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Buildings, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The effectiveness of slightly reinforced thin U-shaped cementitious mortar jacketing for the repair [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Transfer Function Analysis: Modelling Residential Building Costs in New Zealand by Including the Influences of House Price and Work Volume
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060152
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
An accurate cost estimate not only plays a key role in project feasibility studies but also in achieving a final successful outcome. Conventionally, estimating cost typically relies on the experience of professionals and cost data from previous projects. However, this process is complex [...] Read more.
An accurate cost estimate not only plays a key role in project feasibility studies but also in achieving a final successful outcome. Conventionally, estimating cost typically relies on the experience of professionals and cost data from previous projects. However, this process is complex and time-consuming, and it is challenging to ensure the accuracy of the estimates. In this study, the bivariate and multivariate transfer function models were adopted to estimate and forecast the building costs of two types of residential buildings in New Zealand: Low-rise buildings and high-rise buildings. The transfer function method takes advantage of the merits of univariate time series analysis and the power of explanatory variables. In the dynamic project conduction environment, simply including building cost data in the cost forecasting models is not valid for making predictions, because the change in demand must be considered. Thus, the time series of house prices and work volume were used to explain exogenous effects in the transfer function model. To demonstrate the effectiveness of transfer function models, this study compared the results generated by the transfer function models with autoregressive integrated moving average models. According to the forecasting performance of the models, the proposed approach achieved better results than autoregressive integrated moving average models. The proposed method can provide accurate cost estimates that can help stakeholders in project budget planning and management strategy making at the early stage of a project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Function-Based and Multi-Scale Approach to Green Roof Guidelines for Urban Sustainability Transitions: The Case of Bogota
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060151
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
A growing number of local green roof niches across the globe are transitioning into the mainstream domain. Guidelines are key to this process, as they define technological environments and set the criteria for best practices in a given socio-technical setting. Although the German [...] Read more.
A growing number of local green roof niches across the globe are transitioning into the mainstream domain. Guidelines are key to this process, as they define technological environments and set the criteria for best practices in a given socio-technical setting. Although the German Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau (FLL) cornerstone guidelines provided solid empirical ground and established technical parameters for the successful application of green roofs across continents, investigations about alternative green roof guidelines for emerging markets remain very scarce. The paper presents the inclusive approach followed by the Bogota Green Roof Guidelines, which were the result of a multi-actor participatory process that examined how to embrace a wide range of emerging green roof technologies and local adaptations while promoting quality of application at different scales, regardless of the system used, and despite the absence of local robust empirical data on performance parameters. As a result, Bogota’s Green Roof Guidelines incorporated ad hoc elements: (1) new definitions and taxonomy, (2) function-based contents, (3) multi-scale approach, and (4) performance scoping. These aspects are discussed to provide novel insights for the advancement of green infrastructure policies in diverse institutional settings aiming to promote quality and simultaneously support markets that make room for a wide variety of green infrastructure practices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Construction and Demolition Waste Management Actions and Potential Benefits: A Perspective from Trinidad and Tobago
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060150
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
A study was conducted to identify the primary sources and types of construction and demolition (C&D) waste, determine current and potential management actions which can be applied to the respective wastes, and assess the potential benefits, barriers, and recommendations towards the implementation of [...] Read more.
A study was conducted to identify the primary sources and types of construction and demolition (C&D) waste, determine current and potential management actions which can be applied to the respective wastes, and assess the potential benefits, barriers, and recommendations towards the implementation of a C&D waste management plan in Trinidad and Tobago—a Caribbean Small Island Developing State (SIDS). This process is lacking locally, and will benefit decision makers and other stakeholders in proper management of C&D waste. Currently, the primary method of waste disposal is landfilling. The structured questionnaire survey method was used to collect the data, and data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA with appropriate post-tests. Results showed that wood, plastic, cardboard, gypsum board, and steel were identified as the most wasted materials on site, with the top sources being attributable to design, operations, and residual causes. It can be inferred that if materials are not being reused, they are being landfilled, as these were the two primary waste treatment methods identified as being used for all materials. If waste management practice gathers enough support from all respective authorities and stakeholders, the general consensus is that all materials listed have recycle/reuse potential in Trinidad and Tobago. The top agreed upon advantages of C&D waste management were all directly related to sustainability, and the barriers to implementation identified were related to general lack of support from respective stakeholders and authorities. From the overall results, it can be concluded that there is not enough evidence to suggest that larger contractors have more positive attitudes and behaviors towards C&D waste management. Although the data are local, the findings from this research can be used as guidelines by the other Caribbean SIDS nations in formulating/comparing their own waste management practices. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Blockchain and Building Information Modeling (BIM): Review and Applications in Post-Disaster Recovery
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060149
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Blockchain Technology (BCT) is a growing digital technology that in recent years has gained widespread traction in various industries in the public and private sectors. BCT is a decentralized ledger that records every transaction made in the network, known as a ‘block’, the [...] Read more.
Blockchain Technology (BCT) is a growing digital technology that in recent years has gained widespread traction in various industries in the public and private sectors. BCT is a decentralized ledger that records every transaction made in the network, known as a ‘block’, the body of which is comprised of encrypted data of the entire transaction history. BCT was introduced as the working mechanism that forms the operational basis of Bitcoin, the first digital cryptocurrency to gain mainstream appeal. The introduction of decentralized data exchange technology in any industry would require strengthened security, enforce accountability, and could potentially accelerate a shift in workflow dynamics from current centralized architectures to a decentralized, cooperative chain of command and affect a cultural and societal change by encouraging trust and transparency. BCT aims at creating a system that would offer a robust self-regulating, self-monitoring, and cyber-resilient data transaction operation, assuring the facilitation and protection of a truly efficient data exchange system. In the state of Florida, climate change and unpredicted weather disasters have put pressure on state and local decision-makers to adapt quick and efficient post-disaster recovery systems. Part of the recovery efforts is the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure. The introduction of new technologies in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry can contribute to addressing recovery and rebuilding after the event of a natural disaster. With parallel technological advancement in geospatial data and Geographic Information System (GIS), as well as worsening climatic conditions, concerns can be suitably addressed by employing an integrated system of both Building Information Modeling (BIM) and BCT. While several potential applications of BIM must provide solutions to disaster-related issues, few have seen practical applications in recent years that indicate the potential benefits of such implementations. The feasibility of BIM-based applications still rests on the reliability of connectivity and cyber-security, indicating a strong use case for using BCT in conjunction with BIM for post-disaster recovery. This research depicts a survey of BCT and its applications in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industries and examines the potential incorporation within the BIM process to address post-disaster rebuilding problems. Moreover, the study investigates the potential application of BCT in improving the framework for automating the building permitting process using Smart Contract (SC) technologies and Hyperledger Fabric (HLF), as well as discussing future research areas. The study proposes a new conceptualized framework resulting from the integration of BCT and BIM processes to improve the efficiency of building permit processes in post-disaster events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Open AccessEditorial
Reducing the Seismic Vulnerability of Existing Buildings: Assessment and Retrofit
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060148
Received: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Devastating seismic events occurring all over the world keep raising the awareness of the scientific, technical and political communities to the need of identifying assets at risk and developing more effective and cost-efficient seismic risk mitigation strategies [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
An Exploration of Synergies between Lean Concepts and BIM in FM: A Review and Directions for Future Research
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060147
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Though Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been proposed as a lean solution for the construction industry, its implementation would itself benefit from a proactive lean approach. This paper aims to study the implementation of BIM in Facilities Management (FM), and explores the synergistic [...] Read more.
Though Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been proposed as a lean solution for the construction industry, its implementation would itself benefit from a proactive lean approach. This paper aims to study the implementation of BIM in Facilities Management (FM), and explores the synergistic potential of a lean approach. This was carried out through an integrative review of existing literature. BIM-FM implementation was categorized into three phases, which were analyzed to uncover the challenges and barriers faced in each; and explore the potential of a proactive lean approach to counter them. A number of key findings emerged. The existence of inefficiencies and variability in information management leading to an increase in labor hours was identified as a persistent problem in BIM-FM implementation. This had been derived by systematically mapping the challenges to their resultant effects on business processes based on the seven identified wastes in business. The paper provides both academics and practitioners with a collated list of issues based on a new way of examining BIM in FM implementation. It discusses the need for and synergistic potential of lean concepts to reduce information and time waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Repair of Heavily Damaged RC Beams Failing in Shear Using U-Shaped Mortar Jackets
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060146
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The effectiveness of slightly reinforced thin U-shaped cementitious mortar jacketing for the repair of damaged shear-critical reinforced concrete beams is experimentally investigated. The test project includes two parts. In the first one, five concrete beams over-reinforced against flexure and under-reinforced against shear with [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of slightly reinforced thin U-shaped cementitious mortar jacketing for the repair of damaged shear-critical reinforced concrete beams is experimentally investigated. The test project includes two parts. In the first one, five concrete beams over-reinforced against flexure and under-reinforced against shear with different ratio of closed stirrups were initially subjected to monotonic loading until failure. The initially tested beams have been designed to fail in shear after wide diagonal cracking and to exhibit various strength and deformation capacities along with different levels of damages. In the second experimental part, the heavily damaged beams were jacketed with mild steel small diameter U-shaped transverse stirrups and longitudinal reinforcing bars. The retrofitted specimens using the proposed jacketing technique were tested again following the same four-point-bending load scheme. Based on the overall performance of the beams, it is deduced that the shear strength and deformation capability of the jacketed beams were substantially increased compared to the corresponding capacities of the initial beams. Further, although all beams failed in a shear abrupt manner, the retrofitted ones exhibited reduced brittleness and higher deflections at failure up to six times with respect to the initially tested specimens. The level of the initial damage influences the efficiency of the jacketing. Additional test data derived from relative shear-damaged beam specimens and retrofitted with similar thin jackets is also presented herein in order to establish the effectiveness of this repair system and to clarify the parameters affecting its structural reliability. Comparisons indicated that jacketed beams can alter the failure mode from brittle shear to ductile flexural under certain circumstances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Characterization of a New Architectural Concrete with Glass-Recycled Aggregate
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060145
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Concrete is a material which is widely used in architecture, not only for structural purposes but also for architectural elements for its versatility and excellent performance. However, the manufacturing of this material as a mixture of water, cement, and fine and coarse aggregate [...] Read more.
Concrete is a material which is widely used in architecture, not only for structural purposes but also for architectural elements for its versatility and excellent performance. However, the manufacturing of this material as a mixture of water, cement, and fine and coarse aggregate comes with a high environmental cost, such as gas emissions, among other things. This is the reason why different alternatives are being proposed in order to replace coarse aggregates with other recycled materials, as it is one of the less sustainable components of the mixture in terms of extraction. One of these alternatives is recycled glass coming from drinking bottles, crushed into small grains and mixed in the same proportions as regular aggregates. This study proposes the mechanical characterization of a new architectural concrete mixture by using white Lafarge cement and glass-recycled aggregates; this proposed concrete is made especially for architectural elements like façade panels, rather than structural elements. The mechanical evaluation of this new material is done through a set of experimental tests under compression and also bending, comparing three different ratios of glass aggregate in the mixture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Moisture Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber Building Elements during Construction
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060144
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
There are currently no standards regulating water management for mass timber elements during construction, little knowledge of impacts of moisture exposure (wetting and drying performance, dimensional stability, checking), and few precedents serving as guidelines for monitoring moisture response of mass timber. To address [...] Read more.
There are currently no standards regulating water management for mass timber elements during construction, little knowledge of impacts of moisture exposure (wetting and drying performance, dimensional stability, checking), and few precedents serving as guidelines for monitoring moisture response of mass timber. To address these gaps, a hygrothermal monitoring study was devised to track moisture performance of U.S. made cross laminated timber (CLT) and glulam at a three-story mass timber building. This paper discusses moisture measurements that were collected during the first six months of construction at a CLT rocking shear wall and a timber floor connection. Despite the limited number of structural systems monitored during construction, the distribution and number of sensors in these elements allow to draw some important conclusions. The data confirmed that moisture distribution and wetting/drying rates varied based on local conditions and details (aspect, coatings, connections, etc.), with measurements at an uncoated, north-facing area showing the highest moisture levels (reaching fiber saturation at multiple ply depths and locations). Most locations rarely exceeded 16% moisture content for more than a few months. Certain moisture-trapping details consistently showed higher moisture levels (i.e., above 16%) and poorer drying. Some interior plies continued to show slow increases in MC even after months of drying conditions. These observations suggest preventative approaches implementable in the design (e.g., avoiding moisture trapping details), during fabrication (e.g., localized coating), and construction (e.g., sequencing installation to minimize exposure and allow drying). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advantages of an Interdisciplinary Approach to the Sustainable Development of Two Scenarios in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060143
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Presently, almost all human activities (agriculture, transport, industry, construction sector, etc.) have an adverse impact on the environment. The construction sector in the EU alone accounts for a big part of the total energy consumption and emission of CO2. Two-thirds of [...] Read more.
Presently, almost all human activities (agriculture, transport, industry, construction sector, etc.) have an adverse impact on the environment. The construction sector in the EU alone accounts for a big part of the total energy consumption and emission of CO2. Two-thirds of the energy used in the construction sector in Europe goes to housing. As the number of residents grows, the requirements for new housing increase, causing an additional increase in energy consumption and new CO2 emissions for construction, maintenance, lighting, ventilation, cooling, and heating. Benefits of detailed planning of sustainable development of the construction sector are manifold. The most important benefits are sustainable use of resources, economic and social development of communities, increasing employment rates, improvements of living conditions and protection of the environment. Two scenarios for the development of an energy-efficient construction sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a focus on housing facilities are developed, in order to address the needs and benefits of detailed planning. Both scenarios analyze the effects on job creation, the impact of used construction materials on the environment and eco balance of local products. The difference in the solutions confirms the benefits of an interdisciplinary approach to the planning of sustainable systems so that not only technical, but also economic and social benefits can be evaluated thanks to the combination of methods used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitored Indoor Environmental Quality of a Mass Timber Office Building: A Case Study
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060142
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
A broad range of building performance monitoring, sampling, and evaluation was conducted periodically after construction and spanning more than a year, for an occupied office building constructed using mass timber elements such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) floor and roof panels, as well as [...] Read more.
A broad range of building performance monitoring, sampling, and evaluation was conducted periodically after construction and spanning more than a year, for an occupied office building constructed using mass timber elements such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) floor and roof panels, as well as glue-laminated timber (GLT) beams and columns. This case study contributes research on monitoring indoor environmental quality in buildings, describing one of the few studies of an occupied mass timber building, and analyzing data in three areas that impact occupant experience: indoor air quality, bacterial community composition, and floor vibration. As a whole, the building was found to perform well. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, were analyzed using multiple methods. Formaldehyde was found to be present in the building, though levels were below most recommended exposure limits. The source of formaldehyde was not able to be identified in this study. The richness of the bacterial community was affected by the height of sampling with respect to the floor, and richness and composition was affected by the location within the building. Floor vibration was observed to be below recognized human comfort thresholds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Resilience by Centipedegrass Green Roof: A Case Study
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060141
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) is a low-maintenance turfgrass. The first extensive green roof of centipedegrass was established in TongZhou Civil Squares in 2014. However, storm-water-runoff reduction, water-retention capacity, and plant-water requirements by a centipedegrass green roof has not yet been defined. The [...] Read more.
Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) is a low-maintenance turfgrass. The first extensive green roof of centipedegrass was established in TongZhou Civil Squares in 2014. However, storm-water-runoff reduction, water-retention capacity, and plant-water requirements by a centipedegrass green roof has not yet been defined. The soil moisture dynamics, rainwater-retention capacity, runoff reduction, and plant evapotranspiration were investigated by simulated centipedegrass green roof plots, which were constructed in the same manner as the green roofs in TongZhou Civil Squares in 2018. The results showed that the centipedegrass green roof retained 705.54 mm of rainwater, which consisted 47.4% of runoff reduction. The saturated soil moisture was 33.4 ± 0.6%; the excess rainfall over the saturated soil moisture resulted in runoff. The capacity of rainwater retention was negatively related to the soil moisture before rain events and was driven by plant evapotranspiration. Drought symptoms only occurred three times over the course of a year when the soil moisture dropped down to 10.97%. Our results indicate that the rainwater retained in the soil almost met the needs of plant consumption; a further increase of rainwater retention capacity might achieve an irrigation-free design in a centipedegrass green roof. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pushover-Based Seismic Capacity Evaluation of Uto City Hall Damaged by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060140
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
The seismic capacity of the main Uto City Hall building, which was severely damaged by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, was evaluated by the proposed pushover-based procedure. In this procedure, the seismic capacity index of the building is defined as the maximum scaling factor [...] Read more.
The seismic capacity of the main Uto City Hall building, which was severely damaged by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, was evaluated by the proposed pushover-based procedure. In this procedure, the seismic capacity index of the building is defined as the maximum scaling factor of the seismic input, for which the local responses do not exceed their limit values. From the pushover analysis result, the displacement limit of the equivalent single-degree-of-freedom model was determined. Then, the seismic capacity index was evaluated using an equivalent linearization technique. The evaluated index was re-evaluated by considering the bidirectional excitation. The pushover analysis result revealed that the torsional response is significant in the nonlinear behavior of this building. The evaluated seismic capacity implied that some structural damages, including the yielding of the beam-column joint, may have occurred during the first earthquake on 14 April 2016. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A BIM-based PSS Approach for the Management of Maintenance Operations of Building Equipment
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060139
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
The service-centered economy has grown considerably in the last few years, shifting from product-based solutions towards service centered offerings, i.e., Product-Service System (PSS) solutions. Such an approach is also emerging in the context of building equipment, where maintenance activities play a fundamental role [...] Read more.
The service-centered economy has grown considerably in the last few years, shifting from product-based solutions towards service centered offerings, i.e., Product-Service System (PSS) solutions. Such an approach is also emerging in the context of building equipment, where maintenance activities play a fundamental role in facility management. In this field, Building Information Modeling (BIM) based tools are diffusely used to improve the performances of facility management. However, few studies have addressed the above issues while considering a shift from product-based approaches in favor of more advanced servitization models. The study aims at integrating BIM based approaches in a PSS context for the improvement of the management of maintenance operations of building equipment. A general framework for maintenance management has been developed, merging the implementation of the PSS components in a BIM model for the definition of maintenance management. A first application of this methodology to a real case study concerning the elevators of an existing building has shown the efficacy of the proposed approach. The study highlighted the benefits that can be achieved, especially in terms of reduced periods of equipment unavailability, reduced costs and augmented customer satisfaction, while enhancing the information exchange between the PSS actors. Hence, although further research is still needed for its validation, the proposed approach can offer practical insights for the development of promising BIM-based PSS solutions for facility management in the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnosis and Seismic Behavior Evaluation of the Church of São Miguel de Refojos (Portugal)
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060138
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
The Benedictine Monastery of São Miguel de Refojos, located in Cabeceiras de Basto (Portugal), is a monumental complex and a distinctive example of the 18th century Portuguese Baroque architecture. This study addresses the state of conservation of the church as well as the [...] Read more.
The Benedictine Monastery of São Miguel de Refojos, located in Cabeceiras de Basto (Portugal), is a monumental complex and a distinctive example of the 18th century Portuguese Baroque architecture. This study addresses the state of conservation of the church as well as the evaluation of its structural behavior and seismic performance. An initial inspection and diagnosis campaign revealed that the structure presents low to moderate damage and other non-structural issues generally associated with high levels of moisture and water infiltration. In order to study the structural performance, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model was prepared based on the finite element method. This model was calibrated with respect to dynamic identification tests and nonlinear static analyses were then performed to evaluate the seismic behavior. Capacity curves, deformations, crack patterns, and failure mechanisms were used to characterize the structural response. Additionally, the safety evaluation for horizontal actions was verified by means of limit analysis. An overall good agreement was found between the results of the pushover and the limit analyses. To conclude, the present work provides a comprehensive evaluation of the state of conservation of the church and verifies the safety condition of the structure for seismic actions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of the Creep and Shrinkage Experienced in the Sydney Opera House and the Rise of Digital Twin as Future Monitoring Technology
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060137
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a preliminary finite element model in Strand7 software to analyse creep and shrinkage effects on the prestressed concrete ribs of the Sydney Opera House as remarkable heritage. A linear static analysis was performed to investigate the instantaneous impacts of dead [...] Read more.
This paper presents a preliminary finite element model in Strand7 software to analyse creep and shrinkage effects on the prestressed concrete ribs of the Sydney Opera House as remarkable heritage. A linear static analysis was performed to investigate the instantaneous impacts of dead and wind loads on the complex concrete structure which was completed in 1973. A quasistatic analysis was performed to predict the effects of creep and shrinkage due to dead load on the structure in 2050 to discern its longevity. In 2050, the Sydney Opera House is expected to experience 0.090% element strain due to creep and shrinkage and therefore suffer prestress losses of 32.59 kN per strand. However, given that the current time after prestress loading is approximately 50 years, the majority of creep and shrinkage effects have already taken place with 0.088% strain and 32.12 kN of prestress losses. The analysis concludes that very minor structural impacts are expected over the next 30 years due to creep and shrinkage, suggesting a change in conservation focus from large structural concerns to inspection and maintenance of minor issues of surface cracking and water ingress. The analysis is the first step in the application of more complex finite element modelling of the structure with the integration of complex building information models. The main motivation to undertake the current numerical simulation is to determine a cost-effective solution when it comes to the long-term time-dependent analysis. The paper also will suggest future directions for monitoring unique historical buildings, including ‘digital twin’. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Embodied Energy and CO2 Emissions of Widely Used Building Materials: The Ethiopian Context
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060136
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
Buildings use a wide range of construction materials, and the manufacturing of each material consumes energy and emits CO2. Several studies have already been conducted to evaluate the embodied energy and the related CO2 emissions of building materials, which are [...] Read more.
Buildings use a wide range of construction materials, and the manufacturing of each material consumes energy and emits CO2. Several studies have already been conducted to evaluate the embodied energy and the related CO2 emissions of building materials, which are mainly based on case studies from developed countries. There is a considerable gap in cases of developing countries regarding assessment of embodied energy and CO2 emissions of these building materials. This study identified the top five most used construction materials (cement, sand, coarse aggregates, hollow concrete blocks, and reinforcement bars), which are also prime sources of waste generation during construction in the Ethiopian building construction sector. Then, what followed was the evaluation of the embodied energies and CO2 emissions of these materials by examining five commercial and public buildings within the cradle-to-site lifecycle boundary. The evaluation results demonstrated that cement, hollow concrete blocks (HCB), and reinforcement bars (rebars) are the major consumers of energy and major CO2 emitters. Cumulatively, they were responsible for 94% of the embodied energy and 98% of the CO2 emissions. The waste part of the construction materials has inflated the embodied energy and the subsequent CO2 emissions considerably. The study also recommended several strategies for the reduction of embodied energy and the related CO2 emissions. The research delivers critical insights into embodied energy and CO2 emissions of the five most used building materials in the Ethiopian construction industry, as there are no prior studies on this theme. This might be a cause to arouse awareness and interest among the policy makers and the wider public to clearly understand the importance of research on this crucial issue to develop national energy and CO2 descriptors for construction materials, in order to take care of our naturally endowed, but yet fragile, human habitat. Full article
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