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Metals, Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2016) – 41 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts
Metals 2016, 6(11), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110294 - 23 Nov 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by [...] Read more.
Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion of Fe-(9~37) wt. %Cr Alloys at 700–800 °C in (N2, H2O, H2S)-Mixed Gas
Metals 2016, 6(11), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110291 - 23 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H [...] Read more.
Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S mixed gas. In this gas composition order, the corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy rapidly increased. Fe-9Cr alloy was always non-protective. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were protective in N2 and N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas because of the formation of the Cr2O3 layer. They, however, became nonprotective in N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S mixed gas because sulfidation dominated to form the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr2S3 layer containing some FeCr2S4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alloy Steels) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Surface Texturing on Stresses during Rapid Changes in Temperature
Metals 2016, 6(11), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110290 - 23 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Recently, there has been great interest in the application of the surface texturing method to enhance material surface performance. Material surfaces sometimes experience rapid temperature changes, and the local surface will obviously generate thermal stresses, which may be detrimental to the material structure. [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been great interest in the application of the surface texturing method to enhance material surface performance. Material surfaces sometimes experience rapid temperature changes, and the local surface will obviously generate thermal stresses, which may be detrimental to the material structure. In order to understand the relationship between surface texturing and stresses, a numerical approach is used to investigate the effects of surface texturing on stresses. The results show that surface texturing can generate compressive stresses along the normal direction of the surface, and that strong tensional stresses can be formed in the center of a surface at the same time that are beneficial to material surface performance. However, a smooth surface cannot generate these beneficial stresses. In addition, there is an optimum design size with respect to textures, and the most desirable state of stress in a surface layer can be achieved at this size. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pre-Fatigue on the Monotonic Deformation Behavior of a Coplanar Double-Slip-Oriented Cu Single Crystal
Metals 2016, 6(11), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110293 - 22 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
The [2¯33] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2 [...] Read more.
The [ 2 ¯ 33 ] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2 × 104, which is located within the quasi-plateau of the cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve, its tensile strength and elongation are coincidently improved, showing an obvious strengthening effect by low-cycle fatigue (LCF) training. However, for the crystal specimens pre-fatigued at a γpl lower or higher than the quasi-plateau region, due to a low pre-cyclic hardening or the pre-induction of fatigue damage, no marked strengthening effect by LCF training occurs, and even a weakening effect by LCF damage takes place instead. In contrast, the effect of pre-fatigue deformation on the uniaxial compressive behavior is not so significant, since the compressive deformation is in a stress state more beneficial to the ongoing plastic deformation and it is insensitive to the damage induced by pre-cycling. Based on the observations and comparisons of deformation features and dislocation structures in the uniaxially deformed [ 2 ¯ 33 ] crystal specimens which have been pre-fatigued at different γpl, the micro-mechanisms for the effect of pre-fatigue on the static mechanical behavior are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue Damage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Residual Stress Distribution and Microstructure Evolution of AA 6061-T6 Treated by Warm Laser Peening
Metals 2016, 6(11), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110292 - 22 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2351
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study the effects of laser peening (LP) on the residual stress distribution and microstructure evolution of AA 6061-T6 under different temperatures. A laser peening experiment was conducted on the square-shape samples by using single spot and [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to study the effects of laser peening (LP) on the residual stress distribution and microstructure evolution of AA 6061-T6 under different temperatures. A laser peening experiment was conducted on the square-shape samples by using single spot and 50% overlap shock. Three-dimensional surface morphologies of treated samples were observed. The influence of peening temperature on the distribution of compressive residual stress was analyzed. An optical microscope (OM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to observe the microstructure evolution of the samples before and after LP. The results indicate that, as the peening temperature increases, the micro-hardness increases first and then decreases. The LP process induces high-amplitude compressive residual stress on the surface at different temperatures even if the compressive residual stress slightly reduces with increases in temperature. The maximum compressive residual stress affected layer depth is about 0.67 mm, appearing at a temperature of 160 °C. The OM test revealed that the grain size was significantly decreased after warm laser peening (WLP) and that the average value of grain size was reduced by 50%. The TEM test shows that more dislocation tangles were produced in AA 6061-T6 after WLP; compared to the LP process, the precipitate-dislocation interaction can benefit both strength and ductility for AA 6061-T6, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Shock Processing on Metal)
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Open AccessArticle
Wear Behavior of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Containing Carbon Nanotubes
Metals 2016, 6(11), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110289 - 21 Nov 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT) particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT [...] Read more.
The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT) particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT particles. Changes in glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization temperature (Tx) suggest that deviations in the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix occurred because of a partial dissolution of the CNT species into the amorphous phase. Although the hardness of CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composites is increased with the addition of CNT particles, the wear resistance of such composites is not directly proportional to their hardness, and does not follow the standard wear law. A worn surface under a high applied load shows that the 12 vol. % CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composite suffers severe wear compared with monolithic Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Alloying)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ultrafast Heating in Cold-Rolled Low Carbon Steel: Recrystallization and Texture Evolution
Metals 2016, 6(11), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110288 - 21 Nov 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
The microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled low carbon steel after ultrafast heating and quenching is investigated. Experiments were carried out at heating rates of 150 °C/s and 1500 °C/s. The recrystallization of ferrite is studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered [...] Read more.
The microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled low carbon steel after ultrafast heating and quenching is investigated. Experiments were carried out at heating rates of 150 °C/s and 1500 °C/s. The recrystallization of ferrite is studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction techniques. The texture evolution of cold rolled steel during ultrafast heating was studied, making it possible to estimate the precise effect of heating rate on the orientations of newly formed grains. The experimental results showed that the recrystallization of ferrite was not completed before the full transformation of austenite. The noticeable increase in the fraction of recrystallized grains of diameter less than 1 µm, when the heating rate is increased from 150 °C/s to 1500 °C/s suggests that the increase of the heating rate enhances the nucleation of ferrite. The crystallographic orientations in recrystallized ferrite are strongly influenced by the heating rates. The effect of heating rate in the releasing of stored energy, carbon diffusion and spheroidization of cementite might explain some differences in textures observed in recrystallized ferrite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Tantalum Recycling by Electron Beam Melting
Metals 2016, 6(11), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110287 - 21 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Investigations are carried out and obtained experimental and theoretical data for tantalum scrap recycling by electron beam melting (EBM) is presented in this paper. Different thermal treatment process conditions are realized and results are discussed. A chemical analysis is performed and refining mechanisms [...] Read more.
Investigations are carried out and obtained experimental and theoretical data for tantalum scrap recycling by electron beam melting (EBM) is presented in this paper. Different thermal treatment process conditions are realized and results are discussed. A chemical analysis is performed and refining mechanisms for electron beam (EB) refining of Ta are discussed. For the performed experiments the best purification of Ta (99.96) is obtained at 21.6 kW beam power for a melting time of 3 min. A statistical approach is applied for estimation of the material losses and the liquid pool characteristics based on experimentally-obtained data. The aim is to improve the EBM and choosing optimal process conditions, depending on the concrete characteristic requirements. Model-based quality optimization of electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) processes of Ta is considered related to the optimization of the molten pool parameters, connected to the occurring refining processes, and to minimal material losses. Optimization of the process of EBM of Ta is based on overall criteria, giving compromised solutions, depending on the requirements concerning the quality of the performed products. The accumulated data, the obtained results, and the optimization statistical approach allow us to formulate requirements on the process parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Thermodynamic Behavior of Selective Laser Melting on the Formation of In situ Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Aluminum-Based Composites
Metals 2016, 6(11), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110286 - 19 Nov 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the phase and microstructure, the thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool, and the growth mechanism of in situ oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) aluminum-based composites processed by a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing/3D printing process. The phase [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the phase and microstructure, the thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool, and the growth mechanism of in situ oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) aluminum-based composites processed by a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing/3D printing process. The phase and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with EDX, respectively. The thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool was investigated for a comprehensive understanding on the growth mechanism of the SLM-processed composite using a finite volume method (FVM). The results revealed that the in situ Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites were successfully fabricated by SLM. Combined with the XRD spectrum and EDX analysis, the new silica-rich Al2Si4O10 reinforcing phase was identified, which was dispersed around the grain boundaries of the aluminum matrix under a reasonable laser power of 200 W. Combined with the activity of Marangoni convection and repulsion forces, the characteristic microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites tended to transfer from the irregular network structure to the nearly sphere-like network structure in regular form by increasing the laser power. The formation mechanism of the microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites is thoroughly discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of a Weldment of 7% Nickel Alloy Steels
Metals 2016, 6(11), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110285 - 19 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
During the last decade, the demand for natural gas has steadily increased for the prevention of environmental pollution. For this reason, many liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers have been manufactured. Since one of the most important issues in the design of LNG carriers [...] Read more.
During the last decade, the demand for natural gas has steadily increased for the prevention of environmental pollution. For this reason, many liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers have been manufactured. Since one of the most important issues in the design of LNG carriers is to guarantee structural safety, the use of low-temperature materials is increasing. Among commonly employed low-temperature materials, nickel steel has many benefits such as good strength and outstanding corrosion resistance. Accordingly, nickel steels are one of the most commonly used low-temperature steels for LNG storage tanks. However, the study of fracture toughness with various welding consumables of 7% nickel alloy steel is insufficient for ensuring the structural safety of LNG storage tanks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate fracture toughness of several different weldments for 7% nickel alloy steels. The weldment of 7% nickel alloy steel was fabricated by tungsten inert gas (TIG), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). In order to assess the material performance of the weldments at low temperature, fracture toughness such as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and the absorbed impact energy of weldments were compared with those of 9% nickel steel weldments. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Microstructure and Wear Properties of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V Parts: A Comparison Study against As-Cast Form
Metals 2016, 6(11), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110284 - 18 Nov 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3533
Abstract
Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts of varying thicknesses were additively manufactured (AM) by the powder-bed-based electron beam melting (EBM) technique. Microstructure and wear properties of these EBM-built Ti-6Al-4V parts have been investigated in comparison with conventionally cast Ti64 samples. Sliding wear tests were conducted using [...] Read more.
Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts of varying thicknesses were additively manufactured (AM) by the powder-bed-based electron beam melting (EBM) technique. Microstructure and wear properties of these EBM-built Ti-6Al-4V parts have been investigated in comparison with conventionally cast Ti64 samples. Sliding wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc micro-tribometer under ambient conditions. Experimental results reveal that EBM-built Ti64 samples exhibited higher microhardness and an overall larger coefficient of friction as compared to the as-cast counterpart. Of interest is that the corresponding specific wear volumes were lower for EBM-built Ti64 samples, while the as-cast Ti64 showed the poorest wear resistance despite its lower coefficient of friction. Wear mechanisms were provided in terms of quantitative microstructural characterization and detailed analysis on coefficient of friction (COF) curves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of the Weldability of Ductile Cast Iron Using Inconel 625 for the Root Weld and Electrodes Coated in 97.6% Nickel for the Filler Welds
Metals 2016, 6(11), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110283 - 18 Nov 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
This article examines the weldability of ductile cast iron when the root weld is applied with a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process employing an Inconel 625 source rod, and when the filler welds are applied with electrodes coated with 97.6% Ni. The [...] Read more.
This article examines the weldability of ductile cast iron when the root weld is applied with a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process employing an Inconel 625 source rod, and when the filler welds are applied with electrodes coated with 97.6% Ni. The welds were performed on ductile cast iron specimen test plates sized 300 mm × 90 mm × 10 mm with edges tapered at angles of 60°. The plates were subjected to two heat treatments. This article analyzes the influence on weldability of the various types of electrodes and the effect of preheat treatments. Finally, a microstructure analysis is made of the material next to the weld in the metal-weld interface and in the weld itself. The microstructure produced is correlated with the strength of the welds. We treat an alloy with 97.6% Ni, which prevents the formation of carbides. With a heat treatment at 900 °C and 97.6% Ni, there is a dissolution of all carbides, forming nodules in ferritic matrix graphite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Separation of Rhenium from Lead-Rich Molybdenite Concentrate via Hydrochloric Acid Leaching Followed by Oxidative Roasting
Metals 2016, 6(11), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110282 - 16 Nov 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Lead-rich molybdenite is a typical rhenium-bearing molybdenum resource in China, which has not been efficiently utilized due to its high contents of lead and gangue minerals. In this study, hydrochloric acid was used for preliminarily removing lead and calcite from a lead-rich molybdenite [...] Read more.
Lead-rich molybdenite is a typical rhenium-bearing molybdenum resource in China, which has not been efficiently utilized due to its high contents of lead and gangue minerals. In this study, hydrochloric acid was used for preliminarily removing lead and calcite from a lead-rich molybdenite concentrate. Oxidative roasting-ammonia leaching was then carried out for separation of rhenium and extraction of molybdenum. The hydrochloric acid leaching experiments revealed that 93.6% Pb and 97.4% Ca were removed when the leaching was performed at 95 °C for 10 min with HCl concentration of 8 wt. % and liquid-solid ratio of 5 (mL/g). The results of direct oxidative roasting indicated that 89.3% rhenium was volatilized from the raw concentrate after roasting at 600 °C for 120 min in air. In contrast, the rhenium volatilization was enhanced distinctly to 98.0% after the acid-leached concentrate (leaching residue) was roasted at 550 °C for 100 min. By the subsequent ammonia leaching, 91.5% molybdenum was leached out from the calcine produced from oxidative roasting of the acid-leached concentrate, while only 79.3% Mo was leached from the calcine produced by roasting molybdenite concentrate without pretreatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Current Values on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Steels Joined by the Submerged Arc Welding Method
Metals 2016, 6(11), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110281 - 16 Nov 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
In this study, microalloyed steels were joined by using the submerged arc welding method at different welding currents of 350 A, 400 A and 450 A. The effects of selected welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded materials were investigated. [...] Read more.
In this study, microalloyed steels were joined by using the submerged arc welding method at different welding currents of 350 A, 400 A and 450 A. The effects of selected welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded materials were investigated. Tensile tests and microhardness measurements were performed. Microstructural changes have been identified in the welding zone. The results showed an increase in hardness and tensile strength depending on the current intensity. The heat affected zone was observed much wider with the increase in welding current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICWET16)
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Open AccessArticle
A Lightweight Structure Redesign Method Based on Selective Laser Melting
Metals 2016, 6(11), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110280 - 16 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present a new design method of lightweight parts fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) based on the “Skin-Frame” and to explore the influence of fabrication defects on SLM parts with different sizes. Some standard lattice parts [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to present a new design method of lightweight parts fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) based on the “Skin-Frame” and to explore the influence of fabrication defects on SLM parts with different sizes. Some standard lattice parts were designed according to the Chinese GB/T 1452-2005 standard and manufactured by SLM. Then these samples were tested in an MTS Insight 30 compression testing machine to study the trends of the yield process with different structure sizes. A set of standard cylinder samples were also designed according to the Chinese GB/T 228-2010 standard. These samples, which were made of iron-nickel alloy (IN718), were also processed by SLM, and then tested in the universal material testing machine INSTRON 1346 to obtain their tensile strength. Furthermore, a lightweight redesigned method was researched. Then some common parts such as a stopper and connecting plate were redesigned using this method. These redesigned parts were fabricated and some application tests have already been performed. The compression testing results show that when the minimum structure size is larger than 1.5 mm, the mechanical characteristics will hardly be affected by process defects. The cylinder parts were fractured by the universal material testing machine at about 1069.6 MPa. These redesigned parts worked well in application tests, with both the weight and fabrication time of these parts reduced more than 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Tensile Properties and Microstructures of a 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy Subjected to Cryogenic Treatment
Metals 2016, 6(11), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110279 - 16 Nov 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cryogenic treatment (CT) using liquid nitrogen on tensile properties and microstructures of the 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. Tensile tests were carried out, and tensile fractures were observed using a scanning electron microscope [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cryogenic treatment (CT) using liquid nitrogen on tensile properties and microstructures of the 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. Tensile tests were carried out, and tensile fractures were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructure evolution of 2024-T351 subjected to CT was also studied using both an optic microscope (OM) and a SEM. The components of the second phase were tested with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that both the ultimate strength and the yield strength of the 2024-T351 aluminum alloy could be improved through CT without the sacrifice of elongation. In addition, tensile fractures showed that the plasticity of 2024-T351 aluminum might also be improved, as the dimples in the fracture of the CTed specimens were markedly more uniform compared with the untreated specimen. The phenomenon of grains refinement (GR) was found through microstructure observation. It was also found that the second phases were distributed more uniformly after CT. A conceivable mechanism concerning the shrinking effect and crystal grain movement was raised to explain the experimental phenomena. The effects of CT on residual stress in the 2024-T351 aluminum alloy are discussed herein. Measurements showed that tensile residual stress in 2024-T351 was removed, and slight compressive residual stress was generated after CT. This may also contribute to the improvement of the tensile properties of the alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Results of High-Temperature Heating Test for Irradiated U-10Zr(-5Ce) with T92 Cladding Fuel
Metals 2016, 6(11), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110278 - 15 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
A microstructure observation using an optical microscope, SEM and EPMA was performed for the irradiated U-10Zr and U-10Zr-5Ce fuel slugs with a T92 cladding specimen after a high-temperature heating test. Also, the measured eutectic penetration rate was compared with the value predicted by [...] Read more.
A microstructure observation using an optical microscope, SEM and EPMA was performed for the irradiated U-10Zr and U-10Zr-5Ce fuel slugs with a T92 cladding specimen after a high-temperature heating test. Also, the measured eutectic penetration rate was compared with the value predicted by the existing eutectic penetration correlation being used for design and modeling purposes. The heating temperature and duration time for the U-10Zr/T92 specimen were 750 °C and 1 h, and those for the U-10Zr-5Ce/T92 specimen were 800 °C and 1 h. In the case of the U-10Zr/T92 specimen, the migration phenomena of U, Zr, Fe, and Cr as well as the Nd lanthanide fission product were observed at the eutectic melting region. The measured penetration rate was similar to the value predicted by the existing eutectic penetration rate correlation. In addition, when comparing with measured eutectic penetration rates for the unirradiated U-10Zr fuel slug with FMS (ferritic martensitic steel, HT9 or Gr.91) cladding specimens which had been reported in the literature, the measured eutectic penetration rate for the irradiated fuel specimen was higher than that for the unirradiated U-10Zr specimen. In the case of the U-10Zr-5Ce/T92 specimen in which there had been a gap between the fuel slug and cladding after the irradiation test, the eutectic melting region was not found because contact between the fuel slug and cladding did not take place during the heating test. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hot Deformation Behavior of As-Cast and Homogenized Al0.5CoCrFeNi High Entropy Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(11), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110277 - 15 Nov 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
The hot deformation behavior of as-cast and homogenized Al0.5CoCrFeNi high entropy alloys (HEAs) during isothermal compression was investigated as a function of temperature and strain rate. Results indicated that flow stress in a homogenized state was always higher than that in [...] Read more.
The hot deformation behavior of as-cast and homogenized Al0.5CoCrFeNi high entropy alloys (HEAs) during isothermal compression was investigated as a function of temperature and strain rate. Results indicated that flow stress in a homogenized state was always higher than that in an as-cast state under the same deformation conditions. Moreover, the optimum thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) conditions for the hot working of the homogenized state were identified as 945–965 °C and 10−1.7–10−1.1 s−1 and were easier to determine in practice. Constitutive equations, for both states, correlating the flow stress of Al0.5CoCrFeNi with strain rate and deformation temperature were also determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Entropy Alloys (HEAs))
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nano-ZnO Particles’ Effect in Improving the Mechanical Response of Mg-3Al-0.4Ce Alloy
Metals 2016, 6(11), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110276 - 11 Nov 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Magnesium based nanocomposites, due to their excellent dimensional stability and mechanical integrity, have a lot of potential to replace the existing commercial Al alloys and steels used in aerospace and automotive applications. Mg-Al alloys are commercially used in the form of AZ (magnesium-aluminum-zinc) [...] Read more.
Magnesium based nanocomposites, due to their excellent dimensional stability and mechanical integrity, have a lot of potential to replace the existing commercial Al alloys and steels used in aerospace and automotive applications. Mg-Al alloys are commercially used in the form of AZ (magnesium-aluminum-zinc) and AM (magnesium-aluminum-manganese) series in automobile components. However, the Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al alloys is a low melting phase which results in a poor creep and high temperature performance of the alloys. Rare earth additions modify the phase and hence improve the properties of the materials. In this paper, Ce and nano ZnO particles were added to Mg-Al alloys to attain a favorable effect on their properties. The developed materials exhibited promising properties in terms of thermal expansion coefficient (CTE), hardness, and tensile strength. Further, the ZnO addition refined the microstructure and helped in obtaining a uniform distribution, however without grain size refinement. The increased addition of ZnO and the improvement in the distribution led to an enhancement in the properties, rendering the materials suitable for a wide spectrum of engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Matrix Composites) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Tool Wear Characteristics and Effect on Microstructure in Ti-6Al-4V Friction Stir Welded Joints
Metals 2016, 6(11), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110275 - 10 Nov 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
In the present paper, tool wear and the rate of wear during friction stir welding (FSW) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are investigated. A conical tungsten carbide tool was used to produce butt-type friction stir welded joints in two-millimeter thick Ti-6Al-4V sheets. An original design [...] Read more.
In the present paper, tool wear and the rate of wear during friction stir welding (FSW) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are investigated. A conical tungsten carbide tool was used to produce butt-type friction stir welded joints in two-millimeter thick Ti-6Al-4V sheets. An original design of a movable pin allowed for the examination of the tool damage for each process condition. The influence of tool degradation on the quality of the welded joints and the damage brought to the microstructure are examined and discussed. For this purpose, optical and scanning electron microscopies as well as EDX analyses were used to examine the tool wear and the resulting macrostructures and microstructures. The type and nature of the defects are also analyzed as a function of FSW processing parameters. Important geometry and weight variations were observed on the pin and shoulder for all welding conditions, in particular when low tool rotation and travel speeds were used. Experimental results also show that the radial wear of the pin is not uniform, indicating the presence of important frictional temperature gradients through the thickness of the joint. The maximum wear was measured at a location of about one millimeter from the pin root center. Finally, tool rotation was determined as the most significant process parameter influencing both tool wear and microstructure of the joints. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Thermal Cycling Treatments on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite
Metals 2016, 6(11), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110274 - 10 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC) has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range [...] Read more.
The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC) has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range of −196 °C (cryogenic temperature, CT) to 25 °C (room temperature, RT) or annealing time at CT has not induced obvious changes of thermal stability and then it decreases slightly over critical thermal parameters. In addition, the dendritic second phases with a bcc structure are homogeneously embedded in the amorphous matrix; no visible changes are detected, which shows structural stability. Excellent mechanical properties as high as 1599 MPa yield strength and 34% plastic strain are obtained, and the yield strength and elastic modulus also increase gradually. The effect on the stability is analyzed quantitatively by crystallization kinetics and plastic-flow models, and indicates that the reduction of structural relaxation enthalpy, which is related to the degradation of spatial heterogeneity, reduces thermal stability but does not imperatively deteriorate the plasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bulk Metallic Glasses)
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Open AccessArticle
Dissolution Behavior of Alumina-Based Inclusions in CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 Slag Used for the Electroslag Metallurgy Process
Metals 2016, 6(11), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110273 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Removal of non-metallic inclusions to CaF2-based slag is one of the most important functions of electroslag remelting. In this work, the dissolution behavior for alumina-based inclusions in CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag has been investigated. Results indicate [...] Read more.
Removal of non-metallic inclusions to CaF2-based slag is one of the most important functions of electroslag remelting. In this work, the dissolution behavior for alumina-based inclusions in CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag has been investigated. Results indicate that the diffusion or permeability capacity of slag components into alumina particles is F, Ca2+, Si4+, Mg2+, from strongest to weakest, for CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag. Alumina inclusions react with F in liquid slag at first and then react with CaO to form xCaO-yAl2O3 system. Subsequently, MgO substitutes for CaO to form a MgO-Al2O3 system layer surrounding the other product and reactant, and then enters the liquid slag. CaF2 can improve the dissolution capacity of slag to alumina inclusions. A complex region was formed between alumina-based particles and the slag, with different areas dominated by CaF2, CaO-Al2O3, CaO-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3. The dissolution process of alumina particles in slag is different from the formation of compound inclusions originated from the Al-O deoxidization reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Novel Approaches)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Crack Detection Method Applied to 3D Computed Tomography Images of Baked Carbon Anodes
Metals 2016, 6(11), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110272 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Carbon anodes used in the aluminium industry were imaged through destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. For the latter case, computed tomography (CT), which has previously been used to map the 3D apparent density distribution, was extended to crack detection. Previous work has [...] Read more.
Carbon anodes used in the aluminium industry were imaged through destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. For the latter case, computed tomography (CT), which has previously been used to map the 3D apparent density distribution, was extended to crack detection. Previous work has shown how to overcome technical hurdles related to crack detection by using percolation-based algorithms operating on low-resolution images of full-scale baked carbon anodes. The previous application to 2D images was extended here to the 3D case. The crack detection algorithm has been performed on anode slices containing several independent macro cracks with different morphologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Situ Observation of Crystal Rain and Its Effect on Columnar to Equiaxed Transition
Metals 2016, 6(11), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110271 - 08 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
The investigation of a columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and grain refinement is of high commercial importance for the improvement of the solidification structure of metal castings. The crystal rain from the free surface is frequently generated to produce grain refinement and promote [...] Read more.
The investigation of a columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and grain refinement is of high commercial importance for the improvement of the solidification structure of metal castings. The crystal rain from the free surface is frequently generated to produce grain refinement and promote a CET in alloys under the application of electromagnetic fields. However, the mechanism underlying the CET influenced by the generated crystal rain is not clear because the employed metallic alloys are opaque. In the present paper, the crystal rain in a transparent NH4Cl–H2O solution is produced by blowing a cooled nitrogen gas on the free surface to observe in situ its impact on the occurrence of a CET. The results show that the crystal rain can significantly promote a CET even in a high temperature gradient and that a CET only can occur when the temperature gradient is almost close to zero in the reference experiment. Finally, the most likely mechanism is discussed and clarified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Weldability and Monitoring of Resistance Spot Welding of Q&P and TRIP Steels
Metals 2016, 6(11), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110270 - 08 Nov 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
This work aims at investigating the spot weldability of a new advanced Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steel and a Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel for automotive applications by evaluating the effects of the main welding parameters on the mechanical performance of their dissimilar [...] Read more.
This work aims at investigating the spot weldability of a new advanced Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steel and a Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel for automotive applications by evaluating the effects of the main welding parameters on the mechanical performance of their dissimilar spot welds. The welding current, the electrode tip voltage and the electrical resistance of sheet stack were monitored in order to detect any metal expulsion and to evaluate its severity, as well as to clarify its effect on spot strength. The joint strength was assessed by means of shear and cross tension tests. The corresponding fracture modes were determined through optical microscopy. The welding current is the main process parameter that affects the weld strength, followed by the clamping force and welding time. Metal expulsion can occur through a single large expulsion or multiple expulsions, whose effects on the shear and cross tension strength have been assessed. Longer welding times can limit the negative effect of an expulsion if it occurs in the first part of the joining process. The spot welds exhibit different fracture modes according to their strengths. Overall, a proper weldability window for the selected process parameters has been determined to obtain sound joints. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Co-B Amorphous Alloy: A High Capacity Anode Material for an Alkaline Rechargeable Battery
Metals 2016, 6(11), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110269 - 07 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
The Co-B amorphous alloys were prepared via a chemical reduction method by sodium borohydride, using three different cobalt salts (CoCl2·6H2O, CoSO4·7H2O, and Co(NO3)2·6H2O) as sources of cobalt. As anode [...] Read more.
The Co-B amorphous alloys were prepared via a chemical reduction method by sodium borohydride, using three different cobalt salts (CoCl2·6H2O, CoSO4·7H2O, and Co(NO3)2·6H2O) as sources of cobalt. As anode materials in alkaline rechargeable batteries, the Co-B alloy prepared from CoCl2·6H2O has a maximum specific discharge capacity of 844.6 mAh/g, and 306.4 mAh/g is retained even after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA/g. When Co(NO3)2·6H2O is used as a raw material, the formation of Co3(BO3)2 worsens the electrochemical properties of the sample, i.e., a maximum capacity of only 367.0 mAh/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amorphous Alloys and Related Transitions)
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Open AccessArticle
Grain Boundary Assemblies in Dynamically-Recrystallized Austenitic Stainless Steel
Metals 2016, 6(11), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110268 - 07 Nov 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
The grain boundary misorientation distributions associated with the development of dynamic recrystallization were studied in a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel subjected to hot working. Under conditions of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization, the relationships between the grain or subgrain sizes and flow stresses can be [...] Read more.
The grain boundary misorientation distributions associated with the development of dynamic recrystallization were studied in a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel subjected to hot working. Under conditions of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization, the relationships between the grain or subgrain sizes and flow stresses can be expressed by power law functions with different grain/subgrain size exponents of about −0.76 (for grain size) or −1.0 (for subgrain size). Therefore, the mean grain size being much larger than the subgrain size under conditions of low flow stress gradually approaches the size of the subgrains with an increase in the flow stress. These dependencies lead to the fraction of high-angle boundaries being a function of the flow stress. Namely, the fraction of ordinary high-angle boundaries in dynamically-recrystallized structures decreases with a decrease in the flow stress. On the other hand, the fraction of special boundaries, which are associated with annealing twins, progressively increases with a decrease of the flow stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Guideline for Forming Stiffened Panels by Using the Electromagnetic Forces
Metals 2016, 6(11), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110267 - 07 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Electromagnetic forming (EMF), as a high-speed forming technology by applying the electromagnetic forces to manufacture sheet or tube metal parts, has many potential advantages, such as contact-free and resistance to buckling and springback. In this study, EMF is applied to form several panels [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic forming (EMF), as a high-speed forming technology by applying the electromagnetic forces to manufacture sheet or tube metal parts, has many potential advantages, such as contact-free and resistance to buckling and springback. In this study, EMF is applied to form several panels with stiffened ribs. The distributions and variations of the electromagnetic force, the velocity and the forming height during the EMF process of the bi-directional panel with gird ribs are obtained by numerical simulations, and are analyzed via the comparison to those with the flat panel (non-stiffened) and two uni-directional panels (only with X-direction or Y-direction ribs). It is found that the electromagnetic body force loads simultaneously in the ribs and the webs, and the deformation of the panels is mainly driven by the force in the ribs. The distribution of force in the grid-rib panel can be found as the superposition of the two uni-directional stiffened panels. The velocity distribution for the grid-rib panel is primarily affected by the X-directional ribs, then the Y-directional ribs, and the variation of the velocity are influenced by the force distribution primarily and secondly the inertial effect. Mutual influence of deformation exists between the region undergoing deformation and the deformed or underformed free ends. It is useful to improve forming uniformity via a second discharge at the same position. Comparison between EMF and the brake forming with a stiffened panel shows that the former has more advantages in reducing the defects of springback and buckling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Sputtering Power Effects on Growth and Mechanical Properties of Cr2AlC MAX Phase Coatings
Metals 2016, 6(11), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110265 - 05 Nov 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2511
Abstract
Coating growth and mechanical properties of nanolamellar Cr2AlC coatings at various sputtering power were investigated in the present study. Cr2AlC coating was deposited on the IN 718 superalloy and (100) Si wafers by DC magnetron sputtering at different sputtering [...] Read more.
Coating growth and mechanical properties of nanolamellar Cr2AlC coatings at various sputtering power were investigated in the present study. Cr2AlC coating was deposited on the IN 718 superalloy and (100) Si wafers by DC magnetron sputtering at different sputtering powers. The structure and properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation. It was found that coatings had columnar structure with nanocrystalline substructure. Deposition rate increased with the sputtering power. XRD results showed the presence of the Cr2AlC MAX phase, intermetallic AlCr2 and Cr7C3 carbide phases, along with the change in preferential coating growth orientation. TEM observations confirmed the occurrence of these phases, and the SAED patterns demonstrated significant texture of the coatings. Hardness values were measured in the range between 11–14 GPa, showing a slight increase with the sputtering power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ni- and Co-Based Superalloys and Their Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Acoustic Emission Assessment of Impending Fracture in a Cyclically Loading Structural Steel
Metals 2016, 6(11), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110266 - 04 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Using the advanced acoustic emission (AE) technique, we address the problem of early identification of crack initiation and growth in ductile structural steels under cyclic loading. The notched 9MnSi5 steel specimens with weld joints were fatigue tested at room and lower temperatures with [...] Read more.
Using the advanced acoustic emission (AE) technique, we address the problem of early identification of crack initiation and growth in ductile structural steels under cyclic loading. The notched 9MnSi5 steel specimens with weld joints were fatigue tested at room and lower temperatures with concurrent AE measurements. Detection of AE in ductile materials where fatigue crack initiation and propagation is mediated by local dislocation behavior ahead of the notch or crack tip is challenging because of an extremely low amplitude of the AE signal. With account of this issue, two new practically oriented criteria for recognition of different stages of fatigue are proposed on the basis of AE data: (1) a power spectrum-based criterion and (2) a pattern recognition-based criterion utilizing modern clustering algorithms. The applicability of both criteria is verified using obtained AE data. A good correspondence between AE outcomes and experimental observations of the fatigue behavior was obtained and is discussed. Full article
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