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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 39 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This article focuses on women who have opted to be mothers on their own by choice in the UK and Spain, and how their access to assisted reproductive technologies in the National Health Service was affected because they were 35 years old or older, forcing them to go to private clinics for their treatment. Having given birth to their children, the participants face a second obstacle: the lack of policies that support work–life balance. A third obstacle also arises, in the form of a lack of childcare and early-education provision, particularly in the UK. The last two obstacles affect the whole population, but they are intensified in the case of solo-mother families where the mother is responsible for simultaneously being the caregiver and the sole economic provider. Solo motherhood by choice highlights the impact of the absence of these policies. View this paper.
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Article
Unpacking the Role of Neoliberalism on the Politics of Poverty Reduction Policies in Ontario, Canada: A Descriptive Case Study and Critical Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120485 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
This paper employs a descriptive case study method to analyze and critically review the emergence of the provincial poverty reduction strategy in Ontario, Canada which was implemented in 2008 and renewed in 2014. The purpose of this study is two-fold: first, it defines [...] Read more.
This paper employs a descriptive case study method to analyze and critically review the emergence of the provincial poverty reduction strategy in Ontario, Canada which was implemented in 2008 and renewed in 2014. The purpose of this study is two-fold: first, it defines the principles of neoliberalism and explores the historical growth of neoliberal thought in Canada, and specifically within Ontario, beginning in the 1980s to the present-day. Drawing on a combination of primary, secondary and grey literature, this paper discusses the ways in which neoliberal ideologies and rhetoric became deeply rooted in political thought and discourse within the province. Employing a critical theory framework, the paper highlights the contrasting ways in which neoliberal values were adopted by the different political parties in power and the detrimental impact this espousal had on individuals living in poverty within Ontario. Second, the paper illustrates the powerful ways in which anti-poverty grassroots movements and social advocacy groups assembled to push for the creation of a provincial poverty reduction strategy. The analysis ends with a critique of the neoliberal influences on the strategy’s recommendations and the future outlook of the poverty reduction strategy based on the current political climate within the province. Full article
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Article
Securing Swiss Futurity: The Gefährder Figure and Switzerland’s Counterterrorism Regime
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120484 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 992
Abstract
This article explores the notion of the Gefährder, the German term for a ‘potentially threatening individual’, in the context of the latest expansion of both the spaces of prevention and preemption, particularly through the new anti-terror law (PMT) in Switzerland that drew [...] Read more.
This article explores the notion of the Gefährder, the German term for a ‘potentially threatening individual’, in the context of the latest expansion of both the spaces of prevention and preemption, particularly through the new anti-terror law (PMT) in Switzerland that drew widespread criticism from the international community for its wide judicial reach and vague terminology around terrorist activities, thereby breaching a series of international legal norms and treaties. The term Gefährder represents a historical and political assemblage that exists across space and time in various iterations based on the colonial and racialized Other. This article argues that the latest prototype emerging out of the current Swiss counterterrorism architecture has unique qualities. The Gefährder serves as a bio- and ontopolitical governance tool, through its bodily and affective qualities, that exerts Swiss state control, and reaffirms Swiss national identity and national conservative underpinnings to preserve a particular kind of Swiss futurity. This research aspires to contribute to a body of research on counterterrorism regimes and its affective and bodily subjects in post-imperial nation-states. Full article
Article
Who’s Afraid of Divorce? Sexual Minority Young Adults’ Perspectives on Divorce
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120483 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Research suggests that young adults commonly approve of divorce but still feel anxious about the possibility of divorcing themselves due to anticipated emotional and financial repercussions. However, the existing research focuses exclusively on heterosexual young adults, which is a significant oversight given the [...] Read more.
Research suggests that young adults commonly approve of divorce but still feel anxious about the possibility of divorcing themselves due to anticipated emotional and financial repercussions. However, the existing research focuses exclusively on heterosexual young adults, which is a significant oversight given the recent legalization of same-sex marriage. As such, we rely primarily on qualitative data from an online survey of unmarried sexual minority young adults (n = 257) to examine how they think about divorce. Our results suggest that sexual minority young adults have somewhat distinct perspectives compared to heterosexual young adults. In particular, they anticipate being quite willing to divorce under a broad set of circumstances, and they report minimal anxieties regarding the prospect of divorce. Given documented associations between attitudes toward divorce in young adulthood and subsequent relational behavior (e.g., cohabitation, marital delay), we conclude by discussing what our results suggest about sexual minority young adults’ relationships in the era of marriage equality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
Article
Digital Parenting of Emerging Adults in the 21st Century
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120482 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
In emerging adulthood, when many young people are away from their families for the first time, mobile phones become an important conduit for maintaining relationships with parents. Yet, objective assessment of the content and frequency of text messaging between emerging adults and their [...] Read more.
In emerging adulthood, when many young people are away from their families for the first time, mobile phones become an important conduit for maintaining relationships with parents. Yet, objective assessment of the content and frequency of text messaging between emerging adults and their parents is lacking in much of the research to date. We collected two weeks of text messages exchanged between U.S. college students (N = 238) and their parents, which yielded nearly 30,000 parent-emerging adult text messages. We coded these text message exchanges for traditional features of parent-emerging adult communication indexing positive connection, monitoring and disclosures. Emerging adults texted more with mothers than with fathers and many messages constitute parental check-ins and emerging adult sharing regarding youth behavior and well-being. Findings highlight that both the frequency and content of parent-emerging adult text messages can be linked with positive (perceived text message support) and negative (perceived digital pressure) aspects of the parent-emerging adult relationship. The content of parent-emerging adult text messages offers a valuable, objective window into the nature of the parent-emerging adult relationships in the digital age of the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
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Article
Service Delivery, State Legitimacy and Conflict in Arab Countries: Exploring the Key Linkages Using a Social Policy Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120481 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
This paper addresses the question of how service delivery (SD) affects state legitimacy (SL) and conflict (C) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, drawing particularly on frameworks that move beyond a state-centric approach. Focusing on the majority-Arab countries of MENA, [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the question of how service delivery (SD) affects state legitimacy (SL) and conflict (C) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, drawing particularly on frameworks that move beyond a state-centric approach. Focusing on the majority-Arab countries of MENA, the paper aims to: (1) offer a preliminary explanation of the distinctiveness of this region in light of some of the main findings of the introductory paper by the lead guest editor Timo Kivimäki and (2) explore the potential of a social policy perspective in explaining the relationship between SD, SL and C. This is achieved by combining research insights acquired through extensive qualitative social policy research in the MENA region with a re-reading of the existing literature on SD, SL and C. To support a comprehensive re-examination of the issues at hand, the paper also draws on the 5th Wave of the Arab Barometer micro-level survey (ABS) on Arab citizen perceptions of socio-economic conditions in their countries and macro-level social welfare expenditure data from the World Bank World Development Indicators (WDI). By bringing insights from the social policy literature on the MENA region into conversation with broader research on the relationship between SD, SL and C, we identify several distinctive features of service delivery in the MENA context and examine their implications for state legitimacy and conflict. Full article
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Article
Gender Equality, Human Development, and PISA Results over Time
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120480 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Gender equality through the empowerment, representation, and provision of equal opportunities for all, regardless of gender, is increasingly recognised as a driver of social outcomes and a fundamental human right. This study explores the longitudinal (2006–2018) relationship between gender equality, human development, and [...] Read more.
Gender equality through the empowerment, representation, and provision of equal opportunities for all, regardless of gender, is increasingly recognised as a driver of social outcomes and a fundamental human right. This study explores the longitudinal (2006–2018) relationship between gender equality, human development, and education results as measured by PISA. Gender equality and human development are consistently correlated with PISA scores at each time point; however, when controlling for starting values and country effects only change in gender equality positively predicts change in PISA scores (F = 22.6, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.58). Research and policy implications for the longitudinal interpretation of the relationship of PISA results with system-level factors as well as the relationship between gender equality and education are discussed in this paper. In consideration of the impact of COVID-19 on education and gender equality, the findings from this study support continued political effort towards gender-equal human development in a post-COVID-19 world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Article
The Contribution of Socio-Demographic Factors to Walking Behavior Considering Destination Types; Case Study: Temuco, Chile
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120479 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The improvement of walking contributes to maintain the minimum rate of physical activity and therefore the residents’ public health. This is while the amount of walking in daily transport of inhabitants has significantly decreased during the last decades in Temuco, Chile. In addition, [...] Read more.
The improvement of walking contributes to maintain the minimum rate of physical activity and therefore the residents’ public health. This is while the amount of walking in daily transport of inhabitants has significantly decreased during the last decades in Temuco, Chile. In addition, the impact of socio-demographic as well as social factors on the improvement of walking behavior has been paid less attention in previous studies. This study aims to examine the contribution of socio-demographic factors and the active family environment to walking behavior as well as walking level based on three types of destinations in Temuco. The results of “Encuesta Origin Destino” (EOD) in Temuco were used to examine the objectives. It was found that a high percentage of people who walk in Temuco belong to low-income families. Moreover, most of the people who walk, do not have a driver’s license nor private cars in their household. Certain socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, driver’s license, private cars, and access to TV were found to have associations with overall walking behavior as well as walking level depending on three different destination types. Furthermore, the correlation was found between walking behavior and active family environment. These findings were discussed and their implications were addressed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Article
‘You Owe It to Yourself, Everyone You Love and to Our Beleaguered NHS to Get Yourself Fit and Well’: Weight Stigma in the British Media during the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Thematic Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120478 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
The portrayal of obesity in the media can impact public health by guiding peoples’ behaviours and furthering stigma. Individual responsibility for body weight along with negative portrayals of obesity have frequently dominated UK media discourses on obesity. This study aims to explore how [...] Read more.
The portrayal of obesity in the media can impact public health by guiding peoples’ behaviours and furthering stigma. Individual responsibility for body weight along with negative portrayals of obesity have frequently dominated UK media discourses on obesity. This study aims to explore how the media has represented obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic through a thematic analysis of 95 UK online newspaper articles published in The Sun, The Mail Online, and The Guardian. The first theme, lifestyle recommendations, accounts for media coverage providing ‘expert’ advice on losing weight. The second theme, individual responsibility, emphasises media appeals to self-governance to tackle obesity and protect the NHS during the pandemic. The third theme, actors of change, explores how celebrities and politicians are presented as examples of weight management. These results suggest that individuals are held responsible for their weight and accountable for protecting the NHS during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stigma can be furthered by the decontextualisation of lifestyle recommendations and exacerbated by the actors of change presented: Celebrity profiles reveal gendered goals for weight management, and politicians exemplify self-governance, which consolidates their power. In conclusion, individualising and stigmatising discourses around obesity have taken new forms during the pandemic that link health responsibility to protecting the NHS and invokes celebrities and politicians to foster action. Full article
Article
Modeling the Process of School Shooters Radicalization (Russian Case)
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120477 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Research on radicalization became relevant to the study of terrorism and violent extremism just two decades ago. The accumulated empirical data on terrorism have led researchers and experts to understand that radicalization is a predictor of violent actions by terrorists, violent extremists, and [...] Read more.
Research on radicalization became relevant to the study of terrorism and violent extremism just two decades ago. The accumulated empirical data on terrorism have led researchers and experts to understand that radicalization is a predictor of violent actions by terrorists, violent extremists, and lone actors. Violent incidents committed by school shooters are not terrorist crimes, but there is good reasons for inclusion as terrorist crimes since they have similar mechanisms. The article aims to create a conceptual model of school-shooter radicalization and determine the distinguishing features of the process. The paper presents a theoretical and methodological base of content analysis concepts, political models, and terrorist radicalization on the different levels of study. Based on the content analysis results, we identify the significant gaps in the research field, consider the radicalization phenomenon in detail, substantiated the qualitative aspects of the school shooters radicalization, and propose a conceptual scheme. Psychological, behavioral, cognitive aspects of the school shooters radicalization reflect a holistic picture of the relationship between the process phases and changes in the parameters of the object’s state. The aspects of radicalization and this phenomenon’s qualitative properties are interpreted as the determinants of the conceptual model. The model includes five stages, each of which is considered to be one of the components for the formation and acceptance of the idea of a violent way to solve a problem, but certainly do not act individually as the only component that leads to the actual implementation of the incident of a school shooting. An in-depth study of online social connections and warning signs, mobilization factors, behavioral trajectories, and imitation mechanisms can help scientists understand why school shooters are increasingly motivated to use violent means to achieve personal goals. We have outlined the possibilities and prospects of the model’s application and directions for future research. Full article
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Article
The Reinstatement of Returnees in District Swat, Pakistan: An Evaluative Study of the Rehabilitation Initiatives
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120476 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
This study attempted to develop a happiness index tool for evaluating rehabilitation initiatives used to reinstate returnees at district Swat, Pakistan. The Happiness Index (HI) tool compares two periods, i.e., HI before rehabilitation (BR) and HI after rehabilitation (AR). The returnees’ happiness index [...] Read more.
This study attempted to develop a happiness index tool for evaluating rehabilitation initiatives used to reinstate returnees at district Swat, Pakistan. The Happiness Index (HI) tool compares two periods, i.e., HI before rehabilitation (BR) and HI after rehabilitation (AR). The returnees’ happiness index (RHI) is also compared with Pakistan’s Happiness Index to identify the difference. Data for this study were elicited from 382 respondents through a structured survey questionnaire. The results show that after rehabilitation (AR), the returnees’ happiness index improved from 3.89 to 5.36, which is still less than the world happiness index of Pakistan, i.e., 5.65 in 2019. This study concluded that rehabilitation projects had a significantly positive impact on the HI of the returnees. However, more effective and sustainable initiatives are required to align the RHI to the HI of Pakistan. Further, the RHI tool adopted by this study is significant for measuring the happiness of the marginalized and affected people in Pakistan and beyond. Full article
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Article
Psychometric Study of “Questionnaire of Barriers Perceived” (QBP) in Higher Education
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120475 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
This article presents the process of adaptation and validation, and the resulting psychometric properties, of the “Questionnaire of Barriers Perceived” (QBP). The scale identifies whether a student’s perceptions and expectations are mediated by stereotypes or roles associated with gender through the study of [...] Read more.
This article presents the process of adaptation and validation, and the resulting psychometric properties, of the “Questionnaire of Barriers Perceived” (QBP). The scale identifies whether a student’s perceptions and expectations are mediated by stereotypes or roles associated with gender through the study of their professional aspirations, fear of negative judgement, and perceptions/awareness of gender roles of men and women. Two descriptive studies were conducted via a cross-sectional poll. The questionnaire was administered first to 240 students and then to a total of 1044 student from all the degrees studied at the Faculty of Education at the university at which the study took place. The data were subjected to item content analysis, descriptive analysis, analysis of internal consistency, study of the relationship between variables, correlational analysis, and an exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis. The results showed that the scale had a high goodness-of-fit index, as well as validity and reliability. The dimensions that the model comprised were found to be interrelated and coherent with the theoretical structure considered in the initial version of the instrument. The resulting questionnaire presented sufficient validity and reliability to be used in other contexts and studies of the same nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Relations at Work: Persistent Patterns and Social Change)
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Article
Factors Associated with the Timing and Number of Antenatal Care Visits among Unmarried Compared to Married Youth in Uganda between 2006 and 2016
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120474 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Antenatal care is an important determinant of pregnancy and childbirth outcomes. Although the youth disproportionately experience adverse maternal complications and poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality, timely and frequent use of antenatal care services among unmarried youth in Uganda remains low. This study [...] Read more.
Antenatal care is an important determinant of pregnancy and childbirth outcomes. Although the youth disproportionately experience adverse maternal complications and poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality, timely and frequent use of antenatal care services among unmarried youth in Uganda remains low. This study examines the factors that are important predictors of the use of antenatal health care services among unmarried and married youth. Binary logistic regression was conducted on the pooled data of the 2006, 2011 and 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys among youth who had given birth within five years before each survey to examine the predictors of ANC use. This analysis was among a sample of 764 unmarried, compared to 5176 married youth aged 15–24 years. Overall, married youth were more likely to have more frequent antenatal care visits (56% versus 53%) and start antenatal care early (27% versus 23%) than unmarried youth. Factors significantly associated with use of antenatal care in the first trimester were education and occupation among unmarried youth, and place of residence and access to the radio among married youth. Key predictors of ANC frequency among unmarried youth were parity, education level, pregnancy desire, age group, sex of head of household and region of residence. Among married youth, significant predictors of ANC frequency were parity, pregnancy desire, occupation, access to the radio and region of residence. These findings will help inform health-care programmers and policy makers in initiating appropriate policies and programs for ensuring optimal ANC use for all that could guarantee universal maternal health-care coverage to enable Uganda to achieve the SDG3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Global Perspectives)
Article
Plastic ‘Highways’ to the Sea: The Problem of Litter in English Inland Waterways
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120473 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
There is a conspicuous lacuna in the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990 because it imposes no legal duty on statutory bodies to clear litter from aquatic environments (rivers, canals and lakes) in England and Wales. This paper identifies a significant gap in the [...] Read more.
There is a conspicuous lacuna in the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990 because it imposes no legal duty on statutory bodies to clear litter from aquatic environments (rivers, canals and lakes) in England and Wales. This paper identifies a significant gap in the law on aquatic environmental protection by undertaking doctrinal research, including contextual analysis of references to rivers in ‘soft’ law (e.g., policy documents such as the Conservative Government’s Litter Strategy) and ‘hard law’ (e.g., legislation including the EPA 1990); an examination of the problems with existing legal frameworks in this sphere and an exploration of legislative and practical measures which could protect our rivers and other inland waterways from litter. A legislative amendment to the EPA is proposed with discussion of whether imposing a duty on an existing body or a new, specialised body to clear litter from rivers will ameliorate these problems. The intention behind this paper is to initiate an informed debate on how to protect aquatic environments from the harmful effects of litter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Governance of Plastics)
Review
A Review of First-Year Student Stress and Social Support
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120472 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
The present paper reviews empirical literature on stress and social support relative to first-year post-secondary students, published between 1996 and 2020. Empirical studies included in the literature search focused on stress, coping, and social support specifically among first-year undergraduate students while studying in [...] Read more.
The present paper reviews empirical literature on stress and social support relative to first-year post-secondary students, published between 1996 and 2020. Empirical studies included in the literature search focused on stress, coping, and social support specifically among first-year undergraduate students while studying in countries adopting North American higher education models comparable to the United States and Canada. This review examines contextual and psychological antecedents and correlates of stress, as well as associated demographic and achievement variables. Furthermore, this review extends to studies on social support categorized by source (peers, family, faculty, institution, and multiple sources of support). A synthesis and critique of the literature explores the themes in the empirical research presented, as well as considerations for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Speaking to Power: The Problem of Enabling Subaltern Voices to Be Heard. A Case Study Concerned with Using the Arts to Engage with the Issue of Maternal Mortality in Western Kenya
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120471 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 949
Abstract
In the context of consistently poor provision of state maternity services to impoverished women in western Kenya over many decades, this article discusses the use of arts in relation to researching subaltern perspectives and enabling subaltern voices to be heard by the powerful. [...] Read more.
In the context of consistently poor provision of state maternity services to impoverished women in western Kenya over many decades, this article discusses the use of arts in relation to researching subaltern perspectives and enabling subaltern voices to be heard by the powerful. The argument is made that behaviour change agendas are almost always top down, while requirements for the authorities to engage with subaltern voices are minimal and frequently resisted. Case studies are offered of two artistic interventions—a play and a documentary film, made in 2018 and 2019 respectively, which sought to engage medical authorities and the middle classes regarding the consequences of the, sometimes very weak, implementation of Kenya’s excellent policies in relation to maternal health for the poor. In conclusion, the question of how to more effectively enable the powerless to speak to power is discussed. Full article
Article
“Our World Is Shaking Because of Corona”: Intersecting Crises and Disrupted Life Transitions among Young People in Ethiopia and Jordan Pre- and Post-COVID-19
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120470 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Our article explores how intersecting crises, sociocultural norms around gender, age, household and community and broader political and economic shifts are affecting youth transitions. We draw on qualitative virtual research with 138 young people in Ethiopia and Jordan undertaken between April and August [...] Read more.
Our article explores how intersecting crises, sociocultural norms around gender, age, household and community and broader political and economic shifts are affecting youth transitions. We draw on qualitative virtual research with 138 young people in Ethiopia and Jordan undertaken between April and August 2020. COVID-19 is exacerbating ongoing crises and gender inequalities in Ethiopia and Jordan and foreclosing opportunities for youth transitions. In Ethiopia, the pandemic has compounded the precarity of young people who have migrated from rural to urban areas, often to locations where they are socially marginalised. In Jordan, the confinement of young people affected by forced displacement to their households with extended family during pandemic-related service closures augments existing perceptions of an extended ‘waithood’—both psychosocially and economically. In both contexts, conservative gender norms further entrench the restrictions on adolescent girls’ mobility with consequences for their opportunities and wellbeing. This article makes an important contribution to the literature on gender, migrant youth and the ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic by showing how multiple crises have sharpened the social and political (im)mobilities that already shaped young men and women’s lives in Ethiopia and Jordan and the consequences for their trajectories to adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories)
Article
Mothers’ Perspectives on Resistance and Defiance in Middle Childhood: Promoting Autonomy and Social Skill
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120469 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
This study explored mothers’ perceptions of their children’s resistance to their requests and defiance of parental authority during middle childhood and early adolescence. We were interested in parental perceptions of change in resistance, their interpretations of the meaning of resistance, and parental responses [...] Read more.
This study explored mothers’ perceptions of their children’s resistance to their requests and defiance of parental authority during middle childhood and early adolescence. We were interested in parental perceptions of change in resistance, their interpretations of the meaning of resistance, and parental responses to these behaviors. Forty Canadian mothers of children 9–13 years of age participated for one week in a study focused on parents’ experiences of children’s resistance and opposition. Procedures consisted of a qualitative analysis of mothers’ reports from a five-day event diary and a 1 h semi-structured interview. Mothers reported developmental changes in the quantity and quality of children’s resistance to parental requests and expectations. Most mothers reported increasing displays of defiance and direct and indirect expressions of attitude but also noted changes in the skill with which children expressed resistance. Mothers interpreted children’s resistance as annoying but normal expressions of children’s developing autonomy. Mothers supported children’s right to expression of agency through resistance but attempted to channel children’s resistance toward socially competent expressions of assertiveness. The findings have implications for a relational perspective on autonomy-supportive parenting and parents’ goals for children’s developing social competence in the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
Article
Association between Psychological Integration and Permanent Supportive Housing: An Exploratory Study with a Focus on Ethnicity
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120468 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 974
Abstract
There is limited research on the association between Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) and psychological integration. The purpose of this study was to explore this association among individuals with mental illness and/or substance use disorder (SUD) enrolled in PSH and to identify variables associated [...] Read more.
There is limited research on the association between Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) and psychological integration. The purpose of this study was to explore this association among individuals with mental illness and/or substance use disorder (SUD) enrolled in PSH and to identify variables associated with sense of belonging. Given differences in outcomes of PSH by ethnicity, we were interested to determine if an association existed between PSH and psychological integration and whether it was equally observed among Hispanics and non-Hispanics. The target population included individuals who were chronically homeless and diagnosed with a mental illness and/or SUD. Baseline data were collected upon intake (N = 370). Follow-up data were collected at six-months post baseline (N = 286) and discharge (N = 143). Predictor and control variables included demographics, overall health, PTSD symptom severity, interactions with family and friends, and participation in recovery-related groups in the community. Psychological integration scores increased significantly from the baseline to the 6-month follow-up (t = −3.41, p = 0.003) and between the 6-month follow-up and discharge (t = −2.97, p = 0.007). Significant predictors of psychological integration included overall health, interactions with family and/or friends, PTSD symptoms, income, education, and diagnosis. No differences were observed between Hispanics and non-Hispanics. The findings from this exploratory study suggest that future research in this area is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Crisis of Homelessness)
Editorial
COVID-19 and the Creeping Necropolitics of Crimmigration Control
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120467 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a drastic impact on migration and migrants and immigration policies worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crimmigration in the Age of COVID-19)
Article
Data Protection Impact Assessment: A Protection Tool for Migrants Using ICT Solutions
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120466 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Smart devices have become ubiquitous in everyday life, and it is commonplace that migrants are among the users of connected tools. With the realization that migrants rely on connectivity for multiple purposes, including to access information and services, many initiatives started working on [...] Read more.
Smart devices have become ubiquitous in everyday life, and it is commonplace that migrants are among the users of connected tools. With the realization that migrants rely on connectivity for multiple purposes, including to access information and services, many initiatives started working on developing ICT tools to assist migrants to integrate into their new society. Technological tools, however, come with inherent risks, many of which are linked to the processing of personal data of their users. This is especially true for migrants, who are often vulnerable due to their migration status, which is not always secure in the host country. To mitigate these risks, we argue that an expanded data protection impact assessment, analyzing not only the impacts related to data protection, but also to the specific situation of migrants, should be conducted at the outset of any technology development project to influence the development of safe and reliable ICT tools for this target population. A practical example of the application of such an assessment is provided, based on the authors’ experience as legal advisors in the REBUILD project, which is one of the current initiatives in the EU aiming to develop ICT tools for migrant integration. Full article
Article
How Gender Is Recognised in Economic and Education Policy Programmes and Initiatives: An Analysis of Nigerian State Policy Discourse
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120465 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
Many African states are involved in the frontline discourse on the fight for gender equality through the adoption of public policies, aiming to improve the lives of women through social, economic, and political development. In Nigeria, despite the adoption of Article 42 of [...] Read more.
Many African states are involved in the frontline discourse on the fight for gender equality through the adoption of public policies, aiming to improve the lives of women through social, economic, and political development. In Nigeria, despite the adoption of Article 42 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 adapted from the United Nations principles of gender equality, which provides for equality and elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, the Nigerian state still struggles with different forms of gendered marginalisation issues against women in various aspects of Nigerian society; these issues are mainly due to cultural, economic, and legislative challenges. Therefore, this article explores how gender is recognized through public policy programmes and initiatives using a qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The documents were collected from various government ministries and cover policy areas that represent entrepreneurship and economic activities in Nigeria between 2000 and 2020. The analysis confirms the recognition of gender in public policies by subjective bias and mediating access to education for female gender advancement in Nigerian society. Some gender gaps were also recognized and discussed in the article. Full article
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Article
Performing the Bad Marriage? The Transition from a Troubled to a Troubling Family in the Course of Fault Divorce in the 21st Century
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120464 - 05 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Austrian family law stands out in Europe because, in Austria, fault-based divorce is still legally valid. In these divorces, the suing partner attempts to prove in court that the other partner is at fault for the breakdown of the marriage. Thus, proving in [...] Read more.
Austrian family law stands out in Europe because, in Austria, fault-based divorce is still legally valid. In these divorces, the suing partner attempts to prove in court that the other partner is at fault for the breakdown of the marriage. Thus, proving in court that a relationship is deficient in order to obtain a divorce is a common family transition practice in Austria. In this contribution, I seek to identify the practices that are associated with fault divorce proceedings and look at how these practices are related to normative and legal ideas of marriage. Based on a qualitative multiple case study, I analysed 17 fault divorce lawsuits filed by heterosexual couples in the 2014–2016 period. To do so, I used situational analysis, trans-sequential analysis, and an analytical framework that was developed within the research project. The spouses’ involvement in the proceedings relied on two main approaches: First, the divorce was justified by an event that was disruptive enough to ‘keep things short’. These narratives were related to the divorce grounds explicitly mentioned in family law. Second, the divorce was justified through narratives of a ‘normal’ marriage that became a ‘bad’ marriage over time. These narratives relied upon characterisations of the other spouse as deficient. These deficiencies were related to normative expectations associated with particular life stages and gendered life course trajectories and mirrored the nuclear family ideal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
Article
Gamifying Online News in a Senior Online Community: Insights from Designing and Assessing the Readers’ Experience
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120463 - 05 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Aging audiences and the shift of news consumption to an online paradigm have led to the need of finding strategies to engage aging readers with online news by assessing their news consumption habits and identifying the potential for digital platforms to assist the [...] Read more.
Aging audiences and the shift of news consumption to an online paradigm have led to the need of finding strategies to engage aging readers with online news by assessing their news consumption habits and identifying the potential for digital platforms to assist the reader’s journey, i.e., the activities performed from access to the information to the relatedness and shareability of the news content. It is well established that the use of game elements and game thinking within the context of a community can capture the user’s attention and lead to behavioral engagement toward repetitive tasks. However, information about the design implications of socially gamified news to the aging reader’s experience is still lacking. Using a development research approach, we implemented a prototype that socially gamifies news to support the aging reader experience based on a pre-assessment survey with 248 participants about their news consumption habits and motivations. We then validated the prototype with six market-oriented representatives of Portuguese newspapers and eleven adults aged 50 and over. A model for onboarding a reader’s 6-step journey (read, react, discuss, share, relate and experience) within the context of a Senior Online Community using gamification is proposed. The game elements used can inform the design of a much more personalized experience of consuming news and news behavioral engagement. Full article
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Article
Sexual Assault Myths Acceptance in University Campus: Construction and Validation of a Scale
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120462 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1165
Abstract
The study related to the myths of rape has been carried out since the 1980s at different scales. However, the interaction between the acceptance of these rape myths (myths related to sexual abuse) and the nightlife scene—where alcohol consumption becomes the epicenter of [...] Read more.
The study related to the myths of rape has been carried out since the 1980s at different scales. However, the interaction between the acceptance of these rape myths (myths related to sexual abuse) and the nightlife scene—where alcohol consumption becomes the epicenter of this particular context—has not been specifically evaluated. In this work, a questionnaire has been developed considering different scales. It has been tested online in a population of 367 first-year undergraduate students at the University of Alcalá (Spain). The results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the reliability ones, indicate the adequacy of the scale construction and validation process for the university student population. In addition, the results obtained, in line with the specialized literature, indicate that the consumption of alcohol and other drugs appear as justifying elements of sexual violence, exonerating the aggressors and perpetrating the victim. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence, Victimization and Prevention)
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Editorial
Editorial Introduction to Technological Approaches for the Treatment of Mental Health in Youth
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120461 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 10–20% of adolescents (10–19 years old) worldwide suffer from mental health conditions, with 50% starting at the age of 14 (World Health Organization 2020) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Approaches for the Treatment of Mental Health in Youth)
Article
Out-of-Place Content: How Repetitive, Offensive, and Opinion-Challenging Social Media Posts Shape Users’ Unfriending Strategies in Spain
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120460 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Filtering strategies enable social media users to remove undesired content from their feeds, potentially creating homophilic environments. Although previous studies have addressed the individual-level factors and content features that influence these decisions, few have solely focused on users’ perceptions. Accordingly, this study applies [...] Read more.
Filtering strategies enable social media users to remove undesired content from their feeds, potentially creating homophilic environments. Although previous studies have addressed the individual-level factors and content features that influence these decisions, few have solely focused on users’ perceptions. Accordingly, this study applies social exchange theory to understand how users socially construct the process of unfriending. Based on 30 in-depth interviews with young Spaniards, we identify a widespread pattern of rejection over repetitive, opinion-challenging, and offensive posts, which we conceptualize as out-of-place content, a type of social media stimulus that hinders substantive online exchanges and challenges users’ understanding of social reality and individual values. This study contributes to current literature on unfriending by suggesting that filtering strategies are implemented gradually when posts overwhelm users’ tolerance threshold. Our findings also suggest that their deployment hinges on the closeness of the relationship between peers and social commitments formed in specific platforms. Future research is needed to assess to what extent the patterns identified in our interviews are present in the overall population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Article
Culture and Social Change in Mothers’ and Fathers’ Individualism, Collectivism and Parenting Attitudes
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120459 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2641
Abstract
Cultures and families are not static over time but evolve in response to social transformations, such as changing gender roles, urbanization, globalization, and technology uptake. Historically, individualism and collectivism have been widely used heuristics guiding cross-cultural comparisons, yet these orientations may evolve over [...] Read more.
Cultures and families are not static over time but evolve in response to social transformations, such as changing gender roles, urbanization, globalization, and technology uptake. Historically, individualism and collectivism have been widely used heuristics guiding cross-cultural comparisons, yet these orientations may evolve over time, and individuals within cultures and cultures themselves can have both individualist and collectivist orientations. Historical shifts in parents’ attitudes also have occurred within families in several cultures. As a way of understanding mothers’ and fathers’ individualism, collectivism, and parenting attitudes at this point in history, we examined parents in nine countries that varied widely in country-level individualism rankings. Data included mothers’ and fathers’ reports (N = 1338 families) at three time points in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. More variance was accounted for by within-culture than between-culture factors for parents’ individualism, collectivism, progressive parenting attitudes, and authoritarian parenting attitudes, which were predicted by a range of sociodemographic factors that were largely similar for mothers and fathers and across cultural groups. Social changes from the 20th to the 21st century may have contributed to some of the similarities between mothers and fathers and across the nine countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
Article
The Socioeconomic Integration of People in Need of International Protection: A Spatial Approach in the Case of Greece
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120454 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
This paper explores the impact of dispersal policy of asylum seekers in Greece under the accommodation scheme running in the country. Combining an analysis of secondary data and the findings of field research through semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in migration governance, the authors [...] Read more.
This paper explores the impact of dispersal policy of asylum seekers in Greece under the accommodation scheme running in the country. Combining an analysis of secondary data and the findings of field research through semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in migration governance, the authors seek to identify whether there are differences in the integration prospects between the residents of the camps, which are mostly outside cities or in rural areas, and the beneficiaries of urban autonomous living. The contribution of this paper lies in that it brings into the spotlight the spatial criterion for the evaluation of integration both under the lens of rural–urban placement as well as under the lens of collective-autonomous living. To this end, it follows the integration policies and practices implemented at national and local levels and compares the access granted to people in need of international protection and their outcomes. The findings are in accordance with the literature supporting that the positive impact of urban autonomous living in socioeconomic integration usually prevails the residence in rural collective housing. However, it points out the importance of local actors in the success of integration efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
Article
The Intersection of Reproductive, Work-Life Balance and Early-Education and Care Policies: ‘Solo’ Mothers by Choice in the UK and Spain
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120458 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1490
Abstract
This article focuses on women who have opted to be mothers on their own by choice in the UK and Spain, and how their access to assisted reproductive technologies in the National Health Service was affected because they were 35 years old or [...] Read more.
This article focuses on women who have opted to be mothers on their own by choice in the UK and Spain, and how their access to assisted reproductive technologies in the National Health Service was affected because they were 35 years old or older, forcing them to go to private clinics for their treatment. Having given birth to their children, the participants face a second obstacle: the lack of policies that support work-life balance. A third obstacle also arises, in the form of a lack of childcare and early-education provision, particularly in the UK. The last two obstacles affect the whole population, but they are intensified in the case of solo-mother-families where the mother is responsible for simultaneously being the caregiver and the sole economic provider. Solo motherhood by choice highlights the impact of the absence of these policies, and the inequalities that result from current contemporary conceptualizations of family, woman and early-childhood-care and education. This article draws on ethnographic research that took place in the UK and Spain where I conducted 60 in-depth interviews and participant observations. The aim is to provide an analysis capable of capturing and confronting how inequalities affect women-mothers-workers and their children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
Article
COVID-19 Crisis as the New-State-of-the-Art in the Crimmigration Milieu
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(12), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10120457 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
The concept of crimmigration connotes the currently prevailing approach between the different fields of penal, administrative and migration laws. It seems that, progressively, there is an amalgamation of penal law practices with those of civil and administrative law processes in a way creating [...] Read more.
The concept of crimmigration connotes the currently prevailing approach between the different fields of penal, administrative and migration laws. It seems that, progressively, there is an amalgamation of penal law practices with those of civil and administrative law processes in a way creating confusion as to the boundaries of each law discipline and rational. In addition, the protection of public health from COVID-19 interrelates with the above three fields of law while at the same time the measures undertaken for the confrontation of the pandemic are further strengthening the social controls already imposed towards the migrant-refugee populations. Based on the Greek experience, we are particularly interested in mixed migration flows’ status of a ‘prolonged reception’. We have decided to examine the cases of the ‘asylum-seeker’ population and the ‘undocumented’ population who, to a large extent, constitute a large unseen category for the national vaccine program implemented to combat the COVID-19 hygiene crisis. The basic idea supported by our present study is that the health field is used as an additive component to crimmigration as it helps the establishment of a concrete screening intensifying the already imposed migration controls. In addition, the official social controls imposed to combat the COVD-19 health crisis contribute to crimmigration through the intensification of the dangerization of mixed migration flows. Currently, the health field, affected by COVID-19, contributes to the intensification of the crimmigration regime and at the same time to a dangerous cul-de-sac. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crimmigration in the Age of COVID-19)
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