Special Issue "Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice"

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Hugo Rodrigues Website E-Mail
Department of Civil Engineering, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Leiria, Portugal
Interests: Building Rehabilitation; Structural Health Monitoring and Seismic Safety including experimental and numerical activities
Guest Editor
Dr. Tanja Kalman Šipoš Website E-Mail
Department of Technical Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering Osijek, Osijek, Croatia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Masonry is a construction material that has been used along the years as a structural or non-structural component in buildings. Masonry can be described as a composite material composed by different units, diverse types of arrangements with or without mortar, being use in the most ancient vernacular buildings to the ultimate new technologies applied in the construction. Research in the multiple fields and crossing structural with non-structural needs is crucial to understand the behaviour of existent buildings and to develop new products and construction technologies.

Thus, the present Special Issue intends promote the discussion related with the different topics related with the use of masonry in the contraction, including theory and research, numerical approaches and technical applications in new works, repair actions and interventions in the built environment, connecting the theory and application across topics from academia to industry.

Dr. Hugo Rodrigues
Dr. Tanja Kalman Šipoš
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Masonry: brick, block and concrete
  • Design of masonry (building codes and practices)
  • Structural and non-structural (infill) masonry
  • Reinforced masonry
  • Masonry and building physics (energy efficiency)
  • Durability of masonry
  • Traditional constructions (cultural heritage)
  • Repair and strengthening
  • Innovation and new developments and materials in building masonry constructions

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice
Buildings 2019, 9(7), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9070162 - 05 Jul 2019
Abstract
Masonry is a construction material that has been used throughout the years as a structural or non-structural component in buildings [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Strengthening of the Bagh Durbar Heritage Building in Kathmandu Following the Gorkha Earthquake Sequence
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050128 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The so-called Greco-Roman monuments, also known as neoclassical monuments, in Nepal represent unique construction systems. Although they are not native to Nepal, they are icons of the early 19th century in the Kathmandu valley. As such structures are located within the heritage sites [...] Read more.
The so-called Greco-Roman monuments, also known as neoclassical monuments, in Nepal represent unique construction systems. Although they are not native to Nepal, they are icons of the early 19th century in the Kathmandu valley. As such structures are located within the heritage sites and historical centers, preservation of Greco-Roman monuments is necessary. Since many buildings are in operation and accommodate public and critical functions, their seismic safety has gained attention in recent times, especially after the Gorkha earthquake. This paper first presents the background of the Bagh Durbar monument, reports the damage observations, and depicts some repair and retrofitting solutions. Attention is paid to the implementation of the different phases of the structural characterization of the building, the definition of reference material parameters, and finally, the structural analysis made by using finite element models. The aim of the contribution consists of comparison of the adequacy of the finite element model with the field observations and design of retrofitting solutions to assure adequate seismic safety for typical Greco-Roman buildings in Nepal. Thus, this paper sets out to provide rational strengthening solutions compatible with the existing guidelines rather than complex numerical analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Cylindrical Masonry Shell in St. Jacob`s Church in Dolenja Trebuša, Slovenia—Case Study
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050127 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper focuses on identifying key reasons for the damage of the cylindrical masonry shell structure in St. Jacob`s church in Dolenja Trebuša, Slovenia. Typical damage patterns which can be formed in shell structures and may affect the load bearing capacity are outlined. [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on identifying key reasons for the damage of the cylindrical masonry shell structure in St. Jacob`s church in Dolenja Trebuša, Slovenia. Typical damage patterns which can be formed in shell structures and may affect the load bearing capacity are outlined. Several stress states (membrane, bending and also combined stress state) that can occur in the shell structure are described. Load cases such as the vertical displacement of the support structure, temperature loading, weight of maintenance team and also seismic loading are taken into account in order to identify the actual cause for the registered crack pattern in the shell structure. Analysis of the shell structure is performed using the SAP2000 structural software. Based on the obtained results, which highlighted key reasons for registered damage, the monitoring of cracks is recommended in the first phase, and, in continuation, the most appropriate repair and strengthening measures are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Repair Costs for Masonry Infills in RC Buildings from Observed Damage Data: the Case-Study of the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050122 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The estimation of direct and indirect losses due to earthquakes is a key issue in the Performance Based Earthquake Engineering framework. In commonly adopted loss computation tools, no specific data related to masonry infill panels, widespread in moment-resisting-frame residential buildings, are available to [...] Read more.
The estimation of direct and indirect losses due to earthquakes is a key issue in the Performance Based Earthquake Engineering framework. In commonly adopted loss computation tools, no specific data related to masonry infill panels, widespread in moment-resisting-frame residential buildings, are available to perform a probabilistic assessment of losses. To fill this gap, specific fragility and loss functions have been recently proposed in the last years. To assess their validity and estimate the relevance of the repair costs due to infills after earthquakes with respect to the total reconstruction process, the present work analyses the Reinforced Concrete residential buildings with masonry infills struck by the 2009 L’Aquila (Italy) earthquake, focusing on the dataset of “lightly” damaged buildings, where only damage to masonry infills occurred. Based on available data related to these buildings, the observed damage scenario after L’Aquila earthquake is first obtained. The repair costs for infills are estimated given this damage scenario. The resulting estimated repair costs are then compared with the actual repair costs presented in the available literature. The percentage influence of infills on the total repair costs due to earthquakes for residential buildings is lastly computed, resulting on average equal to the fifty percent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of the Seismic Response of Multi-Storey Multi-Bay Masonry Infilled Frames Using Artificial Neural Networks and a Bilinear Approximation
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050121 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to test the reliability of neural networks for the prediction of the behaviour of multi-storey multi-bay infilled frames, neural network processing was done on an experimental database of one-storey one-bay reinforced-concrete (RC) frames with masonry infills. From the obtained results it [...] Read more.
In order to test the reliability of neural networks for the prediction of the behaviour of multi-storey multi-bay infilled frames, neural network processing was done on an experimental database of one-storey one-bay reinforced-concrete (RC) frames with masonry infills. From the obtained results it is demonstrated that they are acceptable for the prediction of base shear (BS) and inter-storey drift ratios (IDR) in characteristic points of the primary curve of infilled frame behaviour under seismic loads. The results obtained on one-storey one-bay infilled frames was extended to multi-bay infilled frames by evaluating and comparing numerical finite element modelling(FEM) modelling and neural network results with suggested approximating equations for the definition of bilinear capacity by defined BS and IDRs. The main goal of this paper is to offer an interpretation of the behaviour of multi-storey multi-bay masonry infilled frames according to a bilinear capacity curve, and to present the infilled frame’s response according to the contributions of frame and infill. The presented methodology is validated by experimental results from multi-storey multi-bay masonry infilled frames. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Performance of Unreinforced Stone Masonry Greek “Basilica” Churches When Subjected to Seismic Forces and Foundation Settlement
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050106 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Unreinforced stone masonry made of low strength mortar has been used for centuries in forming old type stone masonry churches of the “Basilica” typology. The seismic performance of such stone masonry structures damaged during recent strong seismic activity in Greece, combined with long [...] Read more.
Unreinforced stone masonry made of low strength mortar has been used for centuries in forming old type stone masonry churches of the “Basilica” typology. The seismic performance of such stone masonry structures damaged during recent strong seismic activity in Greece, combined with long term effects from foundation settlement, is presented and discussed. A simplified numerical process is presented for evaluating the performance of such damaged stone masonry structures, making use of linear and non-linear numerical tools and assumed limit-state failure criteria. In order to obtain a quantification of the in-plane sliding shear failure criterion, a number of stone masonry wallets were built with weak mortar and were tested in the laboratory. Through the comparison of the obtained numerical predictions with the observed structural behaviour for selected cases of stone masonry “Basilica” churches, the validity of the applied simplified numerical process is demonstrated. It is shown that reasonable approximation of the observed performance of such structures can be obtained when the assumed failure criteria are realistic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Seismic Response on the Infill Masonry Walls of a 15-Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure in Nepal
Buildings 2019, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9020039 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Following the strong earthquake on April 25, 2015 in Nepal, a team from the University of Porto, in collaboration with other international institutions, made a field study on some of the most affected areas in the capital region of Kathmandu. One of the [...] Read more.
Following the strong earthquake on April 25, 2015 in Nepal, a team from the University of Porto, in collaboration with other international institutions, made a field study on some of the most affected areas in the capital region of Kathmandu. One of the tasks was the study of a high-rise settle of buildings that were damaged following the earthquake sequence. A survey damage assessment was performed to a 15-storey infilled reinforced concrete structure, which will be detailed in the manuscript. Moreover, ambient vibration tests were carried out to determine the natural frequencies and corresponding vibration modes of the structure. The main aim of this manuscript is to present a numerical study concerning the influence of the masonry infill walls in the structure seismic response. For this, three numerical models were built discriminating the situations with and without damage and nondamaged infill walls. Validation and calibration of the numerical model was ensured by comparing the numerical frequencies with those obtained from ambient vibration tests. In addition, linear elastic analyses were carried out, using real accelerograms from the Gorkha earthquake to assess and quantify the major differences between the models in terms of inter-storey drifts ratios, inter-storey shear forces and seismic loadings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Evaluation and Strengthening of an Existing Masonry Building in Sarajevo, B&H
Buildings 2019, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9020030 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A significant number of old unreinforced load-bearing masonry (URM) buildings exist in many countries worldwide, but especially in Europe. In particular, Bosnia and Herzegovina has an important stock of masonry buildings constructed from the 1920s until the 1960s without application of any seismic [...] Read more.
A significant number of old unreinforced load-bearing masonry (URM) buildings exist in many countries worldwide, but especially in Europe. In particular, Bosnia and Herzegovina has an important stock of masonry buildings constructed from the 1920s until the 1960s without application of any seismic code, due to their nonexistence at that time. With the 1963 Skopje earthquake, this class of buildings were shown to be rather vulnerable to seismic actions, which exhibited serious damage. This article assesses the seismic vulnerability of a typical multi-storey residential unreinforced load-bearing masonry building located in the heart of Sarajevo, which may be exposed to an earthquake of magnitude up to 6 by Richter’s scale. The buildings of this kind make up to 6% of the entire housing stock in the urban region of Sarajevo, while in Slovenia this percentage is much higher (around 30%). The analysis of a typical building located in Sarajevo revealed its drawbacks and the need for some kind of strengthening intervention to be implemented. Additionally, many structures of this type are overstressed by one to two additional floors (not the case of the analyzed structure) constructed from 1996 onwards. This was due to the massive population increase in the city center of Sarajevo and further increased the vulnerability of these buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical and Typological Characterization of Traditional Stone Masonry Walls in Old Urban Centres: A Case Study in Viseu, Portugal
Buildings 2019, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9010018 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Essential for any intervention in existing buildings, a thorough knowledge of both structural and material characteristics is even more important in the case of traditional stone masonry buildings, due both to the variability of this technology’s properties and the degradation buildings might have [...] Read more.
Essential for any intervention in existing buildings, a thorough knowledge of both structural and material characteristics is even more important in the case of traditional stone masonry buildings, due both to the variability of this technology’s properties and the degradation buildings might have sustained. In Portugal, a number of in situ and laboratory experimental campaigns has allowed us in recent years to expand the knowledge on the mechanical properties of stone masonry walls. Nevertheless, the existence of different wall typologies built with the same material necessitates that this characterization takes into account the various regional constructive cultures. This paper presents the results obtained through an in-situ characterization campaign carried out in the old urban center of Viseu, for which there is no information available in the literature. Granite stone masonry walls of two different buildings were analyzed and characterized considering their geometrical and material features, contributing to the identification of stone masonry typologies present in the city’s old urban center. Flat-jack testing yielded resistance and deformability parameters to be used both in safety evaluation and intervention design. The properties obtained can be said to be consistent with those deriving from other experimental campaigns, conducted in granite walls of different typologies, throughout the country. Simultaneously, relevant conclusions about the use of flat-jacks to characterize this type of stone masonry were drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Study on Seismic Rehabilitation of Masonry Buildings Using FRP Based upon 3D Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis
Buildings 2018, 8(9), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090124 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Unreinforced load-bearing masonry (URM) buildings represent a significant portion of the non-engineered old buildings in many developing countries aiming to reduce the construction cost. The walls of those buildings are developed to resist gravity loads. Lateral loads induced by earthquakes or wind may [...] Read more.
Unreinforced load-bearing masonry (URM) buildings represent a significant portion of the non-engineered old buildings in many developing countries aiming to reduce the construction cost. The walls of those buildings are developed to resist gravity loads. Lateral loads induced by earthquakes or wind may cause severe their damage. In the current study, a numerical investigation is carried out for a seismic assessment of a typical four-story, load-bearing building in Giza, Egypt. The full 3D nonlinear dynamic analysis is carried out using the Applied Element Method (AEM), which proved to be efficient in such case where partial or total collapse is expected. The study includes two earthquake zones in Egypt called zone (3) and zone (5B), which are the actual studied building seismic zone and the highest seismic activity zone in Egypt, respectively. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) laminates with different thicknesses and different configurations are used in strengthening unreinforced masonry walls to study the efficiency of the proposed rehabilitation technique on a realistic structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Deflection Prediction of No-Fines Lightweight Concrete Wall Using Neural Network Caused Dynamic Loads
Buildings 2018, 8(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8040062 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
No-fines lightweight concrete wall with horizontal reinforcement refers to an alternative material for wall construction with an aim of improving the wall quality towards horizontal loads. This study is focused on artificial neural network (ANN) application to predicting the deflection deformation caused by [...] Read more.
No-fines lightweight concrete wall with horizontal reinforcement refers to an alternative material for wall construction with an aim of improving the wall quality towards horizontal loads. This study is focused on artificial neural network (ANN) application to predicting the deflection deformation caused by dynamic loads. The ANN method is able to capture the complex interactions among input/output variables in a system without any knowledge of interaction nature and without any explicit assumption to model form. This paper explains the existing data research, data selection and process of ANN modelling training process and validation. The results of this research show that the deformation can be predicted more accurately, simply and quickly due to the alternating horizontal loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Masonry Buildings: Research and Practice) Printed Edition available
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