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Sports, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The overtraining syndrome is a complex and multifactorial condition. A lack of individualised testing protocols and gold standard markers, combined with multidimensional, individual symptoms, makes both identification and diagnosis difficult. To date, no study has investigated the complex nature of overtraining and/or the overtraining syndrome from the perspective of the high-performance strength coach; therefore, the aim of this study was to explore this subject qualitatively and to provide a new way of understanding such concepts in practice. View this paper
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Article
Core Temperature during Cold-Water Triathlon Swimming
Sports 2021, 9(6), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060087 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 983
Abstract
Triathlon and other endurance races have grown in popularity. Although participants are generally fit and presumably healthy, there is measurable morbidity and mortality associated with participation. In triathlon, most deaths occur during the swim leg, and more insight into risk factors, such as [...] Read more.
Triathlon and other endurance races have grown in popularity. Although participants are generally fit and presumably healthy, there is measurable morbidity and mortality associated with participation. In triathlon, most deaths occur during the swim leg, and more insight into risk factors, such as hypothermia, is warranted. In this study, we measured the core temperature of 51 participants who ingested temperature sensor capsules before the swim leg of a full-distance triathlon. The water temperature was 14.4–16.4 °C, and the subjects wore wetsuits. One subject with a low body mass index and a long swim time experienced hypothermia (<35 °C). Among the remaining subjects, we found no association between core temperature and swim time, body mass index, or sex. To conclude, the present study indicates that during the swim leg of a full-distance triathlon in water temperatures ≈ 15–16 °C, subjects with a low body mass index and long swim times may be at risk of hypothermia even when wearing wetsuits. Full article
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Article
Transient Reduction of FMD-Response and L-Arginine Accompanied by Increased Levels of E-Selectin, VCAM, and ICAM after Prolonged Strenuous Exercise
Sports 2021, 9(6), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060086 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 865
Abstract
We assessed endothelial function by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), levels of the NO-precursor L-arginine, and markers of endothelial inflammation before, at the finish line, and one week after the Norseman Xtreme triathlon. The race is an Ironman distance triathlon with a total elevation of [...] Read more.
We assessed endothelial function by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), levels of the NO-precursor L-arginine, and markers of endothelial inflammation before, at the finish line, and one week after the Norseman Xtreme triathlon. The race is an Ironman distance triathlon with a total elevation of 5200 m. Nine male participants were included. They completed the race in 14.5 (13.4–15.3) h. FMD was significantly reduced to 3.1 (2.1–5.0)% dilatation compared to 8.7 (8.2–9.3)% dilatation before the race (p < 0.05) and was normalized one week after the race. L-arginine showed significantly reduced levels at the finish line (p < 0.05) but was normalized one week after the race. Markers of endothelial inflammation E-Selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 all showed a pattern with increased values at the finish line compared to before the race (all p < 0.05), with normalization one week after the race. In conclusion, we found acutely reduced FMD with reduced L-arginine levels and increased E-Selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 immediately after the Norseman Xtreme triathlon. Our findings indicate a transient reduced endothelial function, measured by the FMD-response, after prolonged strenuous exercise that could be explained by reduced NO-precursor L-arginine levels and increased endothelial inflammation. Full article
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Article
“Is It Overtraining or Just Work Ethic?”: Coaches’ Perceptions of Overtraining in High-Performance Strength Sports
Sports 2021, 9(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060085 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Optimal physical performance is achieved through the careful manipulation of training and recovery. Short-term increases in training demand can induce functional overreaching (FOR) that can lead to improved physical capabilities, whereas nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS) occur when high training-demand [...] Read more.
Optimal physical performance is achieved through the careful manipulation of training and recovery. Short-term increases in training demand can induce functional overreaching (FOR) that can lead to improved physical capabilities, whereas nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS) occur when high training-demand is applied for extensive periods with limited recovery. To date, little is known about the OTS in strength sports, particularly from the perspective of the strength sport coach. Fourteen high-performance strength sport coaches from a range of strength sports (weightlifting; n = 5, powerlifting; n = 4, sprinting; n = 2, throws; n = 2, jumps; n = 1) participated in semistructured interviews (mean duration 57; SD = 10 min) to discuss their experiences of the OTS. Reflexive thematic analysis resulted in the identification of four higher order themes: definitions, symptoms, recovery and experiences and observations. Additional subthemes were created to facilitate organisation and presentation of data, and to aid both cohesiveness of reporting and publicising of results. Participants provided varied and sometimes dichotomous perceptions of the OTS and proposed a multifactorial profile of diagnostic symptoms. Prevalence of OTS within strength sports was considered low, with the majority of participants not observing or experiencing long-term reductions in performance with their athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Resistance Training)
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Review
Training Load Monitoring Considerations for Female Gaelic Team Sports: From Theory to Practice
Sports 2021, 9(6), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060084 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Athlete monitoring enables sports science practitioners to collect information to determine how athletes respond to training loads (TL) and the demands of competition. To date, recommendations for females are often adapted from their male counterparts. There is currently limited information available on TL [...] Read more.
Athlete monitoring enables sports science practitioners to collect information to determine how athletes respond to training loads (TL) and the demands of competition. To date, recommendations for females are often adapted from their male counterparts. There is currently limited information available on TL monitoring in female Gaelic team sports in Ireland. The collection and analysis of female athlete monitoring data can provide valuable information to support the development of female team sports. Athletic monitoring can also support practitioners to help minimize risk of excessive TL and optimize potential athletic performance. The aims of this narrative review are to provide: (i) an overview of TL athlete monitoring in female team sports, (ii) a discussion of the potential metrics and tools used to monitor external TL and internal TL, (iii) the advantages and disadvantages of TL modalities for use in Gaelic team sports, and (iv) practical considerations on how to monitor TL to aid in the determination of meaningful change with female Gaelic team sports athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Performance Monitoring in Sports)
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Review
Troubleshooting a Nonresponder: Guidance for the Strength and Conditioning Coach
Sports 2021, 9(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060083 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Ideally an athlete would continue to improve performance indefinitely over time, however improvement slows as the athlete approaches their genetic limits. Measuring performance is complex—performance may be temporarily depressed following aggressive training for multiple reasons, physiological and psychosocial. This reality may be vexing [...] Read more.
Ideally an athlete would continue to improve performance indefinitely over time, however improvement slows as the athlete approaches their genetic limits. Measuring performance is complex—performance may be temporarily depressed following aggressive training for multiple reasons, physiological and psychosocial. This reality may be vexing to the strength and conditioning coach, who, as a service provider, must answer to sport coaches about an athlete’s progress. Recently an evaluation mechanism for strength and conditioning coaches was proposed, in part to help coaches establish their effectiveness within the organization. Without formal guidance and realistic expectations, if an athlete is not bigger, leaner, stronger, etc. as a result of training within a specified timeframe, blame is often placed upon the strength and conditioning coach. The purpose of this article is to explore possible causes of what may be perceived as athlete non-responses to training and to provide guidance for the coach on how to handle those issues within their domain. A process of investigation is recommended, along with resources to assist coaches as they consider a broad range of issues, including enhancing existing testing methods, improving athlete behaviors, and adjusting processes designed to bring about performance improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Performance Monitoring in Sports)
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Article
Prebiotic Food Intake May Improve Bone Resorption in Japanese Female Athletes: A Pilot Study
Sports 2021, 9(6), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060082 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to clarify the influence of inulin and lactulose-fortified prebiotic food intakes on bone metabolism turnover among Japanese female athletes. The participants included 29 female athletes aged 18–25 years. They were requested to consume their habitual foods [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to clarify the influence of inulin and lactulose-fortified prebiotic food intakes on bone metabolism turnover among Japanese female athletes. The participants included 29 female athletes aged 18–25 years. They were requested to consume their habitual foods or drinks with one pack of prebiotic food every day for 12 weeks. Dietary intake, training time, body composition, blood sample, and fecal microbiota were assessed during this intervention period. Body composition, total energy intake, and training time of the participants revealed no significant changes during the intervention period. The occupation ratio of Bifidobacterium spp. was significantly increased at 3 and 4 weeks (18.0 ± 8.3% and 17.6 ± 8.5%, respectively) compared to that of pre-intervention (11.7 ± 7.3%) (p = 0.019 and p = 0.035, respectively). The serum TRACP-5b level was significantly decreased at 12 weeks (363 ± 112 mU/dL) compared to that at baseline (430 ± 154 mU/dL) (p = 0.018). These results suggest that the prebiotic food used in this study might have beneficial effects on bone health and gut microbial environment among female athletes. Further studies are warranted to identify the mechanism of the prebiotics–gut–bone axis. Full article
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Perspective
Return to Basketball Play Following COVID-19 Lockdown
Sports 2021, 9(6), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060081 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Due to concerns regarding the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19), major sporting events and activities have been temporarily suspended or postponed, and a new radical sports protocol has emerged. For most sports there are few recommendations based on scientific evidence for returning to team-game [...] Read more.
Due to concerns regarding the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19), major sporting events and activities have been temporarily suspended or postponed, and a new radical sports protocol has emerged. For most sports there are few recommendations based on scientific evidence for returning to team-game activities following the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions, the extended duration of lockdown, and self-training or detraining in the COVID-19 environment, and this is especially true for basketball. A post-lockdown return to the basketball court ultimately depends on the teams—coaches, trainers, players, and medical staff. Nevertheless, our current scientific knowledge is evidently insufficient as far as safety and return-to-play timing are concerned. This situation presents a major challenge to basketball competition in terms of organization, prioritization, maintaining physical fitness, and decision-making. While preparing an adequate basketball return program, the players’ health is the major priority. In this article we briefly discuss the topic and propose multiple strategies. Full article
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Article
Determination of a CrossFit® Benchmark Performance Profile
Sports 2021, 9(6), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060080 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
In the trend sport CrossFit®, international competition is held at the CrossFit® Games, known worldwide as the definitive fitness test. Since American athletes are the best in the world regarding CrossFit®, there might be influencing factors on international [...] Read more.
In the trend sport CrossFit®, international competition is held at the CrossFit® Games, known worldwide as the definitive fitness test. Since American athletes are the best in the world regarding CrossFit®, there might be influencing factors on international competition performance. Here, we characterize the benchmark performance profile of American and German CrossFit® athletes (n = 162). To collect the common benchmark performance by questionnaire, 66 male and 96 female CrossFit® athletes (32.6 ± 8.2 years) participated in our survey in both nations. By comparing the individual performance variables, only a significant difference in total power lift performance by males was identified between the nations (p = 0.034). No other significant differences were found in the Olympic lift, running, or the “Girl” Workout of the Day (Fran, Grace, Helen) performance. Very large to extremely large (r = 0.79–0.99, p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the power lift and Olympic lift variables. Further linear regression analysis predicted the influence of back squat performance on performance in the Olympic lifts, snatch (R2 = 0.76) and clean and jerk (R2 = 0.84). Our results suggested a dominant role of back squat performance in the assessment of physical fitness of CrossFit® athletes. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Lower Body Anaerobic Pre-loading on Upper Body Ergometer Time Trial Performance
Sports 2021, 9(6), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060079 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Pre-competitive conditioning has become a substantial part of successful performance. In addition to temperature changes, a metabolic conditioning can have a significant effect on the outcome, although the right dosage of such a method remains unclear. The main goal of the investigation was [...] Read more.
Pre-competitive conditioning has become a substantial part of successful performance. In addition to temperature changes, a metabolic conditioning can have a significant effect on the outcome, although the right dosage of such a method remains unclear. The main goal of the investigation was to measure how a lower body high-intensity anaerobic cycling pre-load exercise (HIE) of 25 s affects cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses in subsequent upper body performance. Thirteen well-trained college-level male cross-country skiers (18.1 ± 2.9 years; 70.8 ± 7.6 kg; 180.6 ± 4.7 cm; 15.5 ± 3.5% body fat) participated in the study. The athletes performed a 1000-m maximal double-poling upper body ergometer time trial performance test (TT) twice. One TT was preceded by a conventional low intensity warm-up (TTlow) while additional HIE cycling was performed 9 min before the other TT (TThigh). Maximal double-poling performance after the TTlow (225.1 ± 17.6 s) was similar (p > 0.05) to the TThigh (226.1 ± 15.7 s). Net blood lactate (La) increase (delta from end of TT minus start) from the start to the end of the TTlow was 10.5 ± 2.2 mmol L−1 and 6.5 ± 3.4 mmol L−1 in TThigh (p < 0.05). La net changes during recovery were similar for both protocols, remaining 13.5% higher in TThigh group even 6 min after the maximal test. VCO2 was lower (p < 0.05) during the last 400-m split in TThigh, however during the other splits no differences were found (p < 0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was significantly lower in TThigh in the third, fourth and the fifth 200 m split. Participants individual pacing strategies showed high relation (p < 0.05) between slower start and faster performance. In conclusion, anaerobic metabolic pre-conditioning leg exercise significantly reduced net-La increase, but all-out upper body performance was similar in both conditions. The pre-conditioning method may have some potential but needs to be combined with a pacing strategy different from the usual warm-up procedure. Full article
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Article
Maximum Strength Benchmarks for Difficult Static Elements on Rings in Male Elite Gymnastics
Sports 2021, 9(6), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060078 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
On rings, in men’s artistic gymnastics, the general strength requirements for important static elements remain elusive. Therefore, the aim was to describe the relationship between a new conditioning strength test and a maximum strength test of static elements on rings in order to [...] Read more.
On rings, in men’s artistic gymnastics, the general strength requirements for important static elements remain elusive. Therefore, the aim was to describe the relationship between a new conditioning strength test and a maximum strength test of static elements on rings in order to determine the minimal strength level (benchmarks) required to maintain these elements with one’s own body weight. Nineteen elite gymnasts performed a concentric (1RM isoinertial) and eccentric (isokinetic: 0.1 m/s) conditioning strength test for swallow/support scale (supine position) and inverted cross (seated position) on a computer-controlled device and a maximum strength test maintaining these elements for 5 s on rings with counterweight or additional weight. High correlation coefficients were found between the conditioning maximum strength for swallow/support scale (r: 0.65 to 0.92; p < 0.05) and inverted cross (r: 0.62 to 0.69; p > 0.05) and the maximum strength of the elements on rings. Strength benchmarks varied between 56.66% (inverted cross concentric) and 94.10% (swallow eccentric) of body weight. Differences in biomechanical characteristics and technical requirements of strength elements on rings may (inter alia) explain the differences between correlations. Benchmarks of conditioning strength may help coaches and athletes systematize the training of strength elements on rings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Performance Monitoring in Sports)
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Article
Impact of Red Spinach Extract Supplementation on Bench Press Performance, Muscle Oxygenation, and Cognitive Function in Resistance-Trained Males
Sports 2021, 9(6), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060077 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of short-term dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of red spinach extract (RSE), on bench press performance, muscle oxygenation, and cognitive function in resistance-trained males. Ten resistance-trained males participated in this randomized, cross-over, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of short-term dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of red spinach extract (RSE), on bench press performance, muscle oxygenation, and cognitive function in resistance-trained males. Ten resistance-trained males participated in this randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind investigation. Each participant completed 7 days of either RSE (2 g; 180 mg NO3) or a maltodextrin placebo (PL) in a counterbalanced fashion with a 14-day washout between treatments. During experimental visits, participants were provided their 8th and last dose of RSE or PL 40 min before completing 5 sets of the barbell bench press exercise to failure at 75% of a predetermined 1-repetition maximum with 2 min rest intervals. Mean and peak power were recorded via a linear transducer. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was implemented to estimate muscle oxygenation, a Stroop Test was used to assess cognitive function, and subjective performance ratings were obtained in relation to the acute resistance exercise sessions. Data were analyzed via separate repeated measures analyses of variance. There were no time by group interactions for bench press repetitions (p = 0.549), peak power (p = 0.061), or mean power (p = 0.877) across the 5 sets of bench press. Additionally, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for any measure of muscle oxygenation, Stroop performance, or subjective performance ratings. It appears that 7 days of RSE supplementation did not alter performance, muscle oxygenation, nor Stroop scores during or following the bench press exercise in resistance-trained males. Full article
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Article
A Comparison of Match Demands Using Ball-in-Play versus Whole Match Data in Professional Soccer Players of the English Championship
Sports 2021, 9(6), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060076 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
This is the first study to report the whole match, ball-in-play (BiP), ball-out-of-play (BoP), and Max BiP (worst case scenario phases of play) demands of professional soccer players competing in the English Championship. Effective playing time per soccer game is typically <60 min. [...] Read more.
This is the first study to report the whole match, ball-in-play (BiP), ball-out-of-play (BoP), and Max BiP (worst case scenario phases of play) demands of professional soccer players competing in the English Championship. Effective playing time per soccer game is typically <60 min. When the ball is out of play, players spend time repositioning themselves, which is likely less physically demanding. Consequently, reporting whole match demands may under-report the physical requirements of soccer players. Twenty professional soccer players, categorized by position (defenders, midfielders, and forwards), participated in this study. A repeated measures design was used to collect Global Positioning System (GPS) data over eight professional soccer matches in the English Championship. Data were divided into whole match and BiP data, and BiP data were further sub-divided into different time points (30–60 s, 60–90 s, and >90 s), providing peak match demands. Whole match demands recorded were compared to BiP and Max BiP, with BiP data excluding all match stoppages, providing a more precise analysis of match demands. Whole match metrics were significantly lower than BiP metrics (p < 0.05), and Max BiP for 30–60 s was significantly higher than periods between 60–90 s and >90 s. No significant differences were found between positions. BiP analysis allows for a more accurate representation of the game and physical demands imposed on professional soccer players. Through having a clearer understanding of maximum game demands in professional soccer, practitioners can design more specific training methods to better prepare players for worst case scenario passages of play. Full article
Article
Does the Multistage 20-m Shuttle Run Test Accurately Predict VO2max in NCAA Division I Women Collegiate Field Hockey Athletes?
Sports 2021, 9(6), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060075 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Laboratory assessments of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are considered the “gold standard” for ascertaining cardiovascular fitness, but they are not always practical for use in team sport settings. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare the criterion assessment [...] Read more.
Laboratory assessments of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are considered the “gold standard” for ascertaining cardiovascular fitness, but they are not always practical for use in team sport settings. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare the criterion assessment of VO2max on a treadmill to the progressive, multistage 20-m shuttle run test (i.e., Beep test), and to determine the predictability of 6 previously established Beep test predictive equations (i.e., Chatterjee, Flouris, Leger, Leger and Gadoury, Ramsbottom, St. Clair-Gibson). Collegiate women field hockey athletes (n = 65, mean±SD: age 19.6 ± 1.2 years; weight 64.7 ± 6.1 kg) completed criterion VO2max (mean ± SD: 46.4 ± 4.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) and Beep tests to volitional fatigue. According to Bland–Altman and Ordinary Least Products Regressions, the Ramsbottom (46.5 ± 4.2 mL·kg−1·min−1) and Flouris (46.3 ± 3.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) equations were considered valid predictions of criterion measured VO2max (46.4 ± 4.6). The Chatterjee, Leger, Leger and Gadoury, and St. Clair-Gibson equations overestimated VO2max, and are not recommended for use with women collegiate field hockey athletes. The Ramsbottom and Flouris estimates of VO2max from 20-m shuttle performances may be used in this population. For accurate estimates of VO2max, the clientele’s age, fitness level, and training history should be considered when selecting equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Performance Monitoring in Sports)
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Article
Does Eligibility Classification Matter? Tracking Cardiac Autonomic Function during a Collegiate Soccer Season
Sports 2021, 9(6), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060074 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 896
Abstract
The current study examined differences in heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) across student-athlete eligibility classifications within a men’s soccer team. The study also aimed to identify any differences in HRV while competing at home or away. Data collection covered an entire collegiate season, [...] Read more.
The current study examined differences in heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) across student-athlete eligibility classifications within a men’s soccer team. The study also aimed to identify any differences in HRV while competing at home or away. Data collection covered an entire collegiate season, commencing in the preseason and concluding upon elimination from the NCAA Soccer tournament. Comparisons of HR and HRV, paired with self-reported subjective measures, were documented between student-athlete eligibility classifications, home versus away games, and based on soccer position (forward, midfielder, defender, goalkeeper). HR and HRV were similar based on student-athlete eligibility. Heart rate exhibited a small, but statistically significant decrease (β = −1.7 bpm (95% CI: −2.9, 0.57), p = 0.003) for the away games relative to home. HRV showed a statistically significant increase in the away game setting (β = 2.1 (95% CI: 0.78, 3.38), p = 0.002). No difference in HRV was observed across eligibility classification. This lack of difference may be attributed to a different perception of stress amongst male athletes. Athletes also exhibited a reduced HRV at home, likely as an indication of their readiness to compete paired with an increased self-confidence, given there was no difference in any subjective measures of mood or stress or between games played away or at home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance of Collegiate or College-Aged Athletes)
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Article
Change of Direction Speed and Technique Modification Training Improves 180° Turning Performance, Kinetics, and Kinematics
Sports 2021, 9(6), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060073 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the effects of change of direction (COD) speed and technique modification training on 180° turning performance (completion time, ground contact time [GCT], and exit velocity), kinetics, and kinematics. A non-randomised 6 week intervention study was administered. Thirteen male [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the effects of change of direction (COD) speed and technique modification training on 180° turning performance (completion time, ground contact time [GCT], and exit velocity), kinetics, and kinematics. A non-randomised 6 week intervention study was administered. Thirteen male multidirectional sport athletes formed the intervention group (IG), participating in two COD speed and technique modification sessions per week. A total of 12 male multidirectional sport athletes formed the control group (CG). All subjects performed six modified 505 trials, whereby pre-to-post-intervention biomechanical changes were evaluated using three-dimensional motion analysis. Two-way mixed analysis of variances revealed significant interaction effects (group × time) for completion time, mean horizontal propulsive force (HPF), horizontal to vertical mean braking and propulsive force ratios for the penultimate (PFC) and final foot contact (FFC), FFC peak knee flexion and PFC hip flexion angle (p ≤ 0.040, η2 = 0.170–0.417). The IG displayed small to large improvements post-intervention in these aforementioned variables (p ≤ 0.058, g = 0.49–1.21). Turning performance improvements were largely to very largely (p ≤ 0.062, r or ρ = 0.527–0.851) associated with increased mean HPF, more horizontally orientated FFC propulsive force and PFC braking force, and greater pelvic rotation, PFC hip flexion, and PFC velocity reductions. COD speed and technique modification is a simple, effective training strategy that enhances turning performance. Full article
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Review
Golf as a Physical Activity to Potentially Reduce the Risk of Falls in Older Adults with Parkinson’s Disease
Sports 2021, 9(6), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060072 - 23 May 2021
Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Advanced age is associated with an increased risk for falls in aging adults. Older adults are also more likely to be diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD), with advanced age as the most significant risk factor. PD is a neurodegenerative disorder with four Cardinal [...] Read more.
Advanced age is associated with an increased risk for falls in aging adults. Older adults are also more likely to be diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD), with advanced age as the most significant risk factor. PD is a neurodegenerative disorder with four Cardinal motor symptoms: rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and tremor. Thus, people (person)-with-Parkinson’s disease (PwP) have an even greater risk of falling than non-disorder age-matched peers. Exercise is an activity requiring physical effort, typically carried out to sustain or improve overall health and fitness, and it lowers the risk of falls in the general population. The sport of golf provides a low-impact all-around workout promoting a range of motion, activation of muscles in the upper and lower body, flexibility, and balance. Swinging a golf club offers a unique combination of high amplitude axial rotation, strengthening postural musculature, coordination, and stabilization, demonstrating the potential to impact PD symptoms positively. Golf may be a novel exercise treatment regimen for PD to use in conjunction with traditional medical therapy. We completed a literature review to determine the relationship between the game of golf, PD, and the risk of falls. We concluded that regularly playing golf can lower the risk for falls in community ambulating older adults with PD and demonstrates the potential to improve quality of life for PwP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease 2020)
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Article
Association of the Yips and Musculoskeletal Problems in Highly Skilled Golfers: A Large Scale Epidemiological Study in Japan
Sports 2021, 9(6), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060071 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 874
Abstract
The yips are a set of conditions associated with intermittent motor disturbances that affect precision movement, especially in sports. Specifically, skilled golfers suffer from the yips, although its clinical characteristics and pathophysiology have not been well-studied. We surveyed skilled golfers to characterize their [...] Read more.
The yips are a set of conditions associated with intermittent motor disturbances that affect precision movement, especially in sports. Specifically, skilled golfers suffer from the yips, although its clinical characteristics and pathophysiology have not been well-studied. We surveyed skilled golfers to characterize their yips-related symptoms, to explore potential confounding factors associated with the yips. Golfers’ demographic information, golfing-career-related history, musculoskeletal status and manifestations of the yips are surveyed. Among the 1576 questionnaires distributed, 1457 (92%) responses were received, of which 39% of golfers had experienced the yips. The median age and golfing careers were 48 and 28 years, respectively. Golfers who had experienced the yips were older and had longer golfing careers and more frequent musculoskeletal problems than those without experience of the yips. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a longer golfing career and musculoskeletal problems were independent factors associated with yips experience. More severe musculoskeletal problems were associated with higher odds of experiencing the yips. A positive association between the yips and musculoskeletal problems was also observed. The yips have similar characteristics to task-specific movement disorders, with a detrimental effect caused by excessive repetition of a routine task. These findings support the notion that the yips are a type of task-specific dystonia. Full article
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