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Buildings, Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 271 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The method proposed in this article shows that combining BIM with energy analyses and LCA can help building designers evaluate the resource and climate footprints not only for the use phase, but also for the production and transport of heating systems. The method was applied to a case study building in Germany. Overall, the ground-source heat pump variant in combination with photovoltaics (PV) shows the lowest impact. Compared to the gas boiler variant, savings of 75%, 47% and 80% can be achieved in the climate, material and energy footprints, but the water footprint increases by 73%. View this paper
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16 pages, 4555 KiB  
Article
Analytical and Numerical Study on the Performance of the Curved Surface of a Circular Tunnel Reinforced with CFRP
by Fan Yang, Gan Qin, Kang Liu, Feng Xiong and Wu Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112042 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
Pasting carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has become an effective method to reinforce the circular tunnel. For this reinforcement method, the mechanical performance of the curved substrate is important to keep the coordinated deformation of CFRP and the lining concrete. To investigate the [...] Read more.
Pasting carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has become an effective method to reinforce the circular tunnel. For this reinforcement method, the mechanical performance of the curved substrate is important to keep the coordinated deformation of CFRP and the lining concrete. To investigate the effect of interface curvature on the stresses of the reinforced interface, an analytical model is proposed for the curved reinforced interface with the consideration of the interface bond–slip relationship. Additionally, a 3D numerical model is established to further investigate the effects of some important parameters (CFRP’s layer, length, elastic modulus, thickness and the adhesive’s elastic modulus, thickness) on the reinforced interface stresses. The results reveal that the stress state of the curved reinforced interface is more complex than that of the plane reinforced interface. With decreasing the radius of the curved reinforced interface, the interface radial stresses are increased significantly, while the circumferential stresses hardly change. For the adhesive, decreasing the elastic modulus and thickness of the adhesive layer can significantly improve the stress state of the reinforced interface. For the CFRP, decreasing the thickness, elastic modulus and layer number of CFRP is conducive to full utilization of materials and long-term combined work of the concrete and CFRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Resiliency of Building Materials and Structures)
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23 pages, 8529 KiB  
Article
Architectural Formation of Growable Light Steel Structure and Its 3D Visualisation Design and Construction Method
by Huijuan Jia, Zhiyuan Liu, Binsheng Zhang, Yongsheng Song and Xian Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112041 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 4155
Abstract
With the applications of new construction technologies and design ideas, innovative construction methods and architectural designs promote overall productivity and enrich architectural impressions. However, faced with the contradictions between construction efficiency, project benefits, and sustainability, together with the dynamically variable social demands and [...] Read more.
With the applications of new construction technologies and design ideas, innovative construction methods and architectural designs promote overall productivity and enrich architectural impressions. However, faced with the contradictions between construction efficiency, project benefits, and sustainability, together with the dynamically variable social demands and monotonous design of current temporary light steel structures, a new type of growable light steel structure with parameterisable and assembled architectural units is proposed. Besides, a fast-assembled track foundation that can be detachable and recycled is adopted. Both can promote the growth of light steel units. To be specific, its architectural spaces can be extended and contracted, and the structural form and service space can be adjusted by the reorganisation and optimisation of unit arrangements. Meanwhile, due to the advantages of information integrations and 3D visualisations of BIM technology, a BIM-based design and construction method of growable light steel structures is studied. Based on the arrangements of track and parametrically transformed light steel units, this study expands the architectural forms of light steel structures. It explores their respective applications in practical architectural design to solve current shortages of land resources, properly respond to variable building environments, simultaneously enrich the design schemes of current light steel structures, improve the utilisation rate of structural spaces, and enhance the aesthetic sensations of buildings. Full article
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27 pages, 12417 KiB  
Article
Seismic Vulnerability and Consolidation by FRP/FRCM Systems of a Masonry School Building in the District of Naples
by Assunta Paola Piccolo, Giovanna Longobardi and Antonio Formisano
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112040 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The paper discusses the seismic vulnerability of structures susceptible to overcrowding due to their intended use. Specifically, it addresses the analysis towards earthquake actions of a masonry school located in the Municipality of San Giorgio a Cremano, within the neighbourhood of Naples, providing [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the seismic vulnerability of structures susceptible to overcrowding due to their intended use. Specifically, it addresses the analysis towards earthquake actions of a masonry school located in the Municipality of San Giorgio a Cremano, within the neighbourhood of Naples, providing different reinforcement interventions to ensure its seismic consolidation. After a brief introduction, the description of the analysis representative of the current condition of the structure is performed considering both static and seismic actions. The analysis results determine the seismic risk class of the building, allowing to identify its deficiencies, so to design structural consolidation interventions following the standard code indications. In particular, two retrofit techniques, namely, FRP and FRCM systems, are proposed with the purpose to evaluate their benefits to the school building from a seismic viewpoint. Finally, a comparison between the proposed intervention techniques is made to establish which one guarantees the best upgrading of the seismic condition of the examined building. Full article
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25 pages, 1165 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Based Prediction of the Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Oshawa
by Yaolin Lin, Jingye Liu, Kamiel Gabriel, Wei Yang and Chun-Qing Li
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112039 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Buildings consume about 40% of the global energy. Building energy consumption is affected by multiple factors, including building physical properties, performance of the mechanical system, and occupants’ activities. The prediction of building energy consumption is very complicated in actual practice. Accurate and fast [...] Read more.
Buildings consume about 40% of the global energy. Building energy consumption is affected by multiple factors, including building physical properties, performance of the mechanical system, and occupants’ activities. The prediction of building energy consumption is very complicated in actual practice. Accurate and fast prediction of the building energy consumption is very important in building design optimization and sustainable energy development. This paper evaluates 24 energy consumption models for 83 houses in Oshawa, Canada. The energy consumption, social and demographic information of the occupants, and the physical properties of the houses were collected through smart metering, a phone survey, and an energy audit. A total of 63 variables were determined, and based on the variable importance, three groups with different numbers of variables were selected, i.e., 26, 12, and 6 for electricity consumption; and 26, 13, and 6 for gas consumption. A total of eight data-driven algorithms, namely Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Stepwise Regression (SR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN), Classification and Regression Tree (CART), Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID), and Exhaustive CHAID (ECHAID), were used to develop energy prediction models. The results show that the BPNN model has the best accuracies in predicting both the annual electricity consumption and gas consumption, with mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) of 0.94% and 0.94% for training and validation data for electricity consumption, and 2.63% and 0.16% for gas consumption, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Energy-Saving Technology)
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17 pages, 5932 KiB  
Article
Quantification of the Transversal Fiber Strand Stiffness of Textiles Used in Textile-Reinforced Concrete via Shore Hardness
by Markus Beßling, Leonie Manko and Jeanette Orlowsky
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112038 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Textile-reinforced concrete is characterized by its high-performance load-bearing behavior. The basis of these properties is largely determined by the characteristics of the textile used. The textile in turn consists of fibers that are bonded together by means of a matrix (impregnation). Both the [...] Read more.
Textile-reinforced concrete is characterized by its high-performance load-bearing behavior. The basis of these properties is largely determined by the characteristics of the textile used. The textile in turn consists of fibers that are bonded together by means of a matrix (impregnation). Both the fiber material and the impregnation significantly influence the tensile and bonding properties of the textile. The performance of the impregnation depends largely on its stiffness. In this publication, the fiber strand stiffness is quantified by means of shore hardness measurements, and the influence of the fiber strand stiffness on the tensile and composite properties is presented. The Shore hardness is a kind of Young’s modulus. The tests can be performed on the end product (manufactured fiber strand) with little effort. The test setup was adapted to determine the Shore hardness on the fiber strand. A comparison between the hardness and tensile strength shows a direct correlation. A dependency can also be identified and described of the bond between the textile and the concrete and the hardness. The investigations shown make quantifying the fiber strand stiffness based on hardness appear reasonable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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17 pages, 1359 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Building Clean Energy Consumption on Residents’ Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from China
by Zhiqun Sun, Yanbo Wu, Hao Sun, Dian Zhou, Yang Lou and Lei Qin
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112037 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
This study used micro data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2018 to explore the impact of China’s residential clean energy consumption on residents’ subjective well-being. Our research results show that: the more clean energy consumption is present in housing, the [...] Read more.
This study used micro data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2018 to explore the impact of China’s residential clean energy consumption on residents’ subjective well-being. Our research results show that: the more clean energy consumption is present in housing, the stronger the residents’ sense of happiness; furthermore, it can be seen from the results of marginal effects that the increase in residential clean energy consumption increases the probability of residents choosing “relatively happy” and “extremely happy”. Moreover, the heterogeneity analysis found that the increase in residential clean energy consumption increased the happiness of people with housing and low education, and also increased the happiness of residents in central China and middle-aged and elderly residents; the intermediary analysis shows that the use of clean energy in housing improves the health of residents, and improves their quality of life while increasing their expenditure. In addition, central heating affects the relationship between residential clean energy consumption and residents’ well-being. Further analysis shows that there is no non-linear relationship between the increase in residential clean energy consumption and residents’ happiness. This study enriches the research on residential clean energy and provides policy suggestions for improving residents’ living standards and welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Efficiency, Environment and Health)
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24 pages, 13014 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior of Coupled Steel Plate and Reinforced Concrete Composite Wall
by Zhenbang Ma, Yuntian Wu, Jie Zhang and Mao Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112036 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
The coupled steel plate and reinforced concrete (C-SPRC) composite wall is a new type of coupled-wall system consisting of steel coupling beams (SCBs) that join two SPRC walls where the steel plate shear wall (SPSW) is embedded in the RC wall. Although the [...] Read more.
The coupled steel plate and reinforced concrete (C-SPRC) composite wall is a new type of coupled-wall system consisting of steel coupling beams (SCBs) that join two SPRC walls where the steel plate shear wall (SPSW) is embedded in the RC wall. Although the C-SPRC wall has been extensively constructed in high-rise buildings in seismic regions, research on its behavior has rarely been reported. No code provisions are available for directly guiding the preliminary design of such coupled-wall systems. In the research, three 1/3-scaled C-SPRC wall subassemblies including one-and-a-half stories of SPRC walls and a half-span of SCB were tested under simulated earthquake action, considering the fabrication method of the embedded SPSW and the shear-span ratio of the SPRC walls as two test variables. The prime concern of the research was to evaluate the influences of those popular design and construction parameters on the seismic behavior of the C-SPRC wall. Deviating from the beam tip loading method used in conventional subassembly tests, the lateral cyclic load in this research was applied at the top of the wall pier so that the behaviors of both walls and SCBs could be examined. The test results exhibited the great seismic performance of the subassemblies with the coupling mechanism fully developed. The energy dissipation capacity and inter-story deformation capacity of the subassembly with the assembled SPSW were roughly 9.4% and 13.2% greater than those with the conventional welded SPSW. Compared with the subassembly with the shear-span ratio of 2.2, the interstory-deformation capacity of the one with the shear-span ratio of 2.0 was increased by approximately 13.4%, while the energy dissipation capacity was decreased by 10.9%. The test results were further compared with the simulation results using the proven-reliable finite element analysis with respect to the hysteretic curves, skeleton curves, energy dissipation capacities and failure patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances on Structural Engineering, 2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 6129 KiB  
Article
Properties of Mortar Containing Recycled Fine Aggregate Modified by Microbial Mineralization
by Mian Luo, Junjie Dai, Ziqi Ding and Ye Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112035 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Microbial-induced mineralization deposition was used to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate (RFA) in this paper. In order to obtain a better improvement effect, the microbial mineralization conditions were first optimized. The effect of the pH value, temperature, bacterial concentration and [...] Read more.
Microbial-induced mineralization deposition was used to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate (RFA) in this paper. In order to obtain a better improvement effect, the microbial mineralization conditions were first optimized. The effect of the pH value, temperature, bacterial concentration and calcium ion concentration on the mineralization ability of bacteria were investigated. The optimal microbial mineralization conditions were selected for the treatment of RFA and the microbial mineralization modification effect of RFA was evaluated based on the water absorption and crushing index. In addition, the natural fine aggregate (NFA), unmodified RFA and modified RFA were made into ordinary mortar, recycled mortar and modified recycled mortar, respectively. The workability, mechanical properties and chloride ion penetration resistance of mortars was investigated. Meanwhile, the precipitations formed by microbial mineralization were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore structure of mortars was analyzed using the mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP). The results showed that the bioprecipitations were mainly calcite calcium carbonate and the quality of the RFA was improved by microbial-induced calcium carbonate deposition. The water absorption and crushing index of the modified RFA decreased by 25.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Compared with the crushing index, the water absorption of the RFA was improved more obviously. The workability, mechanical performance, chloride ion penetration resistance and pore structure of the modified recycled mortar was improved. Compared with the recycled mortar, the fluidity of the modified recycled mortar was 7.3% higher, the compressive strength of 28 d was 7.0% higher and the 6 h electric flux was 18.8% lower. The porosity of the ordinary mortar, recycled mortar and modified recycled mortar was 16.49%, 20.83% and 20.27%, respectively. The strengthening of the modified recycled mortar performance may be attributed to the improvement of the mortar microstructure due to the enhancement of the RFA quality after the biotreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Building Materials: Design and Digitization)
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21 pages, 5985 KiB  
Article
Ultimate Bearing Capacity Analysis of Pile Caps with New Socket Connections
by Jiping Ge, Luqi Lai, Side Liu and Xingfei Yan
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112034 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Socket connection need a groove reserved in the cap to accommodate a bridge pier, which greatly weaken the vertical bearing capacity of the cap. The conventional treatment measure is to increase the thickness of the cap, and the corresponding cost will increase. The [...] Read more.
Socket connection need a groove reserved in the cap to accommodate a bridge pier, which greatly weaken the vertical bearing capacity of the cap. The conventional treatment measure is to increase the thickness of the cap, and the corresponding cost will increase. The measures to enhance the vertical bearing capacity of socket caps without increasing the thickness of the cap were discussed in this paper, including a rough interface at the bottom of the pier, additional hanging bars, high-strength grouting material in the seam, and large-diameter metal corrugated pipes, etc. Based on a previous test, the finite element analysis of the vertical bearing capacity of pile caps with new socket connections was carried out. The analysis parameters included the construction method, steel bar diameter in the bottom of the cap, socket depth, thickness of the bottom plate, pile length, and friction coefficient, etc. The bearing capacity M–N relation of the full-scale model was also analyzed. Research indicated the vertical bearing capacity of the cap is mainly provided by rough interfaces, the bottom plate, and the additional hanging bars, and the contribution of the three parts was about 40%, 34%, and 26%; the vertical bearing capacity was proportional to the areas of steel bars on the cap and the thickness of the bottom plate, and was inversely proportional to the length of the pile. To obtain the vertical bearing capacity of the overall cast-in-place plan for the socket cap, the thickness of the cap needs to be increased by 27%. At last, a design formula for the calculation of the vertical bearing capacity was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement Technology on Building Seismic Toughness)
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20 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
From Maslow to Architectural Spaces: The Assessment of Reusing Old Industrial Buildings
by Xuesen Zheng, Timothy Heath and Sifan Guo
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112033 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4820
Abstract
In many cases, the purpose of reusing old industrial buildings is to serve the public. Converting a building that had a particular function and is unfamiliar to the public to a civic building is a great challenge. Significantly, the public’s curiosity towards a [...] Read more.
In many cases, the purpose of reusing old industrial buildings is to serve the public. Converting a building that had a particular function and is unfamiliar to the public to a civic building is a great challenge. Significantly, the public’s curiosity towards a special-purpose industrial building alone is not enough to give the building a long life following its conversion and regeneration. To be sustainable in public life, the design of reused old industrial buildings should also meet the needs of the public. It is important to realise, however, that everyone’s needs are different. This paper will therefore analyse whether Abraham Maslow’s (1943) famous psychological theory, the Hierarchy of Needs, which not only summarized the content of human needs, but also divided them into levels, can be applied to the reuse of former industrial buildings. The paper translates this into the field of architecture to develop an assessment framework for the reuse of old industrial buildings. This assessment framework is able to combine mathematical models for quantitative assessment of future projects, and uses Shanghai 1933 Old Millfun, China as a case study for its demonstration. This provides an evaluation of a completed project and identifies challenges for further development, as well as providing guidance for future adaptive reuse projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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27 pages, 40267 KiB  
Article
Effects of Openings and Axial Load Ratio on the Lateral Capacity of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls
by Zhou Lin, Hongmei Zhang, Giorgio Monti and Chiara Castoro
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112032 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Shear walls are commonly adopted as main structural members to resist vertical and lateral forces, thanks to their high load capacity and high lateral stiffness. However, their lateral capacity can be impaired in the presence of openings, which can reduce their lateral load [...] Read more.
Shear walls are commonly adopted as main structural members to resist vertical and lateral forces, thanks to their high load capacity and high lateral stiffness. However, their lateral capacity can be impaired in the presence of openings, which can reduce their lateral load capacity and stiffness. A possible solution is to cast shear walls using steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC), which effectively improves the deformation capacity of shear walls. However, few studies deal with the performance of such SFRC shear walls in the presence of openings. Moreover, the effect of different axial load ratios (ALR) is still not fully known. To study these essential parameters, a detailed Finite Element model has been implemented in ABAQUS. Having validated its accuracy against experimental tests on four SFRC shear walls, with and without openings, it has been subsequently used in a parametric study to analyze the effects of different ALRs, of different opening configurations, and of different reinforcement ratios. It is shown that door openings have a more detrimental effect on the lateral load capacity than window openings and that higher ALR values switch the prevailing failure mechanism from flexural to shear, thus reducing both ductility and deformation capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Concrete Structures for Disaster Prevention)
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17 pages, 3037 KiB  
Review
Science Mapping for Recent Research Regarding Urban Underground Infrastructure
by Xianfei Yin and Mingzhu Wang
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2031; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112031 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
The presented research conducted a bibliometric analysis regarding academic publications, especially journal publications, in the area of urban underground infrastructure (UI) systems (which include sewer pipes, drinking water pipes, cables, tunnels, etc.). In total, 547 journal papers published from 2002 to July 2022 [...] Read more.
The presented research conducted a bibliometric analysis regarding academic publications, especially journal publications, in the area of urban underground infrastructure (UI) systems (which include sewer pipes, drinking water pipes, cables, tunnels, etc.). In total, 547 journal papers published from 2002 to July 2022 (around 20 years period) were retrieved from Scopus using the proposed data collection method. Bibliometric analysis was conducted to extract and map the hidden information from retrieved papers. As a result, networks regarding co-citation, co-authorship, and keywords co-occurrence were generated to visualise and analyse the knowledge domain, patterns, and relationships. The eight most investigated topics in the UI research are identified and discussed, which provides an overview of the research history and focuses. Further, five potential research directions are suggested for researchers in the UI research area. The main contribution of this research is on revealing the knowledge domain of UI research in a quantitative manner as well as identifying the possible research directions. Full article
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17 pages, 7201 KiB  
Article
The Seismic Performance and Global Collapse Resistance Capacity of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames Considering the Axial–Shear–Bending Interaction of Columns
by Linjie Huang, Jianping Han, Hongwei Wen, Chunyu Li, Haocheng He, Yuxin Luo and Zhendong Qian
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112030 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
This paper presents a mechanism and method for simulating the axial–shear–bending interaction of a reinforced concrete (RC) column. The three-dimensional model of a multi-story infilled RC frame was modeled using the OpenSees software. Static pushover and nonlinear dynamic analyses under fortification and rare [...] Read more.
This paper presents a mechanism and method for simulating the axial–shear–bending interaction of a reinforced concrete (RC) column. The three-dimensional model of a multi-story infilled RC frame was modeled using the OpenSees software. Static pushover and nonlinear dynamic analyses under fortification and rare earthquakes were conducted using the model. Finally, based on the incremental dynamic analyses of 22 suites of ground-motion records, the global collapse resistance capacity of the infilled RC frame was evaluated using the evaluation method of a normal distribution. The analytical results show that the axial–shear–bending interaction is a key factor that affects the seismic response of infilled RC frames. Under the fortification earthquake condition, no obvious damage to physical structures was evident; the influence was relatively minor. However, under the condition of a rare earthquake, severe damage to physical structures was evident, resulting in the underestimation of the lateral inter-story drift ratio, while the degradation rates of the load capacity and global collapse resistance capacities for the infilled concrete frames were highly overestimated when the axial–shear–bending interaction was not considered. Full article
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20 pages, 1316 KiB  
Article
Review of Digital Twins for Constructed Facilities
by Rana Khallaf, Lama Khallaf, Chimay J. Anumba and Obinna C. Madubuike
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2029; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112029 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4304
Abstract
Technological advances have enabled the monitoring and control of construction operations and assets remotely. Digital twins, based on computational modeling, have enabled the creation of a digital map for physical structures. Research on digital twins (DTs) for constructed facilities projects has gained widespread [...] Read more.
Technological advances have enabled the monitoring and control of construction operations and assets remotely. Digital twins, based on computational modeling, have enabled the creation of a digital map for physical structures. Research on digital twins (DTs) for constructed facilities projects has gained widespread traction in the industry. While these applications have increased over the years, there has been sparse review of them. This paper systematically reviews the applications of digital twins in construction using content analysis. We identified and analyzed 53 academic journal and conference papers, which revealed several DT applications that could be categorized into nine areas: lifecycle analysis, facility management, energy, education, disaster, structural health monitoring, DT for cities, infrastructure management, and miscellaneous. This enables the visualization of the current state of DT, comparison with the desired state, and possible integrations with other technologies. Among the observed benefits of DTs are the ability to increase engagement and collaboration, reduce construction and operating costs, reduce human error, automate energy demand, manage assets throughout their lifecycle, and apply structural health monitoring. It also enables the collection of real-time data on an asset’s status, history, maintenance needs, and provides an interactive platform for managing an asset. Future directions include addressing how to standardize data acquisition as well as the semantic interoperability and heterogeneity of data. Additionally, modeling human cognitive processes as well as spatiotemporal information would be beneficial to a smart city and other infrastructure systems, especially in disaster situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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19 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Critical Factors Influencing Cost Overrun in Construction Projects: A Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation
by Wenwen Xie, Binchao Deng, Yilin Yin, Xindong Lv and Zhenhua Deng
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112028 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 8020
Abstract
Construction industries have poor cost performance in terms of finishing projects within a budget. A fuzzy model for evaluating the critical factors of cost overrun for construction projects in China is developed by identifying, classifying and ranking cost overrun factors of the construction [...] Read more.
Construction industries have poor cost performance in terms of finishing projects within a budget. A fuzzy model for evaluating the critical factors of cost overrun for construction projects in China is developed by identifying, classifying and ranking cost overrun factors of the construction industries. Sixty-five cost overrun factors are identified and classified into four clusters (project macro, project management, project environment, and core stakeholders) through a detailed literature review process and a discussion with experts from the Chinese construction industry. A questionnaire survey was conducted for data collection to calculate an index of the project-influenced factors and clusters in the construction industry in China. With the help of the proposed model, it is possible to guide project managers and decision makers to make better informative decisions such as project macro, project management, project environment, and core stakeholders. Full article
24 pages, 5144 KiB  
Article
Real-Time and Remote Construction Progress Monitoring with a Quadruped Robot Using Augmented Reality
by Srijeet Halder, Kereshmeh Afsari, John Serdakowski, Stephen DeVito, Mahnaz Ensafi and Walid Thabet
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112027 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4291
Abstract
Construction progress monitoring involves a set of inspection tasks with repetitive in-person observations on the site. The current manual inspection process in construction is time-consuming, inefficient and inconsistent mainly due to human limitations in the ability to persistently and accurately walkthrough the job [...] Read more.
Construction progress monitoring involves a set of inspection tasks with repetitive in-person observations on the site. The current manual inspection process in construction is time-consuming, inefficient and inconsistent mainly due to human limitations in the ability to persistently and accurately walkthrough the job site and observe the as-built status of which robots are considerably better. Enabling the process of visual inspection with a real-time and remote inspection capability using robots can provide more frequent and accessible construction progress data for inspectors to improve the quality of inspection and monitoring. Also, integrating remote inspection with an Augmented Reality (AR) platform can help the inspector to verify as-planned BIM data with the as-built status. This paper proposes a new approach to perform remote monitoring of the construction progress in real-time using a quadruped robot and an AR solution. The proposed computational framework in this study uses a cloud-based solution to integrate the quadruped robot’s control for remote navigation through the construction site with 360° live-stream video of the construction status, as well as a real-time AR solution to visualize and compare the as-built status with as-planned BIM geometry. The implementation of the proposed framework is discussed, and the developed framework is evaluated in two use cases through experimental investigations. Full article
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22 pages, 19749 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Concentrated Solar Building Skin Design Based on Multiobjective Optimization
by Zebiao Shao, Bo Wang, Yao Xu, Liang Sun, Xichen Ge, Lvpei Cai and Cheng Chang
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2026; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112026 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Building skin can provide comprehensive functions of energy production, daylighting, and shading with an integrated transmissive solar-concentrating panel. In this study, Rhino Grasshopper parametric modeling, Ladybug tool performance simulation, and Octopus multiobjective optimization platforms are used to carry out experimental research. This study [...] Read more.
Building skin can provide comprehensive functions of energy production, daylighting, and shading with an integrated transmissive solar-concentrating panel. In this study, Rhino Grasshopper parametric modeling, Ladybug tool performance simulation, and Octopus multiobjective optimization platforms are used to carry out experimental research. This study establishes the optimal relationship between the conflicting objectives of light environment creation and energy production efficiency of solar-concentrating skin by controlling three variables, namely the size of the solar-concentrating module, the rotation angle, and the number of modules, aiming to design the optimal solution and build a multiobjective optimization technology framework for the solar-concentrating skin of an office space. A comparison and analysis of the scenarios indicate a dynamic concentrating skin that can effectively reduce the daylight glare probability (DGP) by 70% and increase the useful daylight illuminance (UDI) by 10%, while achieving energy production. The correlation between the variables and the performance indices of the solar-concentrating skin was obtained as angle > width > length > amount, and the optimal design interval for each parameter variable. This study reveals the laws of how parameter changes affect individual indicators, which can provide ideas for the design of dynamic concentrating skins and building integration, methods for improving the balanced design of indoor light environments and building capacity, and a technical framework for multiobjective optimization processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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16 pages, 4733 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Hybrid One-Part Alkali Activated Materials (AAMs) for Concrete Structural Repair
by Eddy Yusslee and Sherif Beskhyroun
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112025 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) have been widely used as an alternative to Portland cement. This production of AAMs emits lesser carbon dioxide by utilizing industrial waste products to make this cement binder technology greener and more sustainable. The conventional two-part system comprises solid aluminosilicate [...] Read more.
Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) have been widely used as an alternative to Portland cement. This production of AAMs emits lesser carbon dioxide by utilizing industrial waste products to make this cement binder technology greener and more sustainable. The conventional two-part system comprises solid aluminosilicate precursors with an alkali solution to activate the AAMs. However, higher alkalinity of the liquid activator is required to complete the geopolymerazation process, making the cementitious materials costly and sticky, and thus not convenient to handle on the construction site, affecting the worker’s safety. A one-part AAMs system was introduced to overcome the two-part system’s shortcomings. The alkali solution is now replaced with a solid alkali activator which is easier and more practical to apply at construction sites. This study was carried out to evaluate the mechanical performance of one-part alkali AAMs in the form of mortar by conducting compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and tensile strength tests at 28 days of curing age under laboratory experiments in the tropical climate of Malaysia. A drying shrinkage test was also performed to detect its durability. Three types of solid admixtures were added to complete the composition of the novel mix design formulation. According to the results obtained, the mechanical strength of one-part alkali-activated mortar achieved the minimum requirement for Class R3 structural concrete repair materials as per EN1504-3 specifications. This eco-friendly cement binder has excellent potential for further engineering development, particularly to become a new concrete repair product in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Engineering in Construction)
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28 pages, 11665 KiB  
Article
Post-Earthquake Assessment and Strengthening of a Cultural-Heritage Residential Masonry Building after the 2020 Zagreb Earthquake
by Naida Ademović, Mirko Toholj, Dalibor Radonić, Filippo Casarin, Sanda Komesar and Karlo Ugarković
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112024 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
After a long period of no excessive ground shaking in Croatia and the region of ex-Yugoslavia, an earthquake that woke up the entire region was the one that shook Croatia on 22 March 2020. More than 25,000 buildings were severely damaged. A process [...] Read more.
After a long period of no excessive ground shaking in Croatia and the region of ex-Yugoslavia, an earthquake that woke up the entire region was the one that shook Croatia on 22 March 2020. More than 25,000 buildings were severely damaged. A process of reconstruction and strengthening of existing damaged buildings is underway. This paper presents proposed strengthening measures to be conducted on a cultural-historical building located in the city of Zagreb, which is under protection and located in zone A. After a detailed visual inspection and on-site experimental investigations, modeling of the existing and strengthened structure was performed in 3Muri. It is an old unreinforced masonry building typical not only for this region but for relevant parts of Europe (north, central, and east). The aim was to strengthen the building to Level 3 while respecting the ICOMOS recommendations and Venice Charter. Some non-completely conservative concessions had to be made, to fully retrofit the building as requested. The structural strengthening consisted of a series of organic interventions relying on—in the weakest direction—a new steel frame, new steel-ring frames, and FRCM materials, besides fillings the cracks. Such intervention resulted in increasing the ultimate load in the X and Y directions, respectively, more than 650 and 175% with reference to the unstrengthened structure. Good consistency was obtained between the numerical modeling, visual inspection, and on-site testing. Full article
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26 pages, 4348 KiB  
Review
Large-Scale 3D Printing for Construction Application by Means of Robotic Arm and Gantry 3D Printer: A Review
by Anastasia Puzatova, Pshtiwan Shakor, Vittoria Laghi and Maria Dmitrieva
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112023 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 11375
Abstract
Additive manufacturing technologies are becoming more popular in various industries, including the construction industry. Currently, construction 3D printing is sufficiently well studied from an academic point of view, leading towards the transition from experimental to mass large-scale construction. Most questions arise about the [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing technologies are becoming more popular in various industries, including the construction industry. Currently, construction 3D printing is sufficiently well studied from an academic point of view, leading towards the transition from experimental to mass large-scale construction. Most questions arise about the applicability of construction 3D printers for printing entire buildings and structures. This paper provides an overview of the different types of construction 3D printing technologies currently in use, and their fundamental differences, as well as some significant data on the advantages of using these advanced technologies in construction. A description of the requirements for composite printing is also provided, with possible issues that may arise when switching from lab-scale construction printing to mass large-scale printing. All printers using additive manufacturing technologies for construction are divided into three types: robotic arm printers, portal-type printers, and gantry 3D printers. It is noted that gantry printers are more suitable for large-scale printing since some of their configurations have the ability to construct buildings that are practically unlimited in size. In addition, all printers are not capable of printing with concrete containing a coarse aggregate, which is a necessary requirement in terms of the strength and economic feasibility of 3D printing material for large-scale applications. Full article
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14 pages, 25498 KiB  
Article
Research on the Soil-Plugging Effect on Small-Diameter Jacked Piles through In Situ Testing and DEM Simulation
by Xueyan Wang, Yuan Mei, Yili Yuan, Rong Wang and Dongbo Zhou
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112022 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Small-diameter jacked piles are widely used in civil engineering. The formation and development of the soil-plugging effect and surface frictional behavior of jacked piles have a high impact on the construction process and pile quality. Clarifying the developmental pattern of the soil-plugging effect [...] Read more.
Small-diameter jacked piles are widely used in civil engineering. The formation and development of the soil-plugging effect and surface frictional behavior of jacked piles have a high impact on the construction process and pile quality. Clarifying the developmental pattern of the soil-plugging effect and the change law of frictional force forms the premise of scientific construction and construction quality. Firstly, we carried out two groups of in situ tests on the small-diameter jacked piles, recording the relationship between penetration depth and resistance force. Then, the discrete element method (DEM) was used to analyze the mechanical behavior of the small-diameter jacked piles during the construction process. The particle flow code (PFC) 2D was used to carry out the DEM simulation. The research results show that pile resistance exhibited an irregular development trend as the construction process proceeded. There is a sudden change in pile resistance when the pile tip reaches the interface of certain soil layers. Both tests revealed the same phenomenon, yet both occurred at different depths. The DEM analysis showed that plug sliding was the main reason for the above phenomenon. The difference in strength and stiffness of adjacent soil layers causes the soil plug to slide, leading to a sudden change in pile resistance. When the upper layer is soft and the layer below is hard, this phenomenon is especially obvious. This also leads to a difference in the location of the sudden change in pile resistance between the two groups of tests. The research results of this paper can be helpful for revealing the relationship between the soil-plugging effect of small-diameter jacked piles and the development of pile resistance and also provides a reference for relevant engineering construction and design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Innovation of Materials and Technologies in Civil Construction)
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25 pages, 8598 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Characteristic Monitoring of Wind Turbine Structure Using Smartphone and Optical Flow Method
by Wenhai Zhao, Wanrun Li, Boyuan Fan and Yongfeng Du
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112021 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
The dynamic characteristics of existing wind turbine structures are usually monitored using contact sensors, which is not only expensive but also time-consuming and laborious to install. Recently, computer vision technology has developed rapidly, and monitoring methods based on cameras and UAVs (unmanned aerial [...] Read more.
The dynamic characteristics of existing wind turbine structures are usually monitored using contact sensors, which is not only expensive but also time-consuming and laborious to install. Recently, computer vision technology has developed rapidly, and monitoring methods based on cameras and UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) have been widely used. However, the high cost of UAVs and cameras make it difficult to widely use them. To address this problem, a target-free dynamic characteristic monitoring method for wind turbine structures using portable smartphone and optical flow method is proposed by combining optical flow method with robust corner feature extraction in ROI (region of interest). Firstly, the ROI region clipping technology is introduced after the structural vibration video shooting, and the threshold value is set in the ROI to obtain robust corner features. The sub-pixel displacement monitoring is realized by combining the optical flow method. Secondly, through three common smartphone shooting state to monitor the structural displacement, the method of high pass filtering combined with adaptive scaling factor is used to effectively eliminate the displacement drift caused by the two shooting states of standing and slightly walking, which can meet the requirements of structural dynamic characteristics monitoring. After that, the structural displacement is monitored by assembling the telephoto lens on the smartphone. The accuracy of displacement monitored by assembling the telephoto lens on the smartphone is investigated. Finally, the proposed monitoring method is verified by the shaking table test of the wind turbine structure. The results show that the optical flow method, combined with smartphones, can accurately identify the dynamic characteristics of the wind turbine structure, and the smartphone equipped with a telephoto lens is more conducive to achieving low-cost wind turbine structure dynamic characteristics monitoring. This research can provide a reference for evaluating the condition of wind turbine structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Detection Based on Smartphones in Buildings)
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20 pages, 5455 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Openings on the Seismic Response of an Infilled Reinforced Concrete Structure
by André Furtado, Hugo Rodrigues and António Arêde
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2020; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112020 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
The seismic behavior of the infill masonry infill walls has a significant impact on the global response of reinforced concrete frame structures. One factor influencing its behavior is the existence of openings in the walls, such as doors and windows, which are crucial [...] Read more.
The seismic behavior of the infill masonry infill walls has a significant impact on the global response of reinforced concrete frame structures. One factor influencing its behavior is the existence of openings in the walls, such as doors and windows, which are crucial for the infill seismic performance. Although the numerical simulation of the seismic behavior of RC buildings with infill walls has evolved significantly in recent years in terms of micro- and macro-modelling, most of the existing studies are only related to infill walls without openings. Based on this motivation, four main objectives were defined for this research work: (i) present a simplified modeling approach and its calibration to simulate the seismic behavior of infill walls with central openings such as windows; (ii) evaluate the impact of the openings on the global seismic response of an RC building; (iii) study the impact of the irregular distribution of the infill walls (vertical and in-plane) on the global seismic response of an RC building; and (iv) study the impact of the central openings ratio (i.e., relative percentage between opening and infill wall area) on the global seismic response of an RC building structure. A four-story infilled RC building was used as a case study to perform parametric analyses investigating the impact of the masonry infill walls’ irregular distribution (vertical and in-plan) and their openings ratio. The results are discussed in terms of natural frequencies and vibration modes, initial lateral stiffness, and maximum lateral resistance. This study found that the openings caused a reduction in the natural frequencies of about 20% compared with the full infill (without openings). The openings did not modify the vibration modes. In addition, the openings reduced the initial stiffness by about 20% compared with the model without openings. The maximum strength increased about 50% with the infill walls, but this was reduced by the openings by 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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20 pages, 4358 KiB  
Article
Autonomous Concrete Crack Semantic Segmentation Using Deep Fully Convolutional Encoder–Decoder Network in Concrete Structures Inspection
by Rundong Pu, Guoqian Ren, Haijiang Li, Wei Jiang, Jisong Zhang and Honglei Qin
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112019 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
Structure health inspection is the way to ensure that structures stay in optimum condition. Traditional inspection work has many disadvantages in dealing with the large workload despite using remote image-capturing devices. This research focuses on image-based concrete crack pattern recognition utilizing a deep [...] Read more.
Structure health inspection is the way to ensure that structures stay in optimum condition. Traditional inspection work has many disadvantages in dealing with the large workload despite using remote image-capturing devices. This research focuses on image-based concrete crack pattern recognition utilizing a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and an encoder–decoder module for semantic segmentation and classification tasks, thereby lightening the inspectors’ workload. To achieve this, a series of contrast experiments have been implemented. The results show that the proposed deep-learning network has competitive semantic segmentation accuracy (91.62%) and over-performs compared with other crack detection studies. This proposed advanced DCNN is split into multiple modules, including atrous convolution (AS), atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP), a modified encoder–decoder module, and depthwise separable convolution (DSC). The advancement is that those modules are well-selected for this task and modified based on their characteristics and functions, exploiting their superiority to achieve robust and accurate detection globally. This application improved the overall performance of detection and can be implemented in industrial practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent and Computer Technologies Application in Construction II)
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21 pages, 3117 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Approach of Simulation and Regression Analysis for Assessing Productivity in Modular Integrated Construction Projects
by Ridwan Taiwo, Mohamed Hussein and Tarek Zayed
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112018 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Many nations across the globe face the challenge of housing deficit. Modular integrated construction (MiC), which has the highest level of prefabrication among off-site construction manufacturing (OSM), has been adopted as a fast and reliable construction method to address the housing deficit. Previous [...] Read more.
Many nations across the globe face the challenge of housing deficit. Modular integrated construction (MiC), which has the highest level of prefabrication among off-site construction manufacturing (OSM), has been adopted as a fast and reliable construction method to address the housing deficit. Previous studies have assessed the productivity of the prefabrication stage of MiC, while investigations into the productivity of the MiC installation process with the consideration of pragmatic factors, especially for high-rise buildings, are lacking in the literature. Therefore, this study contributes by (1) developing a discrete-event simulation (DES) model to assess the productivity of MiC installation while considering pragmatic factors (e.g., weather conditions, topography, work dimension, etc.) and management conditions (e.g., workers’ motivation, training, equipment maintenance, etc.); (2) developing a mathematical model to understand the relationship between productivity and various resources utilized in MiC installation. After verifying and validating the DES model, it was applied to a case study in Hong Kong. A sensitivity analysis using a full factorial experiment design was conducted to identify the parameters (e.g., number of trucks, tower cranes, different crews) that significantly affect a number of performance measures, such as the project duration, productivity, and total costs. Furthermore, the mathematical model shows high prediction accuracy, as the mean absolute percentage error is 8.93%. This study would help construction practitioners in their decision-making process, while planning a project by providing them with a model that can predict the productivity of the MiC installation process before and during the project implementation. Full article
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19 pages, 8254 KiB  
Article
Development of a Solar Tracking-Based Movable Louver System to Save Lighting Energy and Create a Comfortable Light Environment
by Su-yeon Jung, Sowon Han, Min-Goo Lee and Heangwoo Lee
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112017 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4218
Abstract
Louvers are among the technical components considered for improving energy performance in buildings, and there has been increased interest in adapting the louver system. However, most previous studies have focused on their performance evaluation based on the width and angle of the slats, [...] Read more.
Louvers are among the technical components considered for improving energy performance in buildings, and there has been increased interest in adapting the louver system. However, most previous studies have focused on their performance evaluation based on the width and angle of the slats, which allow for limited improvement in their efficiency. This study suggests a solar tracking-based movable louver (STML) system and examines the efficacy using a full-scale test bed. To do so, we developed a full-scale test bed and estimated the energy reduction and improvement of indoor uniformity of different types of STML systems, including vertical, horizontal, eggcrate, and hybrid. The main findings are as follows: (1) The proposed STML is a hybrid louver with four movable shafts due to its structural characteristics. The shading area is increased sequentially by controlling the length of the movable shaft adjacent to the sun through solar tracking. (2) Compared with conventional vertical and horizontal louvers, the STML can improve indoor uniformity by 5.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Unlike conventional louvers, the STML awnings are installed at the end of the daylighting window, reducing window view obstruction and creating a more pleasant indoor visual environment. (3) Compared with conventional louvers, the STML can reduce lighting and heating/cooling energy by 35.7–49.7%. These findings prove the effectiveness of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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18 pages, 5378 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Elements of the Concept of Lean Construction in the Fire Protection of Steel Structures at Oil and Gas Facilities
by Marina Gravit, Nail Ikhiyanov, Anton Radaev and Daria Shabunina
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112016 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
The work is aimed at developing a procedure for applying the concept of lean construction to improve the technological process of applying fire protection coating on the steel structures of oil and gas facilities. The experience of implementing elements of the concept of [...] Read more.
The work is aimed at developing a procedure for applying the concept of lean construction to improve the technological process of applying fire protection coating on the steel structures of oil and gas facilities. The experience of implementing elements of the concept of lean construction in the activities of the organization of the oil and gas complex is presented. The developed procedure involves the use of elements of the concept of lean construction, such as value stream mapping, the “Spaghetti” diagram, and timekeeping elements of the technological process. For the example of an existing object of the oil and gas facility, the developed methodology for the implementation of the concept of lean construction is realized. The results of implementation showed that the output per worker increased by 33%, the process time for applying fire protection epoxy coating decreased by 35%, and the total distance of the route of workers in the process of applying the composition decreased by 19%. The practical significance of the results in this study consists of the possibility of using the developed procedure in the activities of construction organizations to improve technological processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Buildings and Fire Safety)
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24 pages, 6278 KiB  
Article
Yielding and Ultimate Deformations of Wide and Deep Reinforced Concrete Beams
by Fernando Gómez-Martínez and Agustín Pérez-García
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112015 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Current formulations proposed by Eurocode 8 part 3 for the inelastic deformations of existing reinforced concrete members are assessed separately for wide beams (WB) and conventional deep beams (DB). The current approach, based on a large experimental database of members, predicts larger ultimate [...] Read more.
Current formulations proposed by Eurocode 8 part 3 for the inelastic deformations of existing reinforced concrete members are assessed separately for wide beams (WB) and conventional deep beams (DB). The current approach, based on a large experimental database of members, predicts larger ultimate chord rotation but lower chord rotation ductility for WB rather than for DB despite the similar curvature ductility, due to lower plastic hinge lengths in WB. However, if the data are disaggregated into DB and WB, predicted chord rotations are consistently conservative for DB and not conservative for WB if compared with experimental values, especially at ultimate deformation. Thus, plastic hinge length may be even greater for DB in comparison to WB. Therefore, some feasible corrections of the formulations for chord rotations are proposed, in order to reduce the bias and thus increase the robustness of the model for cross-section shape variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research and Prospect of Buildings Seismic Performance)
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26 pages, 6032 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis and Its Application to Shallow Founded Buildings with Soil-Structure Interaction
by Adriana Brandis, Ivan Kraus and Simon Petrovčič
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112014 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
This paper presents new research in the field of nonlinear static seismic analysis and the N2 method for soil-structure systems. The rationale for this study stems from the inclusion of soil-structure systems in simplified displacement-based design methods. The conducted research comprises three parts, [...] Read more.
This paper presents new research in the field of nonlinear static seismic analysis and the N2 method for soil-structure systems. The rationale for this study stems from the inclusion of soil-structure systems in simplified displacement-based design methods. The conducted research comprises three parts, including original experimental investigations, the development of numerical models and the validation of results. A new methodology is presented that provides a step-by-step procedure for the implementation of the N2 method on soil-structure systems. Results of a dynamic shake-table test on a simplified scaled structural model founded on compacted dry sand are presented, and a numerical model of the experiment is developed and calibrated with the inclusion of soil-structure interaction effects. This indicates one main significance of this paper, which is the variation between the experimental and the analytical model and how they can be compared. Lastly, a case study was conducted on a numerical model of a 3D steel building. The building was analysed using pushover analysis for a fixed base-case and by considering soil-structure interaction effects. The results of both observed cases were mutually compared and further examined by validating them with nonlinear dynamic analyses. A comparison was conducted considering the inter-story drifts, calculated according to the N2 method and time-history analyses. The results show good agreement when the N2 method is used for buildings on compliant soils. Overall, it was observed that a decrease in the inter-story drifts appears at ground level of the building. This research also provides a framework for future research in the examined field, for instance, on different types of buildings, building typologies and irregularities of the structural system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Resistance of Buildings and Urban Systems)
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20 pages, 6059 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Influence of Bolt Arrangement Parameters on the Bending Behavior of Timber–Steel Composite (TSC) Beams
by Ruiyue Liu, Jiatong Liu, Zhenzhen Wu, Ling Chen and Jiejun Wang
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112013 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
The present paper investigates the impact of bolt distance, bolt diameter, and the number of bolt rows on the bending performance of timber–steel composite (TSC) beams. This study aims to facilitate the application of bolt connections in assembled TSC structures. Composite steel I-beams [...] Read more.
The present paper investigates the impact of bolt distance, bolt diameter, and the number of bolt rows on the bending performance of timber–steel composite (TSC) beams. This study aims to facilitate the application of bolt connections in assembled TSC structures. Composite steel I-beams were designed with timber boards connected in the upper section with bolts. Three-point static bending tests were conducted on nine timber–steel composite beams divided into four groups (L1, L2, L3, and L4) with varying bolt arrangements. The destruction mode, ultimate bearing capacity, ductility coefficient, load–midspan deflection curve, and load–midspan strain curve of each specimen were obtained. In addition, the destruction mechanism, the quantitative relationship between the bolt area ratio and interfacial slip, and the ideal bolt area ratio were identified. It was found that when the midspan deflection of the timber–steel composite beam approached the prescribed limit, the main failure mode can be explained as follows: The top surface of the boards of all the specimens had longitudinal local splitting, except L1, which had fewer bolts and no obvious damage. Moreover, due to compression and because the stress at the lower edge of the I-beam entered the flow amplitude stage, some of the specimens were crushed but were not pulled off. The composite beams had high flexural load capacity and ductility coefficient, and the maximum relative slips of the timber–steel interfaces were in the range of 2–6 mm. It was also found that the maximum slip of the interface and the ductility coefficient decreased steadily as the bolt area ratio increased, while the specimen’s flexural bearing capacity increased. The optimal bolt area ratio was determined to be 8 × 10−3. Using the total bolt area, we designed the arrangement of the bolts on the board. For convenience, multiple bolt variables were converted into one bolt variable. The longitudinal distance of the bolts had a greater impact on the slip, and the bolt diameter had a smaller impact. The theoretical values of total relative slip were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, which were based on the superposition of the relative slip equations with varying bolt distances. The effective bolt area ratio and the formula of the relative slip of each segment can provide instructions for the arrangement of bolts and the control of the relative slip of intersections in engineering practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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