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Buildings, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Adaptive reuse of buildings is considered a superior alternative for new construction in terms of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Architectural Design: Sustainability in the Decision-Making Process
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050135 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
This article discusses the potential of introducing sustainability in the architectural design method so that building solutions can contribute to sustainable development. Sustainability has introduced a new pattern to the architecture practice, which involves important modifications in the teaching of architecture in what [...] Read more.
This article discusses the potential of introducing sustainability in the architectural design method so that building solutions can contribute to sustainable development. Sustainability has introduced a new pattern to the architecture practice, which involves important modifications in the teaching of architecture in what regards to the design methods to students but also practitioners, in order to provide more comfort for present and future generations. In the design phases of the architectural design, the subject of the three pillars of sustainability—economic, social and environmental factors—are not always considered by the architect in the decision-making process. The topic involves actions that will influence the overall performance of the building throughout its lifecycle. Sustainability has not been a priority in the training of the architect. The existing tools, Sustainability Assessment and Certification Systems, although adequate to evaluate the sustainability component of a building, do not prove to be the most appropriate tool to support architects during the design process. Therefore, the implementation and evaluation of strategies that integrate the sustainability principles need to be included in the early stages of the architectural design method. In addition to collecting data through literature review, a survey was conducted among 217 architects and architecture students in order to access the need for a tool that supports architects in the issue of sustainability. The results concluded that, although all the respondents agree about what concerns the implementation of sustainability principles in the architectural design method, only few respondents guarantee that these principles are implemented by means of a rigorous evaluation. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify a set of guidelines that can help architects to change the current approach of architectural practice towards more sustainable strategies in building design. This means the introduction, implementation and evaluation of sustainability principles in different phases of the architectural design method. The proposal stresses the main strategies that need to be considered in each phase of the architectural project and defines a level of recommendation in each guideline that allows the architect to evaluate the implementation of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Design: Robust and Human Centered)
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Open AccessArticle
Selection of (Green) Roof Systems: A Sustainability-Based Multi-Criteria Analysis
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050134 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
A wide diffusion of green envelopes in cities can be an opportunity to improve urban environment conditions and reduce negative effects of climate change. The green roof system is a widespread solution adopted all over the world due to the relative simplicity of [...] Read more.
A wide diffusion of green envelopes in cities can be an opportunity to improve urban environment conditions and reduce negative effects of climate change. The green roof system is a widespread solution adopted all over the world due to the relative simplicity of installation and the large private and social benefits provided. Despite this, some factors hinder the diffusion of the green roof system, not only economic factors (due to the higher installation costs compare to a traditional roof solution), but also technical factors connected to lack of knowledge. The present paper investigates the factors influencing designers in the choice of a building roof systems, comparing a traditional solution and a greening system. The involvement of architects, engineers, and researchers allows the selection of the most important factors. Results of the study identifies their priority, and through a sustainability-based multicriteria analysis, the role played by each one in the decision process. This approach provides interesting hints to identify effective strategies to support a wider diffusion of greening systems for urban resilience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Ducted Photovoltaic Façade Unit with Buoyancy Cooling: Part II CFD Simulation
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050133 - 24 May 2019
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
A ducted photovoltaic façade (DPV) unit was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is Part II of the study, which is a repetition of Part I—a previous experimental study of the ducted photovoltaic unit with buoyancy cooling. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
A ducted photovoltaic façade (DPV) unit was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is Part II of the study, which is a repetition of Part I—a previous experimental study of the ducted photovoltaic unit with buoyancy cooling. The aim of this study is to optimize the duct width behind the solar cells to allow for the cells to achieve maximum buoyancy-driven cooling during operation. Duct widths from 5 to 50 cm were simulated. A duct width of 40 cm allowed for the maximum calculated heat to be removed from the duct; however, the lowest cell-operating temperature was reported for a duct width of 50 cm. The results showed that the change in temperature (ΔT) between the ducts’ inlets and outlets ranged from 8.10 to 19.32 °C. The ducted system enhanced module efficiency by 12.69% by reducing the photovoltaic façade (PV) temperature by 27 °C from 100 to 73 °C, as opposed to the increased temperatures that have been reported when fixing the PV directly onto the building fabric. The maximum simulated heat recovered from the ducted PV system was 529 W. This was 47.98% of the incident radiation in the test. The total summation of heat recovered and the power enhanced by the ducted system was 61.67%. The nature of airflow inside the duct was explored and visualized by reference to the Grashof number (Gr) and CFD simulations, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coupling of Building Components and Ventilation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Infrared Thermography and Heat Flux Method for Dynamic Thermal Transmittance Determination
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050132 - 23 May 2019
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
This paper proposes an alternative experimental procedure that uses infrared thermography (IRT) for measuring the surface temperature of building elements, through which it is possible to approximate the thermal transmittance or the U-value. The literature review showed that all authors used similar procedures [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an alternative experimental procedure that uses infrared thermography (IRT) for measuring the surface temperature of building elements, through which it is possible to approximate the thermal transmittance or the U-value. The literature review showed that all authors used similar procedures that require semi-stationary heat transfer conditions, which, in most cases, could not be achieved. The dynamic and the average methods that are given in ISO 9869 were also used with the IRT and the heat flux method (HFM). The dynamic method (DYNM) shows a higher level of accuracy compared to the average method (AVGM). Since the algorithm of the DYNM is more complicated than that of the AVGM, Microsoft Excel VBA was used to implement the algorithm of the DYNM. Using the procedure given in this paper, the U-value could be approximated within 0–30% of the design U-value. The use of IRT, in combination with the DYNM, could be used in-situ since the DYNM does not require stable boundary conditions. Furthermore, the procedure given in this paper could be used for relatively fast and inexpensive U-value approximation without the use of expensive equipment (e.g., heat flux sensors). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle
Minimising the Deviation between Predicted and Actual Building Performance via Use of Neural Networks and BIM
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050131 - 23 May 2019
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Building energy performance tools are widely used to simulate the expected energy consumption of a given building during the operation phase of its life cycle. Deviations between predicted and actual energy consumptions have however been reported as a major limiting factor to the [...] Read more.
Building energy performance tools are widely used to simulate the expected energy consumption of a given building during the operation phase of its life cycle. Deviations between predicted and actual energy consumptions have however been reported as a major limiting factor to the tools adopted in the literature. A significant reason highlighted as greatly influencing the difference in energy performance is related to the occupant behaviour of the building. To enhance the effectiveness of building energy performance tools, this study proposes a method which integrates Building Information Modelling (BIM) with artificial neural network model for limiting the deviation between predicted and actual energy consumption rates. Through training a deep neural network for predicting occupant behaviour that reflects the actual performance of the building under examination, accurate BIM representations are produced which are validated via energy simulations. The proposed method is applied to a realistic case study, which highlights significant improvements when contrasted with a static simulation that does not account for changes in occupant behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Measurement Techniques in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Proposed Simplified Approach for the Seismic Analysis of Multi-Storey Moment Resisting Framed Buildings Incorporating Friction Sliders
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050130 - 23 May 2019
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
An innovative, simplified, and accurate model is proposed and developed to enable simplified yet realistic time history analysis of multi-storey buildings with moment resisting connections using friction energy dissipaters in the commonly used structural analysis and design program, SAP2000. The analyses are rapid [...] Read more.
An innovative, simplified, and accurate model is proposed and developed to enable simplified yet realistic time history analysis of multi-storey buildings with moment resisting connections using friction energy dissipaters in the commonly used structural analysis and design program, SAP2000. The analyses are rapid to undertake, thereby enabling detailed study of the influence of many building system effects on the overall response. This paper presents the outcome of dynamic analysis of a complete 13-storey moment resisting steel building with Sliding Hinge Joints as the beam-column connections, considering the influential self-centring factors such as MRF and gravity columns continuity as well as column base and diaphragm flexibilities. The building is one of the Te-Puni towers, which are structural steel apartment buildings with steel-concrete composite floors, designed according to the low damage design philosophy, built in Wellington, New Zealand in 2008 and which have already been subjected to two significant earthquakes. The key objectives of the research have been to take the design of the 13-storey building and convert that into the proposed simplified model required for time history seismic analysis, to undertake analysis under scaled El-Centro earthquake record, investigate the peak inter-storey drift and the residual drift of the building, and determine the influence of column base rotational stiffness, floor slab out of horizontal plane displacement, type of friction damper, and MRF and gravity column continuity. It is concluded that the response of the building is stable and predictable, as expected, and that the post-earthquake state of the building, particularly from the self-centring point of view, is well within the limits for maintaining operational continuity following an ULS level design earthquake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
State Financial Losses in Public Procurement Construction Projects in Indonesia
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050129 - 23 May 2019
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
To sustainably eradicate corruption, extraordinary efforts are needed particularly in the context of construction projects. In this study, the state losses in government-funded construction projects in Indonesia is analyzed. Research data were collected through field observations for types of work that were not [...] Read more.
To sustainably eradicate corruption, extraordinary efforts are needed particularly in the context of construction projects. In this study, the state losses in government-funded construction projects in Indonesia is analyzed. Research data were collected through field observations for types of work that were not completed per technical specifications. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The results indicate that structural work was responsible for 98.70% of total state losses. The top three state losses were found to be associated with concrete, roads, and front stonework, and the values are 40.40%, 28.43%, and 18.23% respectively. Loss in architectural work was the smallest (1.30%). The outcomes of this survey offer a knowledge basis for law enforcement authorities and construction project supervisors to pay more attention to projects involving concrete structures, rigid pavement structures during road construction, and stonework. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Strengthening of the Bagh Durbar Heritage Building in Kathmandu Following the Gorkha Earthquake Sequence
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050128 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
The so-called Greco-Roman monuments, also known as neoclassical monuments, in Nepal represent unique construction systems. Although they are not native to Nepal, they are icons of the early 19th century in the Kathmandu valley. As such structures are located within the heritage sites [...] Read more.
The so-called Greco-Roman monuments, also known as neoclassical monuments, in Nepal represent unique construction systems. Although they are not native to Nepal, they are icons of the early 19th century in the Kathmandu valley. As such structures are located within the heritage sites and historical centers, preservation of Greco-Roman monuments is necessary. Since many buildings are in operation and accommodate public and critical functions, their seismic safety has gained attention in recent times, especially after the Gorkha earthquake. This paper first presents the background of the Bagh Durbar monument, reports the damage observations, and depicts some repair and retrofitting solutions. Attention is paid to the implementation of the different phases of the structural characterization of the building, the definition of reference material parameters, and finally, the structural analysis made by using finite element models. The aim of the contribution consists of comparison of the adequacy of the finite element model with the field observations and design of retrofitting solutions to assure adequate seismic safety for typical Greco-Roman buildings in Nepal. Thus, this paper sets out to provide rational strengthening solutions compatible with the existing guidelines rather than complex numerical analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Cylindrical Masonry Shell in St. Jacob`s Church in Dolenja Trebuša, Slovenia—Case Study
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050127 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
This paper focuses on identifying key reasons for the damage of the cylindrical masonry shell structure in St. Jacob`s church in Dolenja Trebuša, Slovenia. Typical damage patterns which can be formed in shell structures and may affect the load bearing capacity are outlined. [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on identifying key reasons for the damage of the cylindrical masonry shell structure in St. Jacob`s church in Dolenja Trebuša, Slovenia. Typical damage patterns which can be formed in shell structures and may affect the load bearing capacity are outlined. Several stress states (membrane, bending and also combined stress state) that can occur in the shell structure are described. Load cases such as the vertical displacement of the support structure, temperature loading, weight of maintenance team and also seismic loading are taken into account in order to identify the actual cause for the registered crack pattern in the shell structure. Analysis of the shell structure is performed using the SAP2000 structural software. Based on the obtained results, which highlighted key reasons for registered damage, the monitoring of cracks is recommended in the first phase, and, in continuation, the most appropriate repair and strengthening measures are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnoses in the Aging Process of Residential Buildings Constructed Using Traditional Technology
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050126 - 20 May 2019
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
The perspective of maintaining residential buildings in adequate technical condition is one of the most important problems over the course of their service life. The aim of the work is to present issues connected with the methods of predicting the process of changes [...] Read more.
The perspective of maintaining residential buildings in adequate technical condition is one of the most important problems over the course of their service life. The aim of the work is to present issues connected with the methods of predicting the process of changes in performance characteristics over the entire period that a building, constructed using traditional technology, is operational. Identification of the technical situation consists of a prognosis based on the analytical form of the distribution function and probability density of building usability. The technical condition of a building results from its past, while familiarity with the condition is necessary to determine how the building will behave in the future. The presented predictive diagnostics of the performance characteristics of an entire building and its elements is an original methodology of describing the lifespan of a building. In addition to identifying the technical condition, its aim is also to aid in making decisions regarding maintenance works. The developed model of predicting changes in the performance characteristics of buildings, the Prediction of Reliability according to Exponentials Distribution (PRED), is based on the principles applied for technical devices. The model is characterized by significant limitations in its application due to the negligible influence of wear processes. In connection with the above, the Prediction of Reliability according to Raleigh Distribution (PRDD) was developed, where the carried-out processes of changes in the performance characteristics are described using Rayleigh’s distribution, and the building is a multi-element system. Model development would be incomplete without subjecting it to verification. Predicting the degree of the technical wear of load-bearing walls of a building is a form of checking the proposed PRED and PRRD models on the basis of data derived from periodical inspections of the research material. The developed model of the time distribution of the proper functioning of a building, presented as an image of the forecast of changes in the technical condition, can be applied to solving problems occurring in practice. The targeted approach to predicting the occurrence of damage will allow for optimal planning of maintenance works in buildings during their entire service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Prediction and Maintenance of Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Manufacturing Processes for Automated Timber-Based Panelised Prefabrication
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050125 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
The manufacturing processes involved in the prefabrication of timber-based panelised walls is presented and explored in this study, through current industry practice and the latest automated technological solutions. A weighted Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) was constructed as a preliminary mechanism for assessment of [...] Read more.
The manufacturing processes involved in the prefabrication of timber-based panelised walls is presented and explored in this study, through current industry practice and the latest automated technological solutions. A weighted Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) was constructed as a preliminary mechanism for assessment of current practices in conducting manufacturing processes compared to leading automated solutions. The developed method can be used to evaluate any timber-based wall panel manufacturing assembly line and to suggest recommended automation-based improvements on a process level in order to achieve prefabricated manufacturing objectives specific to local conditions and requirements. This has been demonstrated and verified through a case study with an industry partner. The resultant recommendations obtained close the knowledge gaps in the market and academia in uncovering recommended areas for investment and development to advance assembly lines at certain key processes in the production of timber-based walls for panelised construction. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of an Assessment Method to Evaluate the Quality of Remedial Treatments on Concrete Flat Roofs of Multiple Buildings
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050124 - 15 May 2019
Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Existing assessment tools have not been successfully used to evaluate the performance of the remedial treatment of concrete flat roofs by building users or building management personnel because they are complicated and difficult to be applied by non-experts. In this study, a semi-quantitative [...] Read more.
Existing assessment tools have not been successfully used to evaluate the performance of the remedial treatment of concrete flat roofs by building users or building management personnel because they are complicated and difficult to be applied by non-experts. In this study, a semi-quantitative method has been developed to assess the quality of remedial treatment on concrete flat roofs of multiple buildings. A 10-point scale weighting was calculated based on the results of ranking, and then the score assessment scheme was developed. Results revealed that the repairing principles included protection against ingress (W = 7.25), physical resistance against ingress (W = 5.23), concrete restoration (W = 8.22), structural strengthening (W = 8.22), moisture control (W = 6.59), and chemical resistance (W = 4.57). The grouped principles included physical resistance (W = 6.24), structural stability (W = 8.22), and chemical resistance (W = 5.58). The scoring assessment scheme was applied to a remedial treatment on multilayer concrete flat roof which was treated with bituminous membrane. The assessment scheme was revised based on the surveyors’ comments and then verified by the experts. This assessment method secured and improved the quality of the remedial treatment, since the building management staff/owner successfully evaluated, controlled, and monitored the quality of remedial treatments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Natural Ventilation on the Thermal and Energy Performance of Buildings in a Mediterranean Climate
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050123 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Natural ventilation plays an important role on the thermal and energy performance of a building. The present study aims to analyze the natural ventilation conditions of a dwelling in a Mediterranean climate and their impacts on the thermal and energy performance using an [...] Read more.
Natural ventilation plays an important role on the thermal and energy performance of a building. The present study aims to analyze the natural ventilation conditions of a dwelling in a Mediterranean climate and their impacts on the thermal and energy performance using an advanced building energy simulation tool. Several multi-zone simulations were carried out. In the summer, the simulations were performed under free-floating conditions, whereas in the winter they were carried out under controlled temperature conditions. In the summer, ventilation scenarios with windows opened during certain periods of time and with or without permanent openings in the facades were analyzed. The existence of permanent openings proved to be an important factor of temperature control by lowering the average indoor zone temperatures during the day. Cross-ventilation also showed to be effective. In the winter, we simulated the existence or absence of permanent openings for room ventilation and their surface area. The results showed that the stack effect plays an important role in the ventilation and that in general it outperforms the wind effect. Sizing permanent openings according to the standard guidelines proved to be adequate in providing the expected ventilation rates on an average basis. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Repair Costs for Masonry Infills in RC Buildings from Observed Damage Data: the Case-Study of the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050122 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
The estimation of direct and indirect losses due to earthquakes is a key issue in the Performance Based Earthquake Engineering framework. In commonly adopted loss computation tools, no specific data related to masonry infill panels, widespread in moment-resisting-frame residential buildings, are available to [...] Read more.
The estimation of direct and indirect losses due to earthquakes is a key issue in the Performance Based Earthquake Engineering framework. In commonly adopted loss computation tools, no specific data related to masonry infill panels, widespread in moment-resisting-frame residential buildings, are available to perform a probabilistic assessment of losses. To fill this gap, specific fragility and loss functions have been recently proposed in the last years. To assess their validity and estimate the relevance of the repair costs due to infills after earthquakes with respect to the total reconstruction process, the present work analyses the Reinforced Concrete residential buildings with masonry infills struck by the 2009 L’Aquila (Italy) earthquake, focusing on the dataset of “lightly” damaged buildings, where only damage to masonry infills occurred. Based on available data related to these buildings, the observed damage scenario after L’Aquila earthquake is first obtained. The repair costs for infills are estimated given this damage scenario. The resulting estimated repair costs are then compared with the actual repair costs presented in the available literature. The percentage influence of infills on the total repair costs due to earthquakes for residential buildings is lastly computed, resulting on average equal to the fifty percent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of the Seismic Response of Multi-Storey Multi-Bay Masonry Infilled Frames Using Artificial Neural Networks and a Bilinear Approximation
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050121 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
In order to test the reliability of neural networks for the prediction of the behaviour of multi-storey multi-bay infilled frames, neural network processing was done on an experimental database of one-storey one-bay reinforced-concrete (RC) frames with masonry infills. From the obtained results it [...] Read more.
In order to test the reliability of neural networks for the prediction of the behaviour of multi-storey multi-bay infilled frames, neural network processing was done on an experimental database of one-storey one-bay reinforced-concrete (RC) frames with masonry infills. From the obtained results it is demonstrated that they are acceptable for the prediction of base shear (BS) and inter-storey drift ratios (IDR) in characteristic points of the primary curve of infilled frame behaviour under seismic loads. The results obtained on one-storey one-bay infilled frames was extended to multi-bay infilled frames by evaluating and comparing numerical finite element modelling(FEM) modelling and neural network results with suggested approximating equations for the definition of bilinear capacity by defined BS and IDRs. The main goal of this paper is to offer an interpretation of the behaviour of multi-storey multi-bay masonry infilled frames according to a bilinear capacity curve, and to present the infilled frame’s response according to the contributions of frame and infill. The presented methodology is validated by experimental results from multi-storey multi-bay masonry infilled frames. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Rehabilitation of Corrosion-Defected RC Beam-Column Members Using Patch Repair Technique
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050120 - 10 May 2019
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of patch repair to rehabilitate corrosion-defected reinforced concrete (RC) beam-column members when exposed to bending moments and axial forces. Ten RC beam-column members were tested under combined constant axial force and four-point transverse load [...] Read more.
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of patch repair to rehabilitate corrosion-defected reinforced concrete (RC) beam-column members when exposed to bending moments and axial forces. Ten RC beam-column members were tested under combined constant axial force and four-point transverse load up to failure. Two levels of the constant axial force were applied at either 15 kN or 30 kN (i.e., 25% or 50% of the ultimate design load of the control specimen). The accelerated corrosion process was used to get steel reinforcement corrosion inside the concrete of three levels, 0% and approximately 5% and 20%, according to Faraday’s law. The patch repair technique of cleaning or replacing corroded steel bars and replacing the damaged concrete cover with new mortar was used in this study. The experimental results of the corrosion-defected specimens showed a significant deterioration in the structural performance and the integrity by reducing ultimate capacity, stiffness, serviceability, and ductility. Additionally, the effect of increasing axial force was recorded clearly by reducing the adverse effect of corrosion, especially for defected specimens with high corrosion level. The deterioration of corrosion reinforcement could be overcome when using a patch repair technique, which restored the undamaged state and was shown clearly by using a patch repair technique with replacing corroded steel bars. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frame by Finite Element Method with Implicit Limit State Functions
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050119 - 10 May 2019
Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Since the prediction of the seismic response of structures is highly uncertain, the need for the probabilistic approach is clear, especially for the estimation of critical seismic response parameters. Considering the uncertainties present in the material and geometric form of reinforced concrete (RC) [...] Read more.
Since the prediction of the seismic response of structures is highly uncertain, the need for the probabilistic approach is clear, especially for the estimation of critical seismic response parameters. Considering the uncertainties present in the material and geometric form of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, reliability analyses using the Finite Element Method (FEM) were performed in the context of Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE). This study presented and compared the possibilities of nonlinear modelling of the reinforced concrete (RC) planar frame and its reliability analysis using different numerical methods, Mean-Value First-Order Second-Moment (MVFOSM), First-Order Reliability Method (FORM), Second-Order Reliability Method (SORM) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The calibrated numerical models used were based on the previous experimental test of a planar RC frame subjected to cyclic horizontal load. Numerical models were upgraded by random variable (RV) parameters for reliability analysis purposes and, using implicit limit state function (LSF), pushover analyses were performed by controlling the horizontal inter-storey drift ratio (IDR). Reliability results were found to be sensitive to the reliability analysis method. The results of reliability analysis reveal that, in a nonlinear region, after exceeding the yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcement, the cross-sectional geometry parameters were of greater importance compared to the parameters of the material characteristics. The results also show that epistemic (knowledge-based) uncertainties significantly affected dispersion and on the median estimate parameter response. The MCS sampling method is recommended, but the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) applied on a response model can be used with good accuracy. Reliability analysis using the FEM proved to be suitable for the direct implementation of geometric and material nonlinearities to cover epistemic (knowledge-based) uncertainties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
BIM-based and AR Application Combined with Location-Based Management System for the Improvement of the Construction Performance
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050118 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
The information and communication technologies (ICTs) utilization ratio in the construction industry is relatively low. This industry is characterized by low productivity, time and cost overruns in projectsdue to inefficient management processes, poor communication and low process automation. To improve construction performance, a [...] Read more.
The information and communication technologies (ICTs) utilization ratio in the construction industry is relatively low. This industry is characterized by low productivity, time and cost overruns in projectsdue to inefficient management processes, poor communication and low process automation. To improve construction performance, a BIM-based (BIM - (Building Information Modelling) and augmented reality (AR) application (referred to as the AR4C: Augmented Reality for Construction) is proposed, which integrates a location-based management system (LBMS). The application provides context-specific information on construction projects and tasks, as well as key performance indicators on the progress and performance of construction tasks. The construction projects are superimposed onto the real world, while a site manager is walking through the construction site. This paper describes the most important methods and technologies, which are needed to develop the AR4C application. In particular, the data exchange between BIM software and the Unity environment is discussed, as well as the integration of LBMS into BIM software and the AR4C application. Finally, the implemented and planned functionalities are argued. The AR4C application prototype was tested in a laboratory environment and produced positive feedback. Since the application addresses construction sites, a validation in semi-real scenarios with end users is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IT in Design, Construction, and Management)
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Open AccessReview
Holistic Review and Conceptual Framework for the Drivers of Offsite Construction: A Total Interpretive Structural Modelling Approach
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050117 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
The significant ill-performances, challenges, and increasing competition within the construction sector are generating tremendous changes. One such revolution is the transition towards offsite construction (OSC). Although a plethora of studies has expounded the virtues and benefits of the approach, a holistic review and [...] Read more.
The significant ill-performances, challenges, and increasing competition within the construction sector are generating tremendous changes. One such revolution is the transition towards offsite construction (OSC). Although a plethora of studies has expounded the virtues and benefits of the approach, a holistic review and conceptual framework of the drivers of OSC is not well-established. This research draws on a multistage methodological framework of a systematic literature review, plenary discussions, and the total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) approach to build a holistic conceptual framework for the drivers of OSC. A review of 32 empirical studies distributed across four continents resulted in the extraction of 86 drivers. The 86 drivers were grouped into time, cost, quality, productivity, innovative competitiveness, market, sustainability, and policy clusters of drivers drawing on previous classifications in empirical studies. The TISM modeling revealed three hierarchical levels of the drivers, comprising dependent, linkage, and independent drivers. Based on an MICMAC analysis, “innovative competitiveness” and “sustainability” have the highest driving powers and lowest dependences, suggesting their prime significance in the adoption of OSC. Thus, this research provides a broader perspective of the drivers and may help OSC practitioners and policymakers to gain a better understanding of the ecosystem of the drivers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pathology and Rehabilitation of Vinyl and Linoleum Floorings in Health Infrastructures: Statistical Survey
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050116 - 07 May 2019
Viewed by 1374
Abstract
A statistical survey on the pathology and rehabilitation of linoleum and vinyl floorings is presented. It is based on the visual inspection of 101 vinyl and linoleum floorings, in six health infrastructures in Lisbon, Portugal, which enabled the validation of the classification/nomenclature previously [...] Read more.
A statistical survey on the pathology and rehabilitation of linoleum and vinyl floorings is presented. It is based on the visual inspection of 101 vinyl and linoleum floorings, in six health infrastructures in Lisbon, Portugal, which enabled the validation of the classification/nomenclature previously proposed, as well as the corresponding correlation matrices. It was also possible to identify the most common types of anomalies, their probable causes, the most adequate in situ diagnosis methods, and the most useful repair techniques. Anomalies, diagnosis methods, and repair techniques files were also validated. The obtained data enabled anomalies to be related to their causes, in situ diagnosis methods, and respective repair techniques e.g., a high number of scratches/wear were detected associated with dragging of equipment. The conclusions drawn intend to raise awareness among the industry actors and minimize the development of anomalies and their causes at the design and application stages. Furthermore, the main sensitive issues of the cladding system during its service life were revealed, highlighting the importance of a correct maintenance plan to minimize the surface’s susceptibility to various degradation mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Prediction and Maintenance of Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges and Enablers in BIM-Enabled Digital Transformation in Mega Projects: The Istanbul New Airport Project Case Study
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050115 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
The Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector has been working on an increasing number of mega projects having large scale investments worldwide. The majority of these mega projects are infrastructure projects that are comparatively more difficult to manage in terms of yielding an [...] Read more.
The Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector has been working on an increasing number of mega projects having large scale investments worldwide. The majority of these mega projects are infrastructure projects that are comparatively more difficult to manage in terms of yielding an expected return of investments while increasing quality and productivity. Today’s construction technology landscape offers a wide variety of innovative digital solutions for optimizing the project constraints of scope, time, cost, quality, and resources. Despite being one of the least digitized sectors, the AEC sector is currently ripe for adopting innovative digital solutions. It is observed that Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been rapidly adopted to tackle the ever-evolving challenges of mega infrastructure projects. This study investigates the challenges and enablers of utilizing an end-to-end BIM strategy for digital transformation of mega project delivery processes through a mega airport project case study, in order to contribute a solid strategic understanding in BIM implementation for mega infrastructure projects. The case study is followed with two-phased semi-structured interviews. Based on the findings, major challenges are sustaining continuous monitoring and controlling in the project execution, engineering complexity and aligning stakeholders’ BIM learning curves whereas strategic control mechanisms, incentivizing the virtual collaborative environment, and continuous digital delivery are major enablers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IT in Design, Construction, and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Methodology for Integration of Whole Life Costs into BIM Processes to Assist Design Decision Making
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050114 - 05 May 2019
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
A common barrier to achieving design intent is the absence of comprehensive information about operational performance during design development. This results in uninformed decision-making which impacts on actual building performance, in particular Whole Life Costs (WLC). It is proposed that Building Information Modelling [...] Read more.
A common barrier to achieving design intent is the absence of comprehensive information about operational performance during design development. This results in uninformed decision-making which impacts on actual building performance, in particular Whole Life Costs (WLC). It is proposed that Building Information Modelling (BIM) has the potential to facilitate a more comprehensive and accurate design approach from the initial stages if the model can utilize reliable and robust cost and performance data from buildings in use. This paper describes the initial findings of a research project that has investigated the integration of WLC estimation into BIM processes. The study focusses specifically on the rapidly emerging Private Rental Sector (PRS) as the build-to-rent market has repeatable tasks and similar workflow patterns, roles and responsibilities, but impacts of WLC can significantly influence the business model. The study adopted a mixed method approach for the development and validation of a structured standardized process for timely WLC estimation through BIM. The research identified a number of barriers. These included varying definitions of WLC calculation methodologies; the availability and standards of data sources, in particular, the misalignment of coding systems for identification and classification of components at various levels of development, proprietary ownership of data, lack of knowledge and skills in team members to produce and/or utilize data sources, and limitations of software. However, the research proposes that these may be addressed by a reverse-engineered systematic process that uses the Integrated DEFinition (IDEF) 3 structured diagramming modelling technique that can be incorporated into a software model and has developed a model for a systematic approach for BIM-enabled WLC assessment based on CE principles which would include access to live data streams from completed buildings. The paper describes this model development which has the potential to enhance BIM lifecycle management through an augmented decision-making approach that is integral to the natural design development process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IT in Design, Construction, and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Wasteful Activities Using Lean Methodology: In Perspective of Kazakhstan’s Construction Industry
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050113 - 05 May 2019
Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Like many other countries, the presence of wasteful activities is very common in Kazakhstan’s construction industry. This severely affects the productivity of construction processes. Lean methodology maximizes the value of a process by minimizing wasteful or non-value adding (NVA) activities. This study aims [...] Read more.
Like many other countries, the presence of wasteful activities is very common in Kazakhstan’s construction industry. This severely affects the productivity of construction processes. Lean methodology maximizes the value of a process by minimizing wasteful or non-value adding (NVA) activities. This study aims to explore and quantify the impact NVA items on construction productivity. Several observations were made for construction processes in Astana, Kazakhstan to investigate and quantify various types of wasteful activities. Moreover, a survey was conducted to examine the general understanding of wasteful activities and Lean methods within the construction industry in Kazakhstan. In terms of wasteful activities, a similarity was found between the observed construction processes and survey results. Furthermore, apart from the commonly found seven types of wasteful activities, some other sources of waste, such as “preparation” and “break”, were found from the observations. Finally, wasteful activities were mapped with commonly used Lean tools, as found in the literature, so that productivity can be improved by minimizing NVA activities. From the mapping and the survey results, value stream mapping (VSM) was found to be the most effective Lean tool, since it facilitates increased visualization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Communication Processes for Building Design, Construction, and Management
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050112 - 05 May 2019
Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Communication in architecture requires the participation of several individuals that share information, tasks, and resources. With new means of communication, the changes that have affected the construction industry in the last decade revealed new organization structure in practice. As many studies point out, [...] Read more.
Communication in architecture requires the participation of several individuals that share information, tasks, and resources. With new means of communication, the changes that have affected the construction industry in the last decade revealed new organization structure in practice. As many studies point out, the issue of IT integration in the means of communication, and the development of new organization models in the construction industry; however, an adjustable process model of mechanism enhancing project productivity, through effective communication, is not yet studied. Therefore, the study will explore the facilitators for better communication that will improve productivity in the architecture practice and make up an efficient communication model, which could be adapted by any architecture firm in Lebanon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of an Insurance Policy Model Applied to Natural Stone Facade Claddings
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050111 - 04 May 2019
Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The insurance market deliberately excludes the buildings’ envelope from their insurance policies, neglecting all the damage that can be caused by the degradation process or ageing of the materials. This stance is mainly due to the lack of knowledge in terms of risk [...] Read more.
The insurance market deliberately excludes the buildings’ envelope from their insurance policies, neglecting all the damage that can be caused by the degradation process or ageing of the materials. This stance is mainly due to the lack of knowledge in terms of risk and costs associated to the failure of these elements. Even though the building and its elements are the most valuable asset of any owner, most often homeowners do not adopt effective preventive measures to mitigate the deterioration and obsolescence of their assets. This study proposes an innovative methodology for the design of insurance policies for buildings’ envelopes, applied to natural stone facade claddings. The insurance product is defined based on deterministic and stochastic service life prediction models, established through the past degradation history of 142 natural stone claddings analyzed in service conditions in Portugal. Single-parameter (only analyzing the cladding’s age) and multiparameter (encompassing the relevant variables) models are applied in the calculation of the insurance premium. The expected claims are related with the performance of maintenance actions and established according to three degradation levels. The results obtained reveal that an increased knowledge about the insured cladding leads to a reduction of the risk margin and consequently, to a lower annual value of commercial premium paid by a household. This study proposes an innovative solution for tailoring the insurance products, in terms of the risk of failure of the buildings components, as well as the financial charges related with the maintenance of these elements, channeling the risks to the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Prediction and Maintenance of Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Indoor Air Quality and Energy Consumptions in Classrooms
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050110 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Most of the school buildings in Italy are high energy-demanding buildings with no ad-hoc ventilation systems (i.e., naturally-ventilated buildings). Therefore, reducing the heat losses of schools represent the main aspect to be dealt with. Nonetheless, the indoor air quality of the building should [...] Read more.
Most of the school buildings in Italy are high energy-demanding buildings with no ad-hoc ventilation systems (i.e., naturally-ventilated buildings). Therefore, reducing the heat losses of schools represent the main aspect to be dealt with. Nonetheless, the indoor air quality of the building should be simultaneously considered. Indeed, to date, energy consumptions and air quality are considered as incompatible aspects especially in naturally-ventilated buildings. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the effect of different ventilation and airing strategies on both indoor air quality and energy consumptions in high energy-demanding naturally-ventilated classrooms. To this purpose, an Italian test-classroom, characterized in terms of air permeability and thermophysical parameters of the envelope, was investigated by means of experimental analyses and simulations through CO2 mass balance equation during the heating season. The air quality was assessed in terms of indoor CO2 concentrations whereas the energy consumptions were evaluated through the asset rating approach. Results clearly report that not adequate indoor CO2 concentrations are measured in the classroom for free-running ventilation scenarios even in low densely populated conditions (2.2 m2 person−1), whereas scheduled airing procedures can reduce the indoor CO2 levels at the cost of higher energy need for ventilation. In particular, when airing periods leading to the air exchange rate required by standards are adopted, the CO2 concentration can decrease to values lower than 1000 ppm, but the ventilation losses increase up to 36% of the overall energy need for space heating of the classroom. On the contrary, when the same air exchange rate is applied through mechanical ventilation systems equipped with heat recovery units, the ventilation energy loss contribution decreases to 5% and the overall energy saving results higher than 30%. Such energy-saving was found even higher for occupancy scenarios characterized by more densely populated conditions of the classroom typically occurring in Italian classrooms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applying Level of Detail in a BIM-Based Project: An Overall Process for Lean Design Management
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050109 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Few construction companies apply the available lean tools and processes in an integrated manner when managing design. Additionally, lean design management tools and processes each have their own strengths and optimal phases in which they should be applied. Earlier approaches in lean design [...] Read more.
Few construction companies apply the available lean tools and processes in an integrated manner when managing design. Additionally, lean design management tools and processes each have their own strengths and optimal phases in which they should be applied. Earlier approaches in lean design management have not explicitly included the level of detail of building information model (BIM) models in connection with planning methods. For example, the Last Planner System (LPS) uses collaborative social methods to obtain task dependencies and commitments from project stakeholders, but it does not provide any guidance regarding what those tasks should be in a BIM-based process. With regard to production, this guidance is provided by combining location-based methods, such as a location-based management system or takt planning, to LPS. In a similar manner, by combining information from various sources, this paper defines a location-based design management process using the concept of level of detail that can be integrated with LPS. The level of detail definition must be based on the requirements of the end-user in each stage of the construction project. The process was cocreated and validated in focus group meetings with design and construction companies and further evaluated and assessed by applying it in a case project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IT in Design, Construction, and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of Regional Assertions in the Architecture of Delhi from the 1970s to the present
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050108 - 01 May 2019
Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Critical regionalism is an architectural approach that seeks to correct sterile and abstract modernism by using contextual forces that focus on local needs and potential. As globalisation disrupts and displaces local building traditions in India’s metropolitan cities, critical regionalism offers resistance to the [...] Read more.
Critical regionalism is an architectural approach that seeks to correct sterile and abstract modernism by using contextual forces that focus on local needs and potential. As globalisation disrupts and displaces local building traditions in India’s metropolitan cities, critical regionalism offers resistance to the homogenising forces of global modernism. This paper analyses five key architectural works realised in Delhi in the past four decades that incorporate the ideas of critical regionalism in their designs. The different approaches adopted by regionalist architects in dealing with local climate, topography, materials and sociological complexes have been presented. By limiting itself to regionalist works in Delhi, the paper attempts to highlight that critical regionalism is not a set of aesthetic preferences but a philosophical framework capable of producing diverse forms of architecture despite analogous external influences arising from similar site conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Design: Robust and Human Centered)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Durability Properties of Coconut Shell Concrete with Coconut Fiber
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050107 - 30 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Coconut fiber was used in coconut shell concrete (CSC) and its durability properties were studied. The properties include: water absorption, volume of permeable pore voids, rapid chloride penetration test, sorptivity and resistance at elevated temperature. For comparison purpose, these properties were also studied [...] Read more.
Coconut fiber was used in coconut shell concrete (CSC) and its durability properties were studied. The properties include: water absorption, volume of permeable pore voids, rapid chloride penetration test, sorptivity and resistance at elevated temperature. For comparison purpose, these properties were also studied on conventional concrete (CC) with coconut fibers. Three different curing conditions viz. full water immersion, site curing and air-dry conditions were employed except for temperature resistance study in which only full water immersion was used. Test results show that the durability properties were better in full water immersion condition in case of CC mixes and in site curing condition in case of CSC mixes. Temperature resistance tests gave a minimum guarantee of both CC and CSC mixes without and with coconut fibers for 2 h resistance and hence they were deemed safe for construction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Performance of Unreinforced Stone Masonry Greek “Basilica” Churches When Subjected to Seismic Forces and Foundation Settlement
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050106 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Unreinforced stone masonry made of low strength mortar has been used for centuries in forming old type stone masonry churches of the “Basilica” typology. The seismic performance of such stone masonry structures damaged during recent strong seismic activity in Greece, combined with long [...] Read more.
Unreinforced stone masonry made of low strength mortar has been used for centuries in forming old type stone masonry churches of the “Basilica” typology. The seismic performance of such stone masonry structures damaged during recent strong seismic activity in Greece, combined with long term effects from foundation settlement, is presented and discussed. A simplified numerical process is presented for evaluating the performance of such damaged stone masonry structures, making use of linear and non-linear numerical tools and assumed limit-state failure criteria. In order to obtain a quantification of the in-plane sliding shear failure criterion, a number of stone masonry wallets were built with weak mortar and were tested in the laboratory. Through the comparison of the obtained numerical predictions with the observed structural behaviour for selected cases of stone masonry “Basilica” churches, the validity of the applied simplified numerical process is demonstrated. It is shown that reasonable approximation of the observed performance of such structures can be obtained when the assumed failure criteria are realistic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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