread their support messages, and this would provide an excellent opportunity to create positive long-term awareness. This study provided a unique insight into Korean consumer behaviors when patriotism was considered. The findings have significant implications for small business owners looking to sustain themselves during product boycotts. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Term Fake News on the Scientific Community. Scientific Performance and Mapping in Web of Science
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050073 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Nowadays, multiple phenomena have promoted an impact on society, constituting in some cases, not only a contribution of benefits but also of risks. Among them, the fake news phenomenon is considered one of the most burning phenomena today due to the risk it [...] Read more.
Nowadays, multiple phenomena have promoted an impact on society, constituting in some cases, not only a contribution of benefits but also of risks. Among them, the fake news phenomenon is considered one of the most burning phenomena today due to the risk it poses to society. In view of this situation, the research community has carried out numerous studies that seek to address this issue from a multidisciplinary perspective. Based on this, the objective of this work was to analyze the productivity and, therefore, the impact of this topic in the research community. To this end, this work advocated a scientometric-type methodology, through scientometric laws, impact indicators, and scientific evolution of 640 publications of the web of science (WOS). The results showed the impact of the fake news discipline today, which is considered an emerging issue that is of interest to many knowledge disciplines around the world. Likewise, the results showed that the publications not only have a focus on analyzing the veracity or not of the news, but that it begins to vertebrate a new line of an investigation directed to the informational education and towards the prevention of the consumption of this type of news through the internet. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEssay
Creating Interactive Learning Environments through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies Applied to Learning of Social Values: An Approach from Neuro-Education
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050072 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 780
Abstract
In order to link learning and the brain, it is necessary to carry out a restructuring of pedagogical practice so that it can be linked to the contributions of Neurosciences. In this sense, Neuro-education is emerging as a new science that has as [...] Read more.
In order to link learning and the brain, it is necessary to carry out a restructuring of pedagogical practice so that it can be linked to the contributions of Neurosciences. In this sense, Neuro-education is emerging as a new science that has as its main objective the synergy of Pedagogy, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience, and with this, being able to bring the different educational agents the necessary resources in terms of the brain and learning binomial This article focuses on the importance of education in values, and the acquisition of prosocial behavior and how this educational field can be developed from the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The challenge before us is to build the map of values, which make the individual a fulfilled being and, in turn, a collaborator of the social environment. On the other hand, ICTs offer enormous potential in terms of their application in the field of education. In this article we will show the role that this type of tools can play in the learning and assimilation of values, bearing in mind the contributions of neuro-education. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Intimate Partner Violence: Innovations in Theory to Inform Clinical Practice, Policy, and Research
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050071 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and intergenerational transmission of IPV in families are destructive social issues in need of considerable attention. Knowledge of the multi-level, complex causes, and consequences of IPV in the United States has increased significantly over the last two decades. Given [...] Read more.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and intergenerational transmission of IPV in families are destructive social issues in need of considerable attention. Knowledge of the multi-level, complex causes, and consequences of IPV in the United States has increased significantly over the last two decades. Given these gains in learning, the authors’ aim here is to highlight recent critical and emerging theoretical perspectives on IPV. Frameworks included for application are intersectionality theory, historical trauma and decolonization, human rights, constructivist self-development theory, the posttraumatic growth paradigm, and adverse childhood experiences. This discussion will help to illuminate the dynamics of IPV that are actionable by practitioners using frameworks that promote cultural sensitivity, inclusion, and strengths-based practice with diverse populations. The authors discuss the scope of IPV while focusing on critical vulnerable people and exploring issues of relative privilege and oppression. Next, the authors review the historical body of theory informing understandings of IPV, and emerging theoretical frameworks on IPV. We offer conclusions throughout as they relate to the application of highlighted theories to IPV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaving a Violent Relationship)
Open AccessReview
The Potential of Networks for Families in the Child Protection System: A Systematic Review
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050070 - 06 May 2020
Viewed by 909
Abstract
There has recently been increased interest in the potential for formal and informal networks to aid interventions with biologic families in helping them achieve reunification in the context of the child protection system. When group support is provided to families, the creation of [...] Read more.
There has recently been increased interest in the potential for formal and informal networks to aid interventions with biologic families in helping them achieve reunification in the context of the child protection system. When group support is provided to families, the creation of a network of social support seems to be a consequence. The article analyzes the conceptualization of social support in order to create social support networks and the benefits on the intervention with families in the framework of the child protection system through a systematic review. From a wide search 4348 documents, finally 14 articles were included in the reviews. Results show that social support is considered a process by which social resources are provided from formal (professional services and programs associated with those services in any off the protection, health of educational systems) and informal (extended family, friends, neighbors and acquaintances) networks, allowing the families to confront daily moments as well as in crisis situations. This social support is related to emotional, psychological, physical, instrumental, material and information support that allow families to face their difficulties. Formal and informal networks of child protection systems contribute to social support, resilience, consolidation of learning and the assistance of families to social intervention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Debates and Developments in Child Protection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Evolutionary Trajectory of the Agile Concept Viewed from a Management Fashion Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050069 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
Agile is one of the most popular contemporary management concepts and buzzwords. This paper provides an in-depth examination of the influence of the Agile concept on the discourse, thinking and practices of organizations worldwide. The paper traces the emergence and evolution of the [...] Read more.
Agile is one of the most popular contemporary management concepts and buzzwords. This paper provides an in-depth examination of the influence of the Agile concept on the discourse, thinking and practices of organizations worldwide. The paper traces the emergence and evolution of the Agile concept from inception to the present by synthesizing findings from a wide range of academic and practitioner-oriented sources. Overall, the picture that emerges from the analysis is that the Agile concept has grown considerably in popularity and has become one of the most dominant concepts in public management discourse. The popularization of Agile has, to a large extent, been driven by an active supply-side made up of actors such as consultants, coaches, and trainers. Another finding is that the Agile concept has evolved considerably over time, from its initial presentation as a narrow and specialized concept rooted in the software development community to a much broader and general approach applicable across nearly all types of organizations and industries. The broadening of the concept has led to neologisms such as Agile Marketing, Agile Government, and Agile Management. The paper ends with reflections on the current status of Agile and some speculation about the concept’s likely future trajectory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: The Struggle for Child Protection in Canadian Sport
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050068 - 02 May 2020
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Millions of children and adolescents around the world participate in organized sport for holistic health and developmental benefits. However, for some, sport participation is characterized by experiences of maltreatment, including forms of abuse and neglect. In Canada, efforts to address and prevent maltreatment [...] Read more.
Millions of children and adolescents around the world participate in organized sport for holistic health and developmental benefits. However, for some, sport participation is characterized by experiences of maltreatment, including forms of abuse and neglect. In Canada, efforts to address and prevent maltreatment in sport have been characterized by recurring cycles of crisis, public attention, policy response, sluggish implementation, and active resistance, with very little observable change. These cycles continue to this day. Achieving progress in child protection in Canadian sport has been hindered by the self-regulating nature of sport, funding models that prioritize performance outcomes, structures that deter athletes from reporting experiences of maltreatment, and inadequate attention to athletes’ recommendations and preventative initiatives. The culture of control that characterizes organized sport underpins these challenges to advancing child protection in sport. We propose that the establishment of a national independent body to provide safeguards against maltreatment in Canadian sport and to address this culture of control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Debates and Developments in Child Protection)
Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Imagination of Possible and ‘Like-to-Avoid’ Selves among Higher Education Students from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds at a Selective English University
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050067 - 01 May 2020
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Access to and participation in higher education (HE) remains unequal, with social background continuing to influence decisions and experiences. In this paper, we undertake a proof-of-concept design to apply the theory of ‘possible selves’, as adapted by Harrison and published in Social Sciences [...] Read more.
Access to and participation in higher education (HE) remains unequal, with social background continuing to influence decisions and experiences. In this paper, we undertake a proof-of-concept design to apply the theory of ‘possible selves’, as adapted by Harrison and published in Social Sciences (2018), to university students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In 2019, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 first-year students, from different socioeconomic backgrounds, currently studying at a selective English university. We applied a deductive analysis based on Harrison’s adaptation of the ‘possible selves’ model originally put forward by Markus and Nurius in the 1980s. Students from disadvantaged backgrounds had a clear drive to ‘avoid’ future selves that would emerge without HE. Across all socioeconomic groups, we found a strong sense of agency, and a strong personal belief in success. Overall, our study shows that the model of possible selves is useful for understanding personalised and individualised student experiences, and the interrelation between social structure (socioeconomic condition) and agency. The model also offers a new way for practitioners to plan interventions for enhancing equity in HE access and participation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Joint Effect of International and Domestic-Level State Capacity on Civil War Risk
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050066 - 01 May 2020
Viewed by 717
Abstract
This article examines the role of international and domestic-level factors for strengthening states’ capacity. State failure enhances insecurity, since there is not sufficient agency or institutions to provide adequate security guarantees and to put into operation established rules. When the government is unable [...] Read more.
This article examines the role of international and domestic-level factors for strengthening states’ capacity. State failure enhances insecurity, since there is not sufficient agency or institutions to provide adequate security guarantees and to put into operation established rules. When the government is unable to address grievances stemming from such insecurity, armed conflict becomes more likely. Links with external institutions and domestic-level capacity that increases prosperity prevent insurgencies and promote stability, however. To this end, this research develops a new theory linking state capacity and the international and domestic-level factors to internal conflict. Empirically, this study examines the risk of civil conflict onset, focusing on the combined effect of international (political globalisation) and domestic-level (GDP per capita) state capacity as the main driving force. The results show that the joint effect of these factors has a negative impact on civil war risk, which is significantly and substantially important. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Global Citizenship and Analysis of Social Facts: Results of a Study with Pre-Service Teachers
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050065 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
This article outlines how the dimensions of global citizenship education (GCE) are reflected in future secondary school teachers’ analysis of news items. The question that guided the research was: When analysing a news item with global implications, do teachers in training use the [...] Read more.
This article outlines how the dimensions of global citizenship education (GCE) are reflected in future secondary school teachers’ analysis of news items. The question that guided the research was: When analysing a news item with global implications, do teachers in training use the dimensions of the critical global citizenship education model and which critical literacy achieve? The study used a mixed methodology. Content analysis was used to analyse the information, specifically the use of codes through descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings show that the majority of future secondary school teachers tend to take a socially committed perspective, while they take a critical stance or mobilise for social justice action to a lesser extent. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Pressures to Produce on Knowledge Production and Evaluation in the Modern Academy
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050064 - 28 Apr 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Combining work from the related but distinct fields of sociology of knowledge and sociology of education, we explore the effects of the changing landscape of higher education on the academic knowledge production system. Drawing on 100 interviews with faculty members from 34 disciplines [...] Read more.
Combining work from the related but distinct fields of sociology of knowledge and sociology of education, we explore the effects of the changing landscape of higher education on the academic knowledge production system. Drawing on 100 interviews with faculty members from 34 disciplines at an elite private research university, we show that faculty members perceive exponentially increasing pressures to produce, and identify the ways that those pressures can negatively impact the knowledge creation process. We then examine the ways those pressures to produce influence how faculty evaluate their colleagues’ work, leading faculty to extend the benefit of the doubt, rely on reputation, and emphasize the peer review process, even as they simultaneously critique its weaknesses. Finally, we show that faculty members ultimately reconcile their perceptions of weaknesses in the current knowledge production system with their belief in that system by emphasizing their own and their colleagues’ commitment to resisting structural pressures to produce. While much of the existing body of scholarship on the changing higher education landscape has focused on teaching and learning outcomes, this study contributes to our understanding of how those changes impact the research process, underscoring the relationship between institutional structures and evaluative processes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of a Psychosocial Therapy with SMS in Immigrant Women with Different Degrees of Depression
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050063 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Immigrant women who are forced to adapt to a new cultural context often live in low income situations, have informal jobs, and experience social inclusion difficulties; these women frequently have mental health and social relationship problems. We conducted an experimental investigation with a [...] Read more.
Immigrant women who are forced to adapt to a new cultural context often live in low income situations, have informal jobs, and experience social inclusion difficulties; these women frequently have mental health and social relationship problems. We conducted an experimental investigation with a group of vulnerable immigrant women who were receiving support from public social services. Our goal was to analyze the effectiveness of a bio-psychosocial therapy system with text messages to personal mobile phones. We grouped women by different degrees of depression. We studied psychosocial characteristics from personalized interviews and developed message banks to advise healthy habits and accompany moods. We programmed a remote delivery system, and for 26 days, each woman (n = 44) received four of our messages. We analyzed changes in mood and depression at the beginning and at the end of therapy and observed positive changes. The analysis of the initial and final (Personal Health Questionnaire) PHQ−9 quartile intervals shows that text messages significantly improve the mood and depression symptoms of immigrant women when the initial PHQ−9 value is greater than 5 (moderate depression). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Migration of Career-Starter Hungarian Graduate Women to the Countries of the European Union
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050062 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 758
Abstract
In our paper, we present the reasons for and characteristics of the increasing migration of graduate women, mostly undertaken alone. In Hungary, in the context of the acceleration of migration experienced after 2010, two phenomena can be observed: (1) Due to positive selection [...] Read more.
In our paper, we present the reasons for and characteristics of the increasing migration of graduate women, mostly undertaken alone. In Hungary, in the context of the acceleration of migration experienced after 2010, two phenomena can be observed: (1) Due to positive selection a high proportion of well-trained young graduates have moved to live abroad; (2) over the past few years, a higher proportion of those migrating for work have been female graduates in their maternity age. Thus, not only is the process of weakening of the male dominance among the emigrants clearly perceptible, but a Hungary-related version of the feminization of the brain drain phenomenon due to the labor market demand of the host countries is also evolving. In this study, we examine the motivations of graduate women to work abroad and the success of their integration. Our qualitative study examines motivations for migration among college graduate females, who are just starting their career. We have explored social forces that influence emigration among the highest educated. We have also studied integration and assimilation strategies among Hungarian women working in the European Union. Our findings contribute to and extend research that focuses on push and pull factors in migration, as well as the interpretation of gender differences in migration, especially among the highest educated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Open AccessArticle
Overselling Globalization: The Misleading Conflation of Economic Globalization and Immigration, and the Subsequent Backlash
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050061 - 26 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Many think that immigration is something caused by globalization, and some subsequently blame immigrants for the increased inequalities produced by economic globalization. Xenophobic nationalism has gained popularity around the world, further increasing racial tensions but without addressing the underlying causes of growing socioeconomic [...] Read more.
Many think that immigration is something caused by globalization, and some subsequently blame immigrants for the increased inequalities produced by economic globalization. Xenophobic nationalism has gained popularity around the world, further increasing racial tensions but without addressing the underlying causes of growing socioeconomic inequality, which this paper strives to show is caused by economic policies, not immigration. This paper argues that the apparent retreat from globalization arises from the flawed conceptualization of “globalization” as a bundle of different processes. This study analyzes early framings of economic globalization and shows how it has been linked, for political reasons, to increased migration, diversity, and open borders. Coining the term ”globalization” was not just naming ongoing social change, but it became part of the branding of an elite ideological policy project. The popular framing of globalization purposely entangled independent phenomena such as free trade policies, the expansion of the internet, cosmopolitan identities, and international migration. These couplings brought together neoliberal conservatives and liberal cosmopolitans. Given the current backlash, it is essential to distinguish migration from policies favoring trade and capital movement across borders. It is noteworthy to remember that immigration is something that preceded globalization. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how migration became entangled with globalization in the popular imagination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop