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Buildings, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A new method for the optimization of seasonal energy storage is presented and applied in a case study. The optimization method uses an interval halving approach to solve computationally demanding mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problems with both integer and non-integer operation variables (variables that vary from time step to time step in during energy storage system operation). The seasonal energy storage in the case study uses a reversible solid oxide cell (RSOC) to convert electricity generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) panels into hydrogen gas and to convert hydrogen gas back to electricity while also generating some heat. Both the case study results and the optimization method accuracy are examined and discussed in the paper. View this paper
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Article
Ability to Glue Portuguese Eucalyptus Elements
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070133 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Portuguese forests have changed in recent years. These changes were mainly boosted by the wildfires that affected a significant percentage of the softwood area. Eucalyptus is actually the dominant wood species in Portuguese forests. This is not a native hardwood, but is being [...] Read more.
Portuguese forests have changed in recent years. These changes were mainly boosted by the wildfires that affected a significant percentage of the softwood area. Eucalyptus is actually the dominant wood species in Portuguese forests. This is not a native hardwood, but is being planted mainly for pulp and paper production, and its availability and mechanical performance have made it very present in timber construction in the last 50 years. Within the discussion to substitute imported raw materials, mainly from softwoods, with local hardwoods for the production of engineered wood products, the study of the ability to glue eucalyptus has become a necessity. This paper presents experimental works aimed to assess the ability to glue eucalyptus elements for the production of glued laminated timber (GLT) and cross-laminated timber (CLT). Since this wood species has been known for being difficult to dry, a preliminary study on the dimensional stability under moisture content variation was performed. Then, shear strength tests were made in accordance with ASTM D143. The objective was to correlate those results with the tests performed in the following research step. In this further stage, shear strength tests of the bond line were performed following EN 14080 and EN 16351. The results obtained in all the experiments show that eucalyptus has the potential to be glued and therefore the production of GLT and/or CLT using this local undervalued wood species is potentially of high industrial interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Assessment of Timber Structures)
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Article
Observation and Interpretation of Closely Spaced Fundamental Modes of a High-Rise Building
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070132 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
In this paper the dynamic behaviour of a high-rise building with complex structural system is studied. In some cases, to optimize the building design, the horizontal stability of the building is accomplished by the contribution of several structural components. This is the case [...] Read more.
In this paper the dynamic behaviour of a high-rise building with complex structural system is studied. In some cases, to optimize the building design, the horizontal stability of the building is accomplished by the contribution of several structural components. This is the case of the JuBi tower, the building studied in this paper. The horizontal stability of the building is accomplished by three cores and outer walls. The cores and the walls are connected through the floors and the foundation. The data recorded during the experimental campaign carried out in this building show a double-peak behaviour corresponding to two closely spaced modes in the translational directions. This is caused by the weak coupling between the structural components. To study this phenomena, in this paper, a yet unique double-beam model is used. The parameters of the model are tuned so as to resemble the experimental response of the building. Results of the model evidence that the weak coupling is caused by the beams and the foundation. Also, it is shown that the two closely spaced modes correspond both to bending shape modes. Full article
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Article
Design of a BIM Integrated Structural Health Monitoring System for a Historic Offshore Lighthouse
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070131 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
The advent of wireless sensors and internet of things connectivity combined with increased open source cloud based digital sharing among the architecture, engineering, and construction industry has helped expand the range of applications for building information modelling. As the rate of adoption of [...] Read more.
The advent of wireless sensors and internet of things connectivity combined with increased open source cloud based digital sharing among the architecture, engineering, and construction industry has helped expand the range of applications for building information modelling. As the rate of adoption of BIM as a standard practice for planning, designing, and constructing new infrastructure increases, the research focus is moving towards other applications. Utilizing BIM in innovative ways such as for building energy performance, carbon capture, and asset management are now being explored. An area which receives less focus is the application of BIM on existing structures. This study explores the potential for implementing BIM on an existing structure for asset management and structural health monitoring. A method of integrating sensors to enhance the visualisation of structural health monitoring through BIM is developed. The study describes how monitoring data can be integrated within the BIM of an offshore lighthouse. Full article
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Article
Influence of Foundation Quality on the Stress in the Elements of Steel Façade Scaffolding
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070130 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of incorrect scaffolding foundations on the stress in their elements. Static stress analysis was performed for exemplary steel façade scaffolding. The scaffolding was formed using the Plettac 70 system and was composed of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of incorrect scaffolding foundations on the stress in their elements. Static stress analysis was performed for exemplary steel façade scaffolding. The scaffolding was formed using the Plettac 70 system and was composed of 16 modules and 13 working levels. The total dimensions of the scaffolding were 45.0 × 26.36 × 0.74 m. The scaffolding was set up partly on concrete and partly on a created ground classified as coarse sand with discontinuous graining. The boundary conditions modelling the foundation considered the heterogeneity of the ground both along the scaffolding and in the direction perpendicular to the façade. The effect of uneven subsidence on the scaffolding frames was checked, adopting a constant stiffness of 3500 kN/m in half of the supports, while in the rest of them the stiffness varied from 35 to 3500 kN/m. Due to additional bending moments, normal stresses in stands and transoms of the frames increased. Incorrect scaffolding foundation has the greatest negative effect on normal forces in anchors and bracings. Because these elements are responsible for the stability of the scaffolding, their damage may result in scaffolding failure and would certainly lead to a reduction of the values of free vibration frequencies, thus resulting in the discomfort of the workers on the scaffolding and a lack of safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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Review
Perovskite Solar Cells for BIPV Application: A Review
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070129 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4236
Abstract
The rapid efficiency enhancement of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) make it a promising photovoltaic (PV) research, which has now drawn attention from industries and government organizations to invest for further development of PSC technology. PSC technology continuously develops into new and improved results. [...] Read more.
The rapid efficiency enhancement of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) make it a promising photovoltaic (PV) research, which has now drawn attention from industries and government organizations to invest for further development of PSC technology. PSC technology continuously develops into new and improved results. However, stability, toxicity, cost, material production and fabrication become the significant factors, which limits the expansion of PSCs. PSCs integration into a building in the form of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is one of the most holistic approaches to exploit it as a next-generation PV technology. Integration of high efficiency and semi-transparent PSC in BIPV is still not a well-established area. The purpose of this review is to get an overview of the relative scope of PSCs integration in the BIPV sector. This review demonstrates the benevolence of PSCs by stimulating energy conversion and its perspective and gradual evolution in terms of photovoltaic applications to address the challenge of increasing energy demand and their environmental impacts for BIPV adaptation. Understanding the critical impact regarding the materials and devices established portfolio for PSC integration BIPV are also discussed. In addition to highlighting the apparent advantages of using PSCs in terms of their demand, perspective and the limitations, challenges, new strategies of modification and relative scopes are also addressed in this review. Full article
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Article
A Systematic Approach to Calculate Unit Emergy Values of Cement Manufacturing in China Using Consumption Quota of Dry and Wet Raw Materials
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070128 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
The Chinese cement industry produced 2150 million metric tons of cement in 2014, accounting for 58.1% of the world’s total. This industry has a hugely destructive effect on the environment owing to its pollution. The environmental impact of cement manufacturing is a major [...] Read more.
The Chinese cement industry produced 2150 million metric tons of cement in 2014, accounting for 58.1% of the world’s total. This industry has a hugely destructive effect on the environment owing to its pollution. The environmental impact of cement manufacturing is a major concern for China. Although researchers have attempted to estimate impacts using life cycle assessment approaches, it lacks the ability to provide a holistic evaluation of the impacts on the environment. Emergy analysis, through ecological accounting, offers environmental decision making using elaborate book keeping. In spite of the high environmental impact of the cement industry, there has only been a handful of research work done to compute the unit emergy values (UEVs) of cement manufacturing in China. A thorough study of existing UEVs of cement manufacturing in China showed pitfalls that may lead to inaccurate estimations if used in emergy analysis. There is a strong need for a new, updated UEV for cement manufacturing in China, particularly reflecting both the dry and wet raw materials in the manufacturing process. This paper develops a methodology to calculate the nonrenewable resources used in cement manufacturing, particularly using mainstream cement production line. Our systematic approach-based UEV estimates of cement manufacturing in China using the quota method are 2.56 × 1012 sej/kg (wet material) and 2.46 × 1012 sej/kg (dry material). Emergy indicators such as environmental loading ratios which were calculated at 2390 (wet material) and 2300 (dry material); emergy yield ratios at 15.7 and 15.8; and emergy sustainability indices at 0.0066 and 0.0069 for dry and wet materials used in cement manufacturing, respectively; these show the immense impact on the environment in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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Article
Turbulent Flows and Pollution Dispersion around Tall Buildings Using Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070127 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
The motivation for this work stems from the increased number of high-rise buildings/skyscrapers all over the world, and in London, UK, and hence the necessity to see their effect on the local environment. We concentrate on the mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic [...] Read more.
The motivation for this work stems from the increased number of high-rise buildings/skyscrapers all over the world, and in London, UK, and hence the necessity to see their effect on the local environment. We concentrate on the mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energies (TKEs) and tracer concentrations. We look at their variations with height at two main locations within the building area, and downstream the buildings. The pollution source is placed at the top of the central building, representing an emission from a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant. We see how a tall building may have a positive effect at the lower levels, but a negative one at the higher levels in terms of pollution levels. Mean velocities at the higher levels (over 60 m in real life) are reduced at both locations (within the building area and downstream it), whilst Reynolds stresses and TKEs increase. However, despite the observed enhanced turbulence at the higher levels, mean concentrations increase, indicating that the mean flow has a greater influence on the dispersion. At the lower levels (Z < 60 m), the presence of a tall building enhanced dispersion (hence lower concentrations) for many of the configurations. Full article
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Article
Flammability Characteristics of Green Roofs
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070126 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Assessing the fire risk of vegetated roofs includes the determination of their possible contribution to fire. Green roof components such as plants and growing media are organic materials and present a fuel that can catch and support the spread of fire. The flammability [...] Read more.
Assessing the fire risk of vegetated roofs includes the determination of their possible contribution to fire. Green roof components such as plants and growing media are organic materials and present a fuel that can catch and support the spread of fire. The flammability characteristics of these components were analyzed and compared to a typical roof covering. Growing media with 15% of organic matter were tested using cone calorimeter apparatus. The fuel load and heat release rate of the growing media were measured in both moist (30%) and dry conditions. It was observed that growing media in a moist condition do not present a fire risk, reaching a maximum heat release rate of 33 kW/m2. For dry substrates, a peak heat release rate of 95 kW/m2 was recorded in the first minute, which then rapidly decreased to 29 kW/m2 in the second minute. Compared to a typical bitumen roof membrane, the green roof showed a better fire performance. The literature data report more severe results for plant behavior, reaching peak heat release rates (HRRs) of 397 kW/m2 for dried and 176 kW/m2 for a green material. However, a rapid decrease in HRR to much lower values occurs in less than 2 min. The results also show that extensive and intensive types of green roofs present 22% and 95% of the additional fire load density when installed on a modified bitumen membrane, 19.7 and 85.8 MJ/m2, respectively. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Different Intervention Options for Massive Seismic Upgrading of Essential Facilities
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070125 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
The seismic retrofitting of essential facilities is a typical problem of public administrations. Due to the large amount of existing and/or historic buildings with a high seismic vulnerability and the limited economic resources, it is necessary to provide efficient solutions for the structural [...] Read more.
The seismic retrofitting of essential facilities is a typical problem of public administrations. Due to the large amount of existing and/or historic buildings with a high seismic vulnerability and the limited economic resources, it is necessary to provide efficient solutions for the structural reinforcement of these structures on a national, regional, and urban level. This paper proposes an innovative and multidisciplinary framework to choose massive interventions on a large territorial scale according to the potential benefits of the intervention in terms of reduction in expected economic losses associated with retrofitting intervention and other important aspects usually neglected in intervention strategies. The proposed framework is based on Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) analysis. It is applied to a very complex urban area: the case study is the school buildings stock (4458 buildings) in the Lima Metropolitan area, Peru. The goal of the study is arisk analysis aimed at selecting the optimal retrofitting strategy in a huge urban area. The results of this work can be considered the base for decision-makers. They could use them as a decision support tool in the seismic risk mitigation on a large territorial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-linear Modelling and Analysis of Buildings)
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Article
Mitigation Strategies for Overheating and High Carbon Dioxide Concentration within Institutional Buildings: A Case Study in Toronto, Canada
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070124 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Indoor air quality and thermal conditions are important considerations when designing indoor spaces to ensure occupant health, satisfaction, and productivity. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and indoor air temperature are two measurable parameters to assess air quality and thermal conditions within a [...] Read more.
Indoor air quality and thermal conditions are important considerations when designing indoor spaces to ensure occupant health, satisfaction, and productivity. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and indoor air temperature are two measurable parameters to assess air quality and thermal conditions within a space. Occupants are progressively affected by the indoor environment as the time spent indoors prolongs. Specifically, there is an interest in carrying out investigations on the indoor environment through surveying existing Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) system operations in classrooms. Indoor air temperature and CO2 concentration in multiple lecture halls in Toronto, Canada were monitored; observations consistently show high indoor air temperature (overheating) and high CO2 concentration. One classroom is chosen as a representative case study for this paper. The results verify a strong correlation between the number of occupants and the increase in air temperature and CO2 concentration. Building Energy Simulation (BES) is used to investigate the causes of discomfort in the classroom, and to identify methods for regulating the temperature and CO2 concentration. This paper proposes retro-commissioning strategies that could be implemented in institutional buildings; specifically, the increase of outdoor airflow rate and the addition of occupancy-based pre-active HVAC system control. The proposed retrofit cases reduce the measured overheating in the classrooms by 2-3 °C (indoor temperature should be below 23 °C) and maintain CO2 concentration under 900 ppm (the CO2 threshold is 1000 ppm), showing promising improvements to a classroom’s thermal condition and indoor air quality. Full article
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Article
A MILP Optimization Method for Building Seasonal Energy Storage: A Case Study for a Reversible Solid Oxide Cell and Hydrogen Storage System
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070123 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
A new method for the optimization of seasonal energy storage is presented and applied in a case study. The optimization method uses an interval halving approach to solve computationally demanding mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problems with both integer and non-integer operation variables [...] Read more.
A new method for the optimization of seasonal energy storage is presented and applied in a case study. The optimization method uses an interval halving approach to solve computationally demanding mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problems with both integer and non-integer operation variables (variables that vary from time step to time step in during energy storage system operation). The seasonal energy storage in the case study uses a reversible solid oxide cell (RSOC) to convert electricity generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) panels into hydrogen gas and to convert hydrogen gas back to electricity while also generating some heat. Both the case study results and the optimization method accuracy are examined and discussed in the paper. In the case study, the operation of the RSOC and hydrogen storage system is compared with the operation of a reference system without energy storage. The results of the study show that installing an RSOC and hydrogen storage system could increase the utilization of onsite renewable energy generation significantly. Overall, the optimization method presents a relatively accurate solution to the case study optimization problem and a sensibility analysis shows a clear and logical pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Net-Zero/Positive Energy Buildings and Districts)
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Article
Performance of Notched Connectors for CLT-Concrete Composite Floors
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070122 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
CLT-concrete composite floor systems are a solution for timber buildings with a long-span floor. It yields a reduction of carbon footprint and even eco-friendly structure at the end of its service life. This study will evaluate the structural performance of notched connectors in [...] Read more.
CLT-concrete composite floor systems are a solution for timber buildings with a long-span floor. It yields a reduction of carbon footprint and even eco-friendly structure at the end of its service life. This study will evaluate the structural performance of notched connectors in the CLT-concrete composite floor, comprised of the serviceability stiffness, maximum load, and behavior at failure. The parameters of the test plan are the loaded edge length, the notch depth, the concrete thickness, and the screw length. Other secondary variables are also assessed, such as different loading sequences, speed of test, and timber moisture content. Experimental results prove that the performance of the connector depends significantly but not linearly on the notch depth and the length of the loaded edge. The connector with a deeper notch and a shorter heel will be stiffer and more robust, but it also tends to have a brittle rupture. The test results also help validate a solution for deconstructable connector systems. A nonlinear finite element model of the connector is built and validated versus the experimental results. It yields reasonably good predictions in terms of resistance and can capture the load-slip relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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Article
Fire Safety in Tall Timber Building: A BIM-Based Automated Code-Checking Approach
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070121 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Fire safety regulations impose very strict requirements on building design, especially for buildings built with combustible materials. It is believed that it is possible to improve the management of these regulations with a better integration of fire protection aspects in the building information [...] Read more.
Fire safety regulations impose very strict requirements on building design, especially for buildings built with combustible materials. It is believed that it is possible to improve the management of these regulations with a better integration of fire protection aspects in the building information modeling (BIM) approach. A new BIM-based domain is emerging, the automated code checking, with its growing number of dedicated approaches. However, only very few of these works have been dedicated to managing the compliance to fire safety regulations in timber buildings. In this paper, the applicability to fire safety in the Canadian context is studied by constituting and executing a complete method from the regulations text through code-checking construction to result analysis. A design science approach is used to propose a code-checking method with a detailed analysis of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) in order to obtain the required information. The method starts by retrieving information from the regulation text, leading to a compliance check of an architectural building model. Then, the method is tested on a set of fire safety regulations and validated on a building model from a real project. The selected fire safety rules set a solid basis for further development of checking rules for the field of fire safety. This study shows that the main challenges for rule checking are the modeling standards and the elements’ required levels of detail. The implementation of the method was successful for geometrical as well as non-geometrical requirements, although further work is needed for more advanced geometrical studies, such as sprinkler or fire dampers positioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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Article
Going Beyond Code: Monitoring Disaggregated Energy and Modeling Detached Houses in Hawai‘i
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070120 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Hawai‘i was the first state to establish a statewide 100% renewable energy goal to be met by 2045. To address the potential impact of new residential construction, a team conducted field studies and developed whole-building energy models of detached houses in Hawai‘i. The [...] Read more.
Hawai‘i was the first state to establish a statewide 100% renewable energy goal to be met by 2045. To address the potential impact of new residential construction, a team conducted field studies and developed whole-building energy models of detached houses in Hawai‘i. The goal was to inform the state, a major developer, and the Hawai‘i design community on how current residential design could be modified to meet the newly adopted energy codes and renewable energy goals. Seven houses with air-conditioning were monitored for disaggregated energy use, temperature, and humidity for one year. The building simulation software BEoptTM v.2.8 was used to conduct parametric analyses and cost/energy optimizations to evaluate design options. The energy-optimized model for this hot-humid climate included the following: increasing the efficiency of the air-conditioning system; utilizing ceiling fans with occupancy sensors while increasing the thermostat set-point; a light-colored exterior finish and roof; a radiant barrier; longer eaves; and Energy Star appliances. The energy-optimized model reduced the annual site energy by approximately 47.1% compared to the model that minimally complied with the International Energy Conservation Code 2015. A 4.5-kW grid-tied photovoltaic array would achieve a net-zero annual site energy value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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Article
Air Permeability of Air-Entrained Hybrid Concrete Containing CSA Cement
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070119 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
This paper presents the results of research on series of concrete prepared with Portland cement CEM I 42.5R, with partial replacement of this cement with calcium sulfoaluminate cement. In part of the series, an air-entraining admixture was used. It was assumed that the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of research on series of concrete prepared with Portland cement CEM I 42.5R, with partial replacement of this cement with calcium sulfoaluminate cement. In part of the series, an air-entraining admixture was used. It was assumed that the mixture must remain workable for at least 45 min and to ensure that citric acid as the setting retarder was used. Compressive strength tests after 2, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days, tensile splitting strength test and sorptivity test after 28 days were performed. After 56 and 90 days, the moisture content of the specimens was determined, and Torrent air permeability was tested. Freeze-thaw scaling resistance was also investigated. It was found that the addition of 15% and 30% calcium sulfoaluminate cement results in a significant reduction in the relative humidity of the concrete, after storage under air-dry conditions and an increase in air permeability. The series with 30% calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the binder, regardless of aeration, showed significantly lower resistance to cyclic freezing in the presence of salt. A clear correlation between sorptivity, air permeability and surface scaling was not found. On the basis of a multi-criteria evaluation of the tested concrete and performed Performance Index calculations, the best parameters were achieved by concrete series C30-4.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Concrete Materials in Construction)
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Article
Experimental Study of Thermal and Humidity Conditions in a Historic Wooden Building in Southern Poland
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070118 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
This article presents experimental research on hygrothermal conditions in a historic wooden church in southern Poland. The scope of the research included the continuous monitoring of temperature and relative humidity in several measuring plots in different areas inside and outside of the church. [...] Read more.
This article presents experimental research on hygrothermal conditions in a historic wooden church in southern Poland. The scope of the research included the continuous monitoring of temperature and relative humidity in several measuring plots in different areas inside and outside of the church. We also continuously monitored the number of people attending services. This study presents a detailed analysis of the development of heat and humidity conditions within the church. A model of the object was developed, and a computational analysis of the risk of condensation of water vapor on the inner surface of the partitions was carried out. An analysis of the results showed a large variation in the temperature and humidity conditions in the church. The internal temperature ranged from −9.7 to 25.9 °C, and the relative humidity of the indoor air ranged from 45.6% to 91.6%. The test results showed that the temperature and humidity of the indoor air periodically exceeded the accepted values of thermal comfort for historic buildings. The analysis of the obtained research results showed that the humidity and humidity conditions in the church mainly depend on the climatic zone and the number of people participating in the services. Moreover, an analysis of the results showed no risk of condensation on the wooden partitions of the church, but it should be noted that the temperature of the partitions was subject to rapid fluctuations (from −8.0 to 24.6 °C), which may have a negative impact on these historic wooden objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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Article
Domesticity ‘Behind Bars’: Project by Rem Koolhaas/OMA for the Renovation of a Panopticon Prison in Arnhem
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070117 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3504
Abstract
This article focuses on the project for the renovation of a Panopticon prison in Arnhem, the Netherlands (1979–1980), designed by Rem Koolhaas/OMA. The analysis of its reception shows that, despite being well known, it has been little studied and discussed, and although it [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the project for the renovation of a Panopticon prison in Arnhem, the Netherlands (1979–1980), designed by Rem Koolhaas/OMA. The analysis of its reception shows that, despite being well known, it has been little studied and discussed, and although it was not built, it had an impact on prison architecture. It seems appropriate to tackle it now because the Koepelgevangenis (dome prison) of Arnhem has gained current relevance due to plans for it to be turned into a hotel. The renovation project for the Koepelgevangenis explicitly shows the presence of Foucault’s ideas on power and how these ideas exerted significant influence on the works carried out by Koolhaas. For Foucault, the Panopticon prison, such as the Koepelgevangenis, was the paradigmatic example of what he called the “disciplinary society”. Domesticity “behind bars” suggests that prisons can also be understood as domestic spaces. Moreover, it could be said that for Koolhaas, this Panopticon prison was a social condenser or a hotel for voluntary or involuntary prisoners. As a prison or as a hotel, it can also be interpreted as Foucault’s heterotopia, the intervention thus acquiring a new meaning which anticipated the future of this unique building. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Urban Development in Slum Areas in the City of Rio de Janeiro Based on LEED-ND Indicators
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070116 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
The accelerated urban transition and its consequent unsustainability is a problem registered in several global scenarios. This issue has been identified in the city of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. One of the solutions provided for this theme is the application of specific [...] Read more.
The accelerated urban transition and its consequent unsustainability is a problem registered in several global scenarios. This issue has been identified in the city of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. One of the solutions provided for this theme is the application of specific methodologies to measure sustainability in urban areas such as the case of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND). This work aims to analyze a real urban project, still in the executive project phase, Morro do Encontro project, in the scenario of the slum area of Rio de Janeiro based on the LEED-ND indicator system. The novelty of this study is to evaluate the existing relationships, between urban development actions and sustainability, through LEED-ND indicators, in the proposals of the Brazilian government plan PAC2, as a means of verifying their effectiveness. A total of 12 boards of the discipline of Urbanism in the executive project phase are studied. The analyzed items are divided into credit items and mandatory items. A total of 8% of credit items (CI) and 33% of mandatory items (MI) are attended. The results found indicated 47 sustainability items were not met and, therefore, can be improved. This comes back to the fact that 100% of the mandatory LEED-ND items were not achieved, which means that this project as it was conceived cannot be considered as a sustainable urban solution. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Taxation on Investment Demand in the Real Estate Market: The Italian Experience
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070115 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
This study investigates the effect that property taxation has on investment in the real estate market. There is a close relationship between investments in the real estate market and taxes, local communities, public policies and economic development. The analysis was developed with reference [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect that property taxation has on investment in the real estate market. There is a close relationship between investments in the real estate market and taxes, local communities, public policies and economic development. The analysis was developed with reference to the Italian real estate market and its tax regime. In Italy, taxation on real estate affects possession, transfers and income. These three tax rates vary according to the subjects who exchange assets and manage them, to the intended use of the real estate property and to the options for choosing the type of tax regime permitted by law. On the basis of these parameters, a financial analysis of real estate investment is constructed and simulated in order to understand to which types of taxation investment is most sensitive. The results showed that a change in income taxation can have an important effect on the investment choice. This evidence may also suggest fiscal policy actions aimed at stimulating the real estate market. Full article
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Article
A Framework to Achieve Multifunctionality in Biomimetic Adaptive Building Skins
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070114 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2662
Abstract
Building skins should host multiple functions for increased performance. Addressing this, their design can benefit by learning from nature to achieve multifunctionality, where multifunctional strategies have evolved over years. However, existing frameworks to develop biomimetic adaptive building skins (Bio-ABS) have limited capabilities transferring [...] Read more.
Building skins should host multiple functions for increased performance. Addressing this, their design can benefit by learning from nature to achieve multifunctionality, where multifunctional strategies have evolved over years. However, existing frameworks to develop biomimetic adaptive building skins (Bio-ABS) have limited capabilities transferring multifunctionality from nature into designs. This study shows that through investigating the principles of hierarchy and heterogeneity, multifunctionality in nature can be transferred into biomimetic strategies. We aim at mapping the existing knowledge in biological adaptations from the perspective of multifunctionality and developing a framework achieving multifunctionality in Bio-ABS. The framework is demonstrated through the case study of Echinocactus grusonii implemented as a Bio-ABS on a digital base-case building. The methods include the Bio-ABS case study demonstrating the framework and simulating the performance of the case study and base-case building to comparatively analyze the results. The outcomes are a framework to develop multifunctional Bio-ABS and simulation results on the performance improvement Bio-ABS offer. The performance comparison between the Bio-ABS and base-case building show that there is a decrease in the discomfort hours by a maximum of 23.18%. In conclusion, translating heterogeneity and hierarchy principles in nature into engineered designs is a key aspect to achieve multifunctionality in Bio-ABS offering improved strategies in performance over conventional buildings. Full article
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