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J. Pers. Med., Volume 14, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 93 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Biological sex is one of the major factors characterizing the heart failure (HF) phenotype. There are sex differences in left ventricular (LV) remodeling patterns in an HF setting, namely, concentric remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in females and eccentric remodeling and systolic dysfunction in males. Recently supra-normal EF has been recognized as a risk of a worse outcome. This pathology might be more relevant in females. Estrogen deficit might play a significant role in this pathophysiology, possible through coronary microvascular dysfunction and sympathetic nerve overactivation. The lack of implementation of guideline-directed medical therapy for females with HF with reduced EF might also contribute to these sex differences. View this paper
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10 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
Preoperative Glycosylated Haemoglobin Screening to Identify Older Adult Patients with Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus—A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Robert van Wilpe, Mark L. van Zuylen, Jeroen Hermanides, J. Hans DeVries, Benedikt Preckel and Abraham H. Hulst
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020219 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
More than 25% of older adults in Europe have diabetes mellitus. It is estimated that 45% of patients with diabetes are currently undiagnosed, which is a known risk factor for perioperative morbidity. We investigated whether routine HbA1c screening in older adult patients undergoing [...] Read more.
More than 25% of older adults in Europe have diabetes mellitus. It is estimated that 45% of patients with diabetes are currently undiagnosed, which is a known risk factor for perioperative morbidity. We investigated whether routine HbA1c screening in older adult patients undergoing surgery would identify patients with undiagnosed diabetes. We included patients aged ≥65 years without a diagnosis of diabetes who visited the preoperative assessment clinic at the Amsterdam University Medical Center and underwent HbA1c screening within three months before surgery. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were excluded. We assessed the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes (defined as HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol·mol−1) and prediabetes (HbA1c 39–47 mmol·mol−1). Using a multivariate regression model, we analysed the ability of HbA1c to predict days alive and at home within 30 days after surgery. From January to December 2019, we screened 2015 patients ≥65 years at our clinic. Of these, 697 patients without a diagnosis of diabetes underwent HbA1c screening. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes was 3.7% (95%CI 2.5–5.4%) and 42.9% (95%CI 39.2–46.7%), respectively. Preoperative HbA1c was not associated with days alive and at home within 30 days after surgery. In conclusion, we identified a small number of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and a high prevalence of prediabetes based on preoperative HbA1c screening in a cohort of older adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The relevance of prediabetes in the perioperative setting is unclear. Screening for HbA1c in older adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery does not appear to help predict postoperative outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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11 pages, 1864 KiB  
Article
Non-Pharmacological Intervention for Personalizing Sleep Quality through Gentle Rocking Motion
by Damiana-Maria Vulturar, Liviu-Ștefan Moacă, Ioana Maria Chețan, Ștefan Cristian Vesa, Teodora-Gabriela Alexescu, Cristina Grigorescu, Antigona Carmen Trofor, Mirela-Anca Stoia, Alexandra Floriana Nemes and Doina-Adina Todea
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020218 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Introduction: Achieving restorative sleep is crucial for overall well-being, yet sleep difficulties affect a substantial portion of the adult population. Sleep disturbances are associated with diminished quality of life, physical complaints, cognitive impairment, and emotional regulation challenges. Objective: This study explores the influence [...] Read more.
Introduction: Achieving restorative sleep is crucial for overall well-being, yet sleep difficulties affect a substantial portion of the adult population. Sleep disturbances are associated with diminished quality of life, physical complaints, cognitive impairment, and emotional regulation challenges. Objective: This study explores the influence of an innovative experimental bed designed to generate rocking motions on sleep parameters. Methods: A prospective observational study enrolled 60 adult participants, assessing their sleep on a regular stationary bed and the Inoveris bed, providing gentle rocking movements. Polysomnography was conducted, recording electroencephalography, electrooculogram, electromyogram, respiratory effort, and other parameters. Results: The rocking bed significantly increased total sleep time (TST) and reduced N1 sleep stage duration (p < 0.001). Participants also experienced a quicker transition to the N2 sleep stage (p = 0.01), indicative of a faster shift from wakefulness to deeper sleep. Additionally, rocking led to a higher percentage of N1 sleep stages (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in N3 sleep stage duration (p = 0.004). While some results lacked statistical significance, notable trends in the rocking bed group have clinical relevance, consistently improving sleep parameters, including increased TST. The rocking bed also showed a trend towards higher sleep efficiency (SE) and sleep duration percentage, hinting at a potential overall enhancement in sleep quality. Conclusion: This study contributes valuable insights into the potential benefits of rocking motions on sleep architecture. Despite variations in outcomes across studies, our results underscore the potential of rocking beds as a non-pharmacological intervention for enhancing sleep quality. Notable improvements in total sleep time (TST), N1 sleep stage reduction, and accelerated transitions to deeper sleep stages highlight the clinical relevance of rocking interventions. Further research, collaboration, and addressing the identified limitations will advance our understanding of the therapeutic applications of rocking motions in sleep science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases)
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50 pages, 4082 KiB  
Review
Microbiome Dynamics: A Paradigm Shift in Combatting Infectious Diseases
by Mohamed Kamel, Sami Aleya, Majed Alsubih and Lotfi Aleya
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020217 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Infectious diseases have long posed a significant threat to global health and require constant innovation in treatment approaches. However, recent groundbreaking research has shed light on a previously overlooked player in the pathogenesis of disease—the human microbiome. This review article addresses the intricate [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases have long posed a significant threat to global health and require constant innovation in treatment approaches. However, recent groundbreaking research has shed light on a previously overlooked player in the pathogenesis of disease—the human microbiome. This review article addresses the intricate relationship between the microbiome and infectious diseases and unravels its role as a crucial mediator of host–pathogen interactions. We explore the remarkable potential of harnessing this dynamic ecosystem to develop innovative treatment strategies that could revolutionize the management of infectious diseases. By exploring the latest advances and emerging trends, this review aims to provide a new perspective on combating infectious diseases by targeting the microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Omics/Informatics)
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12 pages, 3670 KiB  
Review
Mechanical Thrombectomy via Transbrachial Approach in the Emergency Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Aortic Pathologies: Our Experience and Literature Review
by Aida Iancu, Raluca Tudor, Dana Simona Chita, Catalin Juratu, Anca Tudor, Florina Buleu, Daian Popa and Silviu Brad
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020216 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Study design: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) via the transbrachial approach (TBA) is a very rare option used in cases of patients with aortic pathologies and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to the insufficient evidence in the literature, the difficulty from a technical point of [...] Read more.
Study design: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) via the transbrachial approach (TBA) is a very rare option used in cases of patients with aortic pathologies and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to the insufficient evidence in the literature, the difficulty from a technical point of view and the result of this technique influenced by the complications that frequently accompany it. Background: Only a few cases of patients with aortic pathologies and acute ischemic stroke where MT via TBA were reported in the literature, and its application in the emergency management of AIS has still not been dealt with in detail. Objectives: Out of a need to clarify and clearly emphasize the effectiveness of this approach in emergency MT via TBA in patients with AIS and aortic pathologies, this literature review and case report has the following objectives: the first one is the presentation of an emergency MT via transbrachial approach performed in a 44-year-old patient with AIS and diagnosed aortic coarctation during transfemural approach (TFA), with successful reperfusion in our department and the second one is to review the cases reports of patients with different aortic pathologies and AIS reperfusion therapy performed by MT via TBA from the literature. Methods: A total of nine cases (one personal case and eight published cases) were revised in terms of aortic pathologies type, reperfusion therapy type, and the complication of both mechanical thrombectomy and local transbrachial approach. Results: Mechanical thrombectomy through the transbrachial approach was the first choice in more than half of these cases (55.55%, n = 5 cases) in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the presence of previously diagnosed aortic pathologies. In one-third of all cases (33.33%, n = 3, our case and 2 case reports from the literature), the transbrachial approach was chosen after attempting to advance the guiding catheter through the transfemoral approach and intraprocedural diagnosis of aortic pathology. In only one case, after an ultrasound evaluation of the radial artery that showed a monophasic flow, MT was performed via TBA. Local transbrachial complication was reported in one case, and in two other cases, it was not stated if there were such complications. Hemorrhagic transformation of AIS was reported in two cases that underwent MT-only cerebral reperfusion via TBA, one with acute aortic dissection type A and our case of previously undiagnosed aortic coarctation. In the cases in whom short and long-term follow-up was reported, the outcome of treatment, which was not exclusively endovascular (77.77% cases with only MT and 33.33% with association of first thrombolysis and after MT), was good (six from nine patients). In two case reports, the outcomes were not stated, and one patient died after a long hospitalization in the intensive care unit from respiratory complications (our patient). Conclusions: Being a clinical emergency, acute ischemic stroke requires urgent medical intervention. In patients with aortic pathologies, where acute ischemic stroke emergency care is a challenge, mechanical thrombectomy via the transbrachial approach is a safe alternative method for cerebral reperfusion. Full article
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10 pages, 757 KiB  
Article
Performance in Behavioral Testing in an Animal Model of Post-Surgical Hypoparathyroidism
by Cristina Dettori, Francesca Ronca, Giulia Di Buono, Alessandro Saba, Francesca Di Lupo, Beatrice Polini, Caterina Ricardi, Sabina Frascarelli, Filomena Cetani, Claudio Marcocci, Riccardo Zucchi, Grazia Chiellini, Marco Scalese and Federica Saponaro
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020215 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Background: Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by hypocalcemia and undetectable/inappropriately low PTH. Post-surgical HypoPT (PS-HypoPT) is the most common cause. Patients with PS-HypoPT present neuropsychological symptoms, probably due to the PTH deprivation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, these mechanisms are still not [...] Read more.
Background: Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by hypocalcemia and undetectable/inappropriately low PTH. Post-surgical HypoPT (PS-HypoPT) is the most common cause. Patients with PS-HypoPT present neuropsychological symptoms, probably due to the PTH deprivation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, these mechanisms are still not elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PTH deprivation on CNS in an animal model of PS-HypoPT via a cognitive/behavioral assessment approach. Methods: A surgical rat model of PS-HypoPT was obtained and treated with calcium to maintain normocalcemia. Twenty PS-HypoPT rats and twenty sham-operated controls (Crl) underwent behavioral testing in a Morris Water Maze (MWM), Open Field (OF), and Elevated Plus Maze (EPM). Results: In the MWM, PTx rats showed a higher Escape Latency Time compared to Crl rats (p < 0.05); we observed a statistically significant improvement in the performance (day 1 to 8 p < 0.001), which was less pronounced in PTx group. In the OF test, the time and distance spent in the zone of interest were significantly lower in the PTx group compared with the Crl (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01). In the EPM experiment, the time spent in the close arm was significantly higher in the PTx group compared with the Crl (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This animal model of PS-HypoPT shows an impairment in spatial memory, which improved after training, and a marked anxiety-like behavior, resembling the condition of patients with PS-HypoPT. Further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
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31 pages, 4329 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of Organ Failure and Metastases on Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients: A Prospective Study Based on Utilizing EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR45 Questionnaires in Romania
by Andreea-Iuliana Ionescu (Miron), Alexandra-Valentina Anghel, Ionuț-Lucian Antone-Iordache, Dimitrie-Ionuț Atasiei, Cătălin-Alexandru Anghel, Andrei-Alexandru Barnonschi, Alexandra-Maria Bobolocu, Catinca Verga, Florica Șandru and Horia-Dan Lișcu
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020214 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) significantly impacts the quality of life (QoL) of affected individuals. This study, conducted at Colțea Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, aimed to assess the impact of organ failures and metastases on QoL in breast cancer patients using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR45 [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) significantly impacts the quality of life (QoL) of affected individuals. This study, conducted at Colțea Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, aimed to assess the impact of organ failures and metastases on QoL in breast cancer patients using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR45 questionnaires and the survival rate to understand the clinical journey and the quality of life status in breast cancer patients. From January 2019 to October 2022, a prospective, observational study surveyed 874 patients, revealing 201 fatalities, 66 refusals, and 607 eligible participants. Results indicated statistically significant differences in various QoL aspects for patients experiencing heart failure, including physical functioning, pain, insomnia, global health status, and overall summary score. Kidney failure exhibited significance in physical functioning for QLQ-C30 and body image, sexual functioning, and endocrine sexual symptoms for QLQ-BR45. Respiratory failure demonstrated significant differences across multiple QoL domains. Patients with bone metastases reported lower physical functioning (p = 0.006) and increased pain (p = 0.002). This study has revealed an overall 5-year life expectancy of 68.8%, with survival rates of 93.8% for Stage I, 86.3% for Stage II, and 77.2% for Stage III breast cancer. Metastatic cancer patients have shown a 35.6% survival rate over 45 months, with a median survival duration of 36 months. A significant limitation of our study was the administration of the questionnaire only once, preventing us from quantifying the impact of specific treatment types on quality of life. This study emphasizes the necessity of using standardized QoL assessments in clinical practice from the initial presentation to ongoing follow-up. Full article
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12 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
LPL rs264, PROCR rs867186 and PDGF rs974819 Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Unstable Angina
by Damian Malinowski, Krzysztof Safranow and Andrzej Pawlik
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020213 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Background: Coronary artery disease is caused by changes in the coronary arteries due to the atherosclerotic process and thrombotic changes. A very important role in the development of the atherosclerotic process in the coronary vessels is played by the inflammatory process and the [...] Read more.
Background: Coronary artery disease is caused by changes in the coronary arteries due to the atherosclerotic process and thrombotic changes. A very important role in the development of the atherosclerotic process in the coronary vessels is played by the inflammatory process and the immune response. Due to the important role of lipids and the coagulation process in the atherosclerotic process, research has also focused on genes affecting lipid metabolism and the coagulation system. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that metabolises lipids, hydrolysing triglycerides to produce free fatty acids and glycerol. Protein C (PC) is an essential component of coagulation and fibrinolysis. It is activated on the endothelial surface by the membrane-bound thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has a number of important functions in processes related to fibroblast and smooth muscle cell function. Due to their influence on lipid metabolism and coagulation processes, LPL, PROCR (endothelial cell protein C receptor) and PDGF may affect the atherosclerotic process and, thus, the risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between the LPL rs264, PROCR rs867186 and PDGF rs974819 gene polymorphisms and the risk of unstable angina and selected clinical parameters. Methods: The study included 232 patients with unstable angina and 144 healthy subjects as the control group. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of the polymorphisms tested between the patients with unstable angina and the control subjects. The results showed associations between the PROCR rs867186 and PDGF rs974819 polymorphisms and some clinical parameters in patients with unstable angina. In patients with the PDGF rs974819 CC genotype, there were increased values for cholesterol and LDL serum levels in comparison with patients with the PDGF rs974819 CT and TT genotypes. In patients with the PROCR rs867186 AA genotype, HDL serum levels were lower than in patients with the GA genotype. Conclusions: The results of our study did not show that the LPL rs264, PROCR rs867186 and PDGF rs974819 gene polymorphisms were significant risk factors for unstable angina in our population. The results of the study suggest that PDGF rs974819 and PROCR rs867186 may be associated with some parameters of lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune-Mediated Diseases)
11 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Perioperative Outcomes in Patients with Bladder Cancer Treated with Radical Cystectomy: A Single High-Volume Center Experience
by Flavia Proietti, Rocco Simone Flammia, Leslie Claire Licari, Eugenio Bologna, Alfredo Maria Bove, Aldo Brassetti, Gabriele Tuderti, Riccardo Mastroianni, Antonio Tufano, Giuseppe Simone and Costantino Leonardo
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020212 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
(1) Background: Less than 30% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and reasons for underuse remain unclear. One potential explanation is the concern for the increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Less than 30% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and reasons for underuse remain unclear. One potential explanation is the concern for the increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of NAC on the risk of detrimental perioperative outcomes in patients with MIBC treated with radical cystectomy (RC). (2) Methods: We identified patients receiving RC for MIBC (T2-4a N0 M0) from 2016 to 2022. Moreover, 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was applied between RC alone versus RC plus NAC, and our analysis tested the association between NAC status and peri-operative outcomes. (3) Results: Among the 317 patients treated with RC for identified MIBC, 98 (31%) received NAC. Patients treated with NAC were younger (median yr. 64 vs. 71; p < 0.001), with a lower Charlson Comorbidity Index (3 vs. 4; p > 0.001), and received more frequently continent urinary diversion (61 vs. 32%, p < 0.001). About 43% of patients in each group were treated with robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with totally intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD). After PSM, no differences were detected for the outcomes considered. (4) Conclusions: NAC is not associated with a higher rate of perioperative complications, including patients who received RARC with ICUD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
18 pages, 1912 KiB  
Article
Individualized Perioperative Hemodynamic Management Using Hypotension Prediction Index Software and the Dynamics of Troponin and NTproBNP Concentration Changes in Patients Undergoing Oncological Abdominal Surgery
by Jolanta Cylwik, Małgorzata Celińska-Spodar and Mariusz Dudzic
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020211 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Introduction: Abdominal oncologic surgeries pose significant risks due to the complexity of the surgery and patients’ often weakened health, multiple comorbidities, and increased perioperative hazards. Hypotension is a major risk factor for perioperative cardiovascular complications, necessitating individualized management in modern anesthesiology. Aim: This [...] Read more.
Introduction: Abdominal oncologic surgeries pose significant risks due to the complexity of the surgery and patients’ often weakened health, multiple comorbidities, and increased perioperative hazards. Hypotension is a major risk factor for perioperative cardiovascular complications, necessitating individualized management in modern anesthesiology. Aim: This study aimed to determine the dynamics of changes in troponin and NTproBNP levels during the first two postoperative days in patients undergoing major cancer abdominal surgery with advanced hemodynamic monitoring including The AcumenTM Hypotension Prediction Index software (HPI) (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) and their association with the occurrence of postoperative cardiovascular complications. Methods: A prospective study was conducted, including 50 patients scheduled for abdominal cancer surgery who, due to the overall risk of perioperative complications (ASA class 3 or 4), were monitored using the HPI software. Hypotension was qualified as at least one ≥ 1 min episode of a MAP < 65 mm Hg. Preoperatively and 24 and 48 h after the procedure, the levels of NTproBNP and troponin were measured, and an ECG was performed. Results: We analyzed data from 46 patients and found that 82% experienced at least one episode of low blood pressure (MAP < 65 mmHg). However, the quality indices of hypotension were low, with a median time-weighted average MAP < 65 mmHg of 0.085 (0.03–0.19) mmHg and a median of 2 (2–1.17) minutes spent below MAP < 65 mmHg. Although the incidence of perioperative myocardial injury was 10%, there was no evidence to suggest a relationship with hypotension. Acute kidney injury was seen in 23.9% of patients, and it was significantly associated with a number of episodes of MAP < 50 mmHg. Levels of NTproBNP were significantly higher on the first postoperative day compared to preoperative values (285.8 [IQR: 679.8] vs. 183.9 [IQR: 428.1] pg/mL, p < 0.001). However, they decreased on the second day (276.65 [IQR: 609.4] pg/mL, p = 0.154). The dynamics of NTproBNP were similar for patients with and without heart failure, although those with heart failure had significantly higher preoperative concentrations (435.9 [IQR: 711.15] vs. 87 [IQR: 232.2] pg/mL, p < 0.001). Patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery showed a statistically significant increase in NTproBNP. Conclusions: This study suggests that advanced HPI monitoring in abdominal cancer surgery effectively minimizes intraoperative hypotension with no significant NTproBNP or troponin perioperative dynamics, irrespective of preoperative heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Anesthesia and Anesthetics)
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10 pages, 391 KiB  
Brief Report
Performance of a Machine Learning Algorithm to Predict Hypotension in Spontaneously Breathing Non-Ventilated Post-Anesthesia and ICU Patients
by Johan T. M. Tol, Lotte E. Terwindt, Santino R. Rellum, Marije Wijnberge, Björn J. P. van der Ster, Eline Kho, Markus W. Hollmann, Alexander P. J. Vlaar, Denise P. Veelo and Jimmy Schenk
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020210 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Background: Hypotension is common in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and intensive care unit (ICU), and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) algorithm has been shown to accurately predict hypotension in mechanically ventilated patients in the OR [...] Read more.
Background: Hypotension is common in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and intensive care unit (ICU), and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) algorithm has been shown to accurately predict hypotension in mechanically ventilated patients in the OR and ICU and to reduce intraoperative hypotension (IOH). Since positive pressure ventilation significantly affects patient hemodynamics, we performed this validation study to examine the performance of the HPI algorithm in a non-ventilated PACU and ICU population. Materials & Methods: The performance of the HPI algorithm was assessed using prospectively collected blood pressure (BP) and HPI data from a PACU and a mixed ICU population. Recordings with sufficient time (≥3 h) spent without mechanical ventilation were selected using data from the electronic medical record. All HPI values were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and time-to-event, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed. Results: BP and HPI data from 282 patients were eligible for analysis, of which 242 (86%) were ICU patients. The mean age (standard deviation) was 63 (13.5) years, and 186 (66%) of the patients were male. Overall, the HPI predicted hypotension accurately, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.94. The most used HPI threshold cutoff in research and clinical use, 85, showed a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.79, median time-to-event of 160 s [60–380], PPV of 0.85, and NPV of 1.00. Conclusion: The absence of positive pressure ventilation and the influence thereof on patient hemodynamics does not negatively affect the performance of the HPI algorithm in predicting hypotension in the PACU and ICU. Future research should evaluate the feasibility and influence on hypotension and outcomes following HPI implementation in non-ventilated patients at risk of hypotension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine)
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14 pages, 2177 KiB  
Article
Influence of Curved Video Laryngoscope Blade Sizes and Patient Heights on Video Laryngoscopic Views: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Jong-Ho Kim, Bo-Reum Cheon, Hyesook Kim, Sung-Mi Hwang, Jae-Jun Lee and Young-Suk Kwon
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020209 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 869
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the video laryngoscope views facilitated by curved blades 3 and 4 with an exploration of the relationship between these views and patient height. Conducted as a randomized controlled trial, this study enrolled adults scheduled for surgery under general [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the video laryngoscope views facilitated by curved blades 3 and 4 with an exploration of the relationship between these views and patient height. Conducted as a randomized controlled trial, this study enrolled adults scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia. Intubation procedures were recorded, and the percentage of glottic opening was measured before tube insertion. Multivariate analysis validated the impact of various factors, including blade size and patient height, on the percentage of glottic opening scores. A total of 192 patients were included. The median percentage of glottic opening scores for curved blades 3 and 4 were 100 and 83, respectively (p < 0.001). The unstandardized coefficient indicated a significant negative impact of blade 4 on the percentage of glottic opening scores (−13, p < 0.001). In the locally estimated scatterplot smoothing analysis, blade 3 exhibited a steady rise in glottic opening scores with increasing height, whereas blade 4 showed a peak followed by a decline around 185 cm. The unstandardized coefficient of height showed no significant association (0, p = 0.819). The study observed superior laryngoscopic views with blade 3 compared to blade 4. However, no significant association was found between laryngoscopic views and patient height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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12 pages, 2125 KiB  
Article
Usefulness of Procalcitonin Levels for Predicting the Microbiological Orientation in Patients with Sepsis
by Natalia Fernanda Pascual Gómez, María del Pilar Sanz Martín, María Auxiliadora Semiglia Chong, Nelly Daniela Zurita Cruz, Rosa Méndez Hernández, Iñigo Guerra Molina, Iñigo García Sanz, Angels Figuerola Tejerina and Fernando Ramasco Rueda
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020208 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The main objective of the study was to verify whether levels of procalcitonin (PCT) could guide us toward determining the type of bacteria causing the sepsis and to identify the discriminatory cut-off point in the first urgent laboratory test. This study is a [...] Read more.
The main objective of the study was to verify whether levels of procalcitonin (PCT) could guide us toward determining the type of bacteria causing the sepsis and to identify the discriminatory cut-off point in the first urgent laboratory test. This study is a single center retrospective analysis that includes 371 patients with a mean age of 71.7 ± 15.6 years who were diagnosed with sepsis or septic shock. The yield of blood cultures in demonstrating the causative microbiological agent was 24.3% (90), and it was 57, 1% (212) when evaluating all types of cultures. Statistically significant positive differences were observed in the mean value of the PCT between the group that obtained positive cultures and the group that did not (p < 0.0001). The AUC-ROC of PCT values as a guide to the causal bacteria type was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.57–0.78, p < 0.0021). The PCT value that showed the best diagnostic characteristics for identifying Gram-negative rods (GNR) as the causative agent in blood cultures was 2.1 ng/mL. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 78, 9% (66.3–88.1%). The AUC-ROC of the PCT values for sepsis diagnosis, with any positive culture that could be assessed, was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.63–0.73, p < 0.0001). The PCT value that showed the best diagnostic characteristic for predicting sepsis was 3.6 ng/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Personalized Critical Care)
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30 pages, 27177 KiB  
Article
The Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Periodontology: From 3D Models of Periodontal Defects to 3D-Printed Scaffolds
by Styliani Verykokou, Charalabos Ioannidis, Sofia Soile, Christos Angelopoulos, Konstantinos Theodoridis, Athanasios S. Arampatzis, Andreana N. Assimopoulou, Dimitrios Christofilos, Afroditi Kapourani, Ioannis Pantazos, Panagiotis Barmpalexis, Argyro-Maria Boutsi and Chryssy Potsiou
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020207 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The treatment of osseous defects around teeth is a fundamental concern within the field of periodontology. Over the years, the method of grafting has been employed to treat bone defects, underscoring the necessity for custom-designed scaffolds that precisely match the anatomical intricacies of [...] Read more.
The treatment of osseous defects around teeth is a fundamental concern within the field of periodontology. Over the years, the method of grafting has been employed to treat bone defects, underscoring the necessity for custom-designed scaffolds that precisely match the anatomical intricacies of the bone cavity to be filled, preventing the formation of gaps that could allow the regeneration of soft tissues. In order to create such a patient-specific scaffold (bone graft), it is imperative to have a highly detailed 3D representation of the bone defect, so that the resulting scaffold aligns with the ideal anatomical characteristics of the bone defect. In this context, this article implements a workflow for designing 3D models out of patient-specific tissue defects, fabricated as scaffolds with 3D-printing technology and bioabsorbable materials, for the personalized treatment of periodontitis. The workflow is based on 3D modeling of the hard tissues around the periodontal defect (alveolar bone and teeth), scanned from patients with periodontitis. Specifically, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data were acquired from patients and were used for the reconstruction of the 3D model of the periodontal defect. The final step encompasses the 3D printing of these scaffolds, employing Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology and 3D-bioprinting, with the aim of verifying the design accuracy of the developed methodοlogy. Unlike most existing 3D-printed scaffolds reported in the literature, which are either pre-designed or have a standard structure, this method leads to the creation of highly detailed patient-specific grafts. Greater accuracy and resolution in the macroarchitecture of the scaffolds were achieved during FDM printing compared to bioprinting, with the standard FDM printing profile identified as more suitable in terms of both time and precision. It is easy to follow and has been successfully employed to create 3D models of periodontal defects and 3D-printed scaffolds for three cases of patients, proving its applicability and efficiency in designing and fabricating personalized 3D-printed bone grafts using CBCT data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Regenerative Medicine and Therapeutics)
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16 pages, 5398 KiB  
Article
Exploring an Innovative Approach: Integrating Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Silver Nanoparticle Dressings in Skin Graft Procedures
by Abdalah Abu-Baker, Andrada-Elena Țigăran, Teodora Peligrad, Daniela-Elena Ion, Daniela-Elena Gheoca-Mutu, Adelaida Avino, Cristian-Sorin Hariga, Oriana Elena Moraru, Laura Răducu and Radu-Cristian Jecan
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020206 - 14 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Background: Skin grafting is a helpful instrument in a plastic surgeon’s arsenal. Several types of dressings were designed to facilitate the process of graft integration. Negative-pressure wound therapy is a proven dressing method, enhancing graft survival through several mechanisms: aspiration of secretions, stimulation [...] Read more.
Background: Skin grafting is a helpful instrument in a plastic surgeon’s arsenal. Several types of dressings were designed to facilitate the process of graft integration. Negative-pressure wound therapy is a proven dressing method, enhancing graft survival through several mechanisms: aspiration of secretions, stimulation of neoangiogenesis, and promotion of an anti-inflammatory environment. Silver nanoparticle dressings also bring multiple benefits by bearing an antimicrobial effect and providing a humid medium, which are favorable for epithelialization. The combination of NPWT (negative-pressure wound therapy) with AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) has not been widely studied. Materials and methods: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of silver nanoparticle sheets with the combination of negative-pressure wound therapy and silver nanoparticle dressings. We conducted a comparative prospective study on 80 patients admitted to the Plastic Surgery Department of “Prof. Dr. Agrippa Ionescu” Emergency Clinical Hospital between 1st of January 2020 and 31st of December 2022. The study population was randomized to receive either silver nanoparticle dressings or negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) combined with silver nanoparticle dressings. Various parameters were monitored, including patient comorbidities and graft-related data such as defect etiology, graft integration, and graft size. Dressings were changed, and graft status was evaluated at 7, 10, and 14 days postoperatively. Additionally, baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before surgery and 7, 10, and 14 days postoperatively. Results: The study demonstrated an enhanced integration of skin grafts at all evaluation stages when employing NPWT combined with AgNPs, particularly evident 10 days post operation. Significant variations in graft integration were also observed based on factors such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, graft size, or the origin of the grafted defect. Moreover, dynamic C-reactive protein monitoring showed a statistically significant decrease in CRP levels 10 days post operation among patients treated with NPWT in conjunction with silver dressing, consistent with the nearly complete integration of skin grafts at this evaluation threshold. Conclusion: Several factors influence the postoperative evolution of split-skin grafts. Postoperative dressings target local factors to enhance graft integration further. Our research demonstrated that the innovative combination of NPWT-assisted dressings, complemented by a silver nanoparticle sheet, resulted in improved benefits for graft integration and the alleviation of systemic inflammation. Full article
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18 pages, 22167 KiB  
Systematic Review
Laparoscopic Management of Multiple Liver, Omental, Mesenteric, Peritoneal, and Round Ligament Hydatid Cysts—A Rare Report of a Case and a Systematic Literature Review
by Alin Mihetiu, Dan Georgian Bratu, Ciprian Tanasescu, Bogdan Ioan Vintilă, Alexandra Sandu, Mariana Sandu, Dragos Serban, Dan Sabau and Adrian Hasegan
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020205 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Hydatid cyst disease is a parasitic ailment with an endemic nature, predominantly affecting geographical areas with a tradition in animal husbandry. The most common localization of hydatid disease is in the liver (60%), followed by the lungs, with other organ localizations comprising less [...] Read more.
Hydatid cyst disease is a parasitic ailment with an endemic nature, predominantly affecting geographical areas with a tradition in animal husbandry. The most common localization of hydatid disease is in the liver (60%), followed by the lungs, with other organ localizations comprising less than 10%. The surgical approach to this condition can be carried out through open surgery or laparoscopy. The coexistence of hepatic and intraperitoneal hydatidosis often leads to the preference for open surgery. We performed a literature review aiming to retrieve data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical features, preoperative management, and surgical approach concerning these unusual localizations of hydatid disease. It was observed that the mesenteric localization frequently presented with acute abdominal pain (p = 0.038) and that the open approach was preferred in 85.71% of cases. Furthermore, an interdependence was identified between the localization of the cysts and the type of surgical approach (p = 0.001), with mesenteric localizations being approached through laparotomy and excision (p = 0.037), while omental localizations, due to the easier approach, benefited from laparoscopy with excision in 14.29% of cases. Overall, the laparoscopic approach was less frequently used, but its utilization resulted in a lower number of complications and faster recovery. Additionally, we present a rare case of hepatic and intra-abdominal hydatidosis, resolved exclusively through a laparoscopic approach, including a review of the literature for these uncommon localizations of hydatid disease. A 45-year-old patient diagnosed with multiple hydatid cysts, both hepatic and intraperitoneal, underwent surgical intervention with exploratory laparoscopy. Laparoscopic excision of peritoneal, epiploic, mesenteric cysts, and round ligament, along with laparoscopic inactivation, evacuation, and pericystectomy of hepatic hydatid cysts, was performed. The patient’s recovery was uneventful, and she was reevaluated at 3 and 9 months without signs of recurrence. The association of hepatic hydatid cysts with multiple intra-abdominal localizations is not commonly encountered. The treatment of choice is surgical and is predominantly conducted through open surgery. The presented case is unique due to the exclusive laparoscopic approach in the management of mixed hepatic and intra-abdominal hydatidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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9 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Filter Trocar for Clear Visualization during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
by Ho-Chang Chae, Beom-Jin Kim, Yoo Shin Choi, Suk-Won Suh and Seung Eun Lee
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020204 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Filter trocar designed to eliminate harmful smoke is also regarded as effective for improving surgical visualization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of filter trocar in maintaining clear operative view. From 2019 to 2020, 100 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy [...] Read more.
Filter trocar designed to eliminate harmful smoke is also regarded as effective for improving surgical visualization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of filter trocar in maintaining clear operative view. From 2019 to 2020, 100 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and they were randomized to either the control or filter group. The primary end point was a laparoscopic operative view score (1, clear; 2, slightly blurry; 3, completely blurry) during gallbladder dissection from the liver bed when dissection was started (LV1), when dissection was half completed (LV2) and when dissection was completed (LV3). Between the control and filter groups, there were no significant differences in mean LV1 (1.44 vs. 1.40, p = 0.234) and LV3 (1.86 vs. 2.01, p = 0.880). There was no significant difference in the mean duration of suction after dissection (3.82 s vs. 3.67 s, p = 0.097) and the mean number of laparoscope removals from inside to outside the body to clean during gallbladder dissection from the liver bed (0.55 vs. 0.22, p = 0.963) or the mean amount of time required to dissect the gallbladder from the liver bed (221.58 s vs. 177.09 s, p = 0.253). The study demonstrated that filter trocar is not as effective as expected in the maintenance of clear operative view. Further study is needed to develop devices to improve clear surgical visualization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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21 pages, 2042 KiB  
Review
Leveraging Machine Learning for Personalized Wearable Biomedical Devices: A Review
by Ali Olyanasab and Mohsen Annabestani
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020203 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1547
Abstract
This review investigates the convergence of artificial intelligence (AI) and personalized health monitoring through wearable devices, classifying them into three distinct categories: bio-electrical, bio-impedance and electro-chemical, and electro-mechanical. Wearable devices have emerged as promising tools for personalized health monitoring, utilizing machine learning to [...] Read more.
This review investigates the convergence of artificial intelligence (AI) and personalized health monitoring through wearable devices, classifying them into three distinct categories: bio-electrical, bio-impedance and electro-chemical, and electro-mechanical. Wearable devices have emerged as promising tools for personalized health monitoring, utilizing machine learning to distill meaningful insights from the expansive datasets they capture. Within the bio-electrical category, these devices employ biosignal data, such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), electromyograms (EMGs), electroencephalograms (EEGs), etc., to monitor and assess health. The bio-impedance and electro-chemical category focuses on devices measuring physiological signals, including glucose levels and electrolytes, offering a holistic understanding of the wearer’s physiological state. Lastly, the electro-mechanical category encompasses devices designed to capture motion and physical activity data, providing valuable insights into an individual’s physical activity and behavior. This review critically evaluates the integration of machine learning algorithms within these wearable devices, illuminating their potential to revolutionize healthcare. Emphasizing early detection, timely intervention, and the provision of personalized lifestyle recommendations, the paper outlines how the amalgamation of advanced machine learning techniques with wearable devices can pave the way for more effective and individualized healthcare solutions. The exploration of this intersection promises a paradigm shift, heralding a new era in healthcare innovation and personalized well-being. Full article
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3 pages, 150 KiB  
Editorial
Multiple Sclerosis Research Evolves: A Closer Look at Deep Gray Matter, Sexual Function Rehabilitation, and T Regulatory Cells
by Majid Ghareghani and Serge Rivest
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020202 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune condition that leads to the loss of myelin and, subsequently, neuronal damage in the central nervous system (CNS) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Development in Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis and Treatment)
16 pages, 788 KiB  
Review
Sex Differences in Cardiac and Clinical Phenotypes and Their Relation to Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure
by Akane Kawai, Yuji Nagatomo, Midori Yukino-Iwashita, Ryota Nakazawa, Yusuke Yumita, Akira Taruoka, Asako Takefuji, Risako Yasuda, Takumi Toya, Yukinori Ikegami, Nobuyuki Masaki and Takeshi Adachi
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020201 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Biological sex is one of the major factors characterizing the heart failure (HF) patient phenotype. Understanding sex-related differences in HF is crucial to implement personalized care for HF patients with various phenotypes. There are sex differences in left ventricular (LV) remodeling patterns in [...] Read more.
Biological sex is one of the major factors characterizing the heart failure (HF) patient phenotype. Understanding sex-related differences in HF is crucial to implement personalized care for HF patients with various phenotypes. There are sex differences in left ventricular (LV) remodeling patterns in the HF setting, namely, more likely concentric remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in women and eccentric remodeling and systolic dysfunction in men. Recently supra-normal EF (snLVEF) has been recognized as a risk of worse outcome. This pathology might be more relevant in female patients. The possible mechanism may be through coronary microvascular dysfunction and sympathetic nerve overactivation from the findings of previous studies. Further, estrogen deficit might play a significant role in this pathophysiology. The sex difference in body composition may also be related to the difference in LV remodeling and outcome. Lower implementation in guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) in female HFrEF patients might also be one of the factors related to sex differences in relation to outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the sex differences in cardiac and clinical phenotypes and their relation to outcomes in HF patients and further discuss how to provide appropriate treatment strategies for female patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sex, Gender and Hormone Based Medicine)
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14 pages, 817 KiB  
Systematic Review
Mind–Body Training: A Plausible Strategy against Osteomuscular Chronic Pain—A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Julia Gámez-Iruela, Agustín Aibar-Almazán, Diego Fernando Afanador-Restrepo, Yolanda Castellote-Caballero, Fidel Hita-Contreras, María del Carmen Carcelén-Fraile and Ana María González-Martín
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020200 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 911
Abstract
(1) Background: Chronic pain, which affects more than one in five adults worldwide, has a negative impact on the quality of life, limiting daily activities and generating absences from work. The aim of the present review is to analyze the efficacy of mind–body [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Chronic pain, which affects more than one in five adults worldwide, has a negative impact on the quality of life, limiting daily activities and generating absences from work. The aim of the present review is to analyze the efficacy of mind–body therapies as therapeutic strategies for patients with chronic pain. (2) Methods: A systematic review with a meta-analysis was carried out, searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases using specific keywords. We selected studies that included mind–body therapies as the primary intervention for older adults with chronic pain. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the PEDro scale. (3) Results: Of the 861 studies identified, 11 were included in this review, all of which employed different mind–body therapies as an intervention. The selected studies measured chronic pain as the main variable. (4) Conclusions: This review highlights the value of mind–body exercises in reducing chronic pain in older adults, suggesting their integration as a non-pharmacological therapeutic alternative that improves the quality of life, promoting a holistic approach to pain management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Therapy and Clinical Outcomes for Chronic Pain)
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19 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Associations between Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Antonios Dakanalis, Christina Tryfonos, Eleni Pavlidou, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Olga Alexatou, Theofanis Vorvolakos, Maria Chrysafi, Dimitrios Fotiou, Maria Mentzelou, Aspasia Serdari, Maria Chatzidimitriou, Sophia Dimoliani, Gerasimos Tsourouflis and Constantinos Giaginis
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020199 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is well-known as a diet which may exert a protective effect against neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, only a few clinical surveys have assessed the potential effects of the MD in patients with MS. The [...] Read more.
Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is well-known as a diet which may exert a protective effect against neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, only a few clinical surveys have assessed the potential effects of the MD in patients with MS. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the potential effects of MD compliance on disease disability, quality of life, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, and blood biochemical parameters related to nutritional status in MS patients, considering several socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle characteristics. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 558 adults with MS aged 18–64 years. Relevant questionnaires were utilized to evaluate socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, disease disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS), multidimensional health-related quality (MS Quality of Life-54, MSQOL-54), physical activity levels (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ), depression (Beck Depression Inventory II, BDI-II), and MD adherence (MedDietScore), while several blood biochemical parameters were retrieved from the patients’ medical records. Results: Enhanced MD compliance was independently associated with a decreased frequency of overweight/obesity, as well as abdominal obesity, in patients suffering from MS. Elevated MD compliance was also independently associated with a decreased incidence of advanced disease disability, a higher prevalence of elevated physical activity, an improved quality of life, and lower depressive symptoms, as well as higher levels of certain blood biochemical parameters, which are effective indicators of iron deficiency and malnutrition. Conclusions: The present study found that higher MD adherence may slow down disease disability, promoting a better quality of life and mental health in adults with MS. Future prospective surveys are required to obtain conclusive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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21 pages, 1780 KiB  
Review
Decrease in Sperm Parameters in the 21st Century: Obesity, Lifestyle, or Environmental Factors? An Updated Narrative Review
by Romualdo Sciorio, Luca Tramontano, Mohammed Adel and Steven Fleming
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020198 - 11 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Semen quality represents a compelling factor for fertility, and delineating the normal values has proven difficult. In the last four decades, several authors have reported a noticeable decline in sperm parameters. Also, studies investigating ‘time to pregnancy’ have shown that fecundity begins to [...] Read more.
Semen quality represents a compelling factor for fertility, and delineating the normal values has proven difficult. In the last four decades, several authors have reported a noticeable decline in sperm parameters. Also, studies investigating ‘time to pregnancy’ have shown that fecundity begins to be reduced when sperm numbers decrease below 30 million, even though according to the 6th edition of the WHO manual, the normal value is currently 16 million/mL or 39 million per ejaculate. There exists sufficient data to suggest a decline in sperm counts over time, even though the clear reason for this adverse trend is not well established, but some associations have been hypothesised, such as maternal smoking during pregnancy. Additional potential factors have yet to be fully illustrated but involve poor diet, increased obesity, and exposure to environmental toxins. Moreover, the change in environmental conditions and more common exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as pesticides and herbicides, as well as bisphenol A, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals, starting from prenatal life and continuing into adulthood, may exhibit probable features explaining the reduction in sperm parameters. Therefore, the main goal of this narrative review is to furnish an overview of the possible effects of exposure to EDCs on testicular function and spermatogenesis and, also, to summarise the evidence regarding a decrease in sperm quality and examine its potential consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sex, Gender and Hormone Based Medicine)
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11 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Association between Bell’s Palsy and Cardiometabolic Risks: An Age- and Sex-Matched Case–Control Study
by Panitta Mueanchoo, Nualsakol Tepparak, Pensri Chongphattararot, Nannapat Pruphetkaew, Suwanna Setthawatcharawanich, Pat Korathanakhun, Thanyalak Amornpojnimman, Chutarat Sathirapanya and Pornchai Sathirapanya
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020197 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Background: Bell’s palsy is possibly an ischemic cranial neuropathy, although reactivation of herpes virus infection has been proposed. Methods: This was an age-and sex-matched and 1:2 case–control study enrolling Bell’s palsy patients during 2011–2021 in a university hospital to investigate the significant associations [...] Read more.
Background: Bell’s palsy is possibly an ischemic cranial neuropathy, although reactivation of herpes virus infection has been proposed. Methods: This was an age-and sex-matched and 1:2 case–control study enrolling Bell’s palsy patients during 2011–2021 in a university hospital to investigate the significant associations of cardiometabolic risks (CMRs) with Bell’s palsy. We analyzed the differences in waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and lipid levels at 12 weeks post-Bell’s palsy with those of the controls by descriptive statistics (p < 0.05). The differences in means or medians of individual CMR values across the consecutive 10-year age intervals were analyzed by ANOVA F-tests and Kruskal–Wallis tests (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 140 cases and 280 controls were enrolled. Bell’s palsy patients had significantly higher WC, BMI, SBP, DBP, FBS, and triglyceride but lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Moreover, high WC, elevated FBS (≥100 mg/dL), SBP (≥130 mmHg), and total cholesterol were significantly associated with Bell’s palsy cases by multivariable analysis. Only FBS in Bell’s palsy patients significantly elevated across consecutive 10-year age intervals. Conclusion: Screening and monitoring for CMRs, especially hyperglycemia, in every patient presenting with Bell’s palsy is essential despite initial normoglycemia, particularly in older-onset cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
12 pages, 995 KiB  
Review
The Role of Methanogenic Archaea in Inflammatory Bowel Disease—A Review
by Agata Anna Cisek, Edyta Szymańska, Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk and Bożena Cukrowska
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020196 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Methanogenic archaea are a part of the commensal gut microbiota responsible for hydrogen sink and the efficient production of short-chain fatty acids. Dysbiosis of methanogens is suspected to play a role in pathogenesis of variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Unlike [...] Read more.
Methanogenic archaea are a part of the commensal gut microbiota responsible for hydrogen sink and the efficient production of short-chain fatty acids. Dysbiosis of methanogens is suspected to play a role in pathogenesis of variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Unlike bacteria, the diversity of archaea seems to be higher in IBD patients compared to healthy subjects, whereas the prevalence and abundance of gut methanogens declines in IBD, especially in ulcerative colitis. To date, studies focusing on methanogens in pediatric IBD are very limited; nevertheless, the preliminary results provide some evidence that methanogens may be influenced by the chronic inflammatory process in IBD. In this review, we demonstrated the development and diversity of the methanogenic community in IBD, both in adults and children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Human Health)
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19 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Geriatric Population Triage: The Risk of Real-Life Over- and Under-Triage in an Overcrowded ED: 4- and 5-Level Triage Systems Compared: The CREONTE (Crowding and R E Organization National TriagE) Study
by Gabriele Savioli, Iride Francesca Ceresa, Maria Antonietta Bressan, Gaia Bavestrello Piccini, Viola Novelli, Sara Cutti, Giovanni Ricevuti, Ciro Esposito, Yaroslava Longhitano, Andrea Piccioni, Zoubir Boudi, Alessandro Venturi, Damiano Fuschi, Antonio Voza, Roberto Leo, Abdelouahab Bellou and Enrico Oddone
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020195 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Elderly patients, when they present to the emergency department (ED) or are admitted to the hospital, are at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as higher mortality and longer hospital stays. This is mainly due to their age and their increased fragility. In [...] Read more.
Elderly patients, when they present to the emergency department (ED) or are admitted to the hospital, are at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as higher mortality and longer hospital stays. This is mainly due to their age and their increased fragility. In order to minimize this already increased risk, adequate triage is of foremost importance for fragile geriatric (>75 years old) patients who present to the ED. The admissions of elderly patients from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2020 were examined, taking into consideration the presence of two different triage systems, a 4-level (4LT) and a 5-level (5LT) triage system. This study analyzes the difference in wait times and under- (UT) and over-triage (OT) in geriatric and general populations with two different triage models. Another outcome of this study was the analysis of the impact of crowding and its variables on the triage system during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 423,257 ED presentations were included. An increase in admissions of geriatric, more fragile, and seriously ill individuals was observed, and a progressive increase in crowding was simultaneously detected. Geriatric patients, when presenting to the emergency department, are subject to the problems of UT and OT in both a 4LT system and a 5LT system. Several indicators and variables of crowding increased, with a net increase in throughput and output factors, notably the length of stay (LOS), exit block, boarding, and processing times. This in turn led to an increase in wait times and an increase in UT in the geriatric population. It has indeed been shown that an increase in crowding results in an increased risk of UT, and this is especially true for 4LT compared to 5LT systems. When observing the pandemic period, an increase in admissions of older and more serious patients was observed. However, in the pandemic period, a general reduction in waiting times was observed, as well as an increase in crowding indices and intrahospital mortality. This study demonstrates how introducing a 5LT system enables better flow and patient care in an ED. Avoiding UT of geriatric patients, however, remains a challenge in EDs. Full article
13 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Influence of Tumor Stroma on the Aggressiveness of Poorly Cohesive Gastric Carcinoma
by Giorgio Malpeli, Federica Filippini, Fabrizio Tedone, Lorena Torroni, Mariella Alloggio, Claudia Castelli, Mariagiulia Dal Cero, Roberto Perris, Anna Tomezzoli, Giovanni De Manzoni and Maria Bencivenga
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020194 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Tumor-stroma crosstalk promotes the adaptation of cancer cells to the local microenvironment and sustains their growth. We assessed the quantitative and qualitative impact of intralesional stroma on clinic-pathological features and the prognosis of poorly cohesive gastric cancer (PCGC) variants. Tissue microarrays including 75 [...] Read more.
Tumor-stroma crosstalk promotes the adaptation of cancer cells to the local microenvironment and sustains their growth. We assessed the quantitative and qualitative impact of intralesional stroma on clinic-pathological features and the prognosis of poorly cohesive gastric cancer (PCGC) variants. Tissue microarrays including 75 PCGC specimens were immunostained for cytokeratin 8/18 and α-smooth muscle actin to assess the relative proportion of neoplastic cells versus stromal components and the cases were subsequently divided into stroma-rich (SR) and stroma-poor (SP) tumors. Stromal status is significantly associated with the depth of tumor invasion. Patient survival rate was found to be higher in the SP compared to the SR tumor group and, hence, abundant stroma was identified as a significant risk factor in univariable analysis but had no independent prognostic impact. We also investigated the mRNA levels of KRT8 and the associated transcriptional signatures using the molecular data of 82 PCGC cases divided into KRT8-high and KRT8-low groups. KRT8-high tumors were enriched in proteins localized in the extracellular compartment and their expression levels correlated with longer survival in the KRT8-high group and shorter overall survival in the KRT8-low group. Comprehensively, we find that relative intralesional stromal content is a marker of aggressiveness in PCGC tumors and that extracellular proteins characterize functionally and clinically different PCGC subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Disease Biomarker)
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12 pages, 1515 KiB  
Article
Only 26% of Native Knees Show an Identical Coronal Functional Knee Phenotype in the Contralateral Knee
by Manuel-Paul Sava, Alexandra Leica, Felix Amsler, Sotirios Leles and Michael T. Hirschmann
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020193 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Background: A comprehensive exploration evaluating left-to-right knee symmetry across all anatomical planes utilizing three-dimensional (3D) scans stands absent from the existing body of research. Therefore, the primary objectives of this investigation involved examining potential differences and resemblances in alignment and structure between left [...] Read more.
Background: A comprehensive exploration evaluating left-to-right knee symmetry across all anatomical planes utilizing three-dimensional (3D) scans stands absent from the existing body of research. Therefore, the primary objectives of this investigation involved examining potential differences and resemblances in alignment and structure between left and right non-osteoarthritic (native) knees in various planes (coronal, sagittal, and axial) using three-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Methods: A total of 282 native knees from 141 patients were retrospectively gathered from the hospital’s records. Patients, aged between 16 and 45, who underwent Tc99m-methyl diphosphonate SPECT/CT scans for both knees, adhering to the Imperial Knee Protocol, were included. A statistical analysis was conducted, including 23 knee morphometric parameters, comparing left and right knees, and classifying them based on functional knee phenotypes across the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes. Results: Regarding the functional coronal knee phenotype, 26% of patients (n = 37) exhibited identical phenotypes in both knees (p < 0.001). Significant correlated similarities between the left and right knees were observed in the coronal plane (Pearson’s r = 0.76, 0.68, 0.76, 0.76, p < 0.001) and in several morphometric measures in the sagittal plane (Pearson’s r = 0.92, 0.72, 0.64, p < 0.001). Moderately correlated similarities were noted in the axial plane (Pearson’s r = 0.43, 0.44, 0.43, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Only 26% of native knees exhibit an identical coronal phenotype in their contralateral knee, whereas 67% have the adjacent coronal phenotype. Strongly correlated resemblances were established across various left and right knee morphometric parameters in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes. These findings could enhance decisions in procedures like total knee arthroplasties or osteotomies, where alignment is key to outcomes, and reveal a potential for future artificial intelligence-driven models to improve our understanding and improve personalized treatment strategies for knee osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Regenerative Medicine and Therapeutics)
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21 pages, 2680 KiB  
Study Protocol
Exploring the Remediation of Behavioral Disturbances of Spatial Cognition in Community-Dwelling Senior Citizens with Mild Cognitive Impairment via Innovative Technological Apparatus (BDSC-MCI Project): Protocol for a Prospective, Multi-Center Observational Study
by Davide Maria Cammisuli, Cosimo Tuena, Giuseppe Riva, Claudia Repetto, Nikolai Axmacher, Varnan Chandreswaran, Valeria Isella, Simone Pomati, Stefano Zago, Teresa Difonzo, Giada Pavanello, Lorenzo Augusto Prete, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Alessandro Mauro, Stefania Cattaldo and Gianluca Castelnuovo
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020192 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Spatial navigation (SN) has been reported to be one of the first cognitive domains to be affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which occurs as a result of progressive neuropathology involving specific brain areas. Moreover, the epsilon 4 isoform of apolipoprotein-E (APOE-ε4) has been [...] Read more.
Spatial navigation (SN) has been reported to be one of the first cognitive domains to be affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which occurs as a result of progressive neuropathology involving specific brain areas. Moreover, the epsilon 4 isoform of apolipoprotein-E (APOE-ε4) has been associated with both sporadic and familial late-onset AD, and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD are more likely to progressively deteriorate. Spatial navigation performance will be examined on a sample of 76 community-dwelling senior citizens (25 healthy controls; 25 individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD); and 26 patients with MCI due to AD) via a virtual computer-based task (i.e., the AppleGame) and a naturalistic task (i.e., the Detour Navigation Test—modified version) for which a wearable device with sensors will be used for recording gait data and revealing physiological parameters that may be associated with spatial disorientation. We expect that patients with MCI due to AD and APOE-ε4 carriers will show altered SN performances compared to individuals with SCD and healthy controls in the experimental tasks, and that VR testing may predict ecological performance. Impaired SN performances in people at increased risk of developing AD may inform future cognitive rehabilitation protocols for counteracting spatial disorientation that may occur during elders’ traveling to unfamiliar locations. The research protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Istituto Auxologico Italiano. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals and discussed in national and international congresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Smart Healthcare: Technologies and Applications)
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12 pages, 5205 KiB  
Article
Novel PAX9 Mutations Causing Isolated Oligodontia
by Ye Ji Lee, Yejin Lee, Youn Jung Kim, Zang Hee Lee and Jung-Wook Kim
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020191 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Hypodontia, i.e., missing one or more teeth, is a relatively common human disease; however, oligodontia, i.e., missing six or more teeth, excluding the third molars, is a rare congenital disorder. Many genes have been shown to cause oligodontia in non-syndromic or syndromic conditions. [...] Read more.
Hypodontia, i.e., missing one or more teeth, is a relatively common human disease; however, oligodontia, i.e., missing six or more teeth, excluding the third molars, is a rare congenital disorder. Many genes have been shown to cause oligodontia in non-syndromic or syndromic conditions. In this study, we identified two novel PAX9 mutations in two non-syndromic oligodontia families. A mutational analysis identified a silent mutation (NM_006194.4: c.771G>A, p.(Gln257=)) in family 1 and a frameshift mutation caused by a single nucleotide duplication (c.637dup, p.(Asp213Glyfs*104)) in family 2. A minigene splicing assay revealed that the silent mutation resulted in aberrant pre-mRNA splicing instead of normal splicing. The altered splicing products are ones with an exon 4 deletion or using a cryptic 5’ splicing site in exon 4. Mutational effects were further investigated using protein expression, luciferase activity assay and immunolocalization. We believe this study will not only expand the mutational spectrum of PAX9 mutations in oligodontia but also strengthen the diagnostic power related to the identified silent mutation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
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14 pages, 1473 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Epidural Analgesia on Quality of Recovery (QoR) after Open Radical Nephrectomy: Randomized, Prospective, and Controlled Trial
by Ruben Kovač, Ivo Juginović, Nikola Delić, Ivan Velat, Hrvoje Vučemilović, Ivan Vuković, Verica Kozomara, Angela Lekić and Božidar Duplančić
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020190 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
No studies are currently evaluating the quality of recovery (QoR) after open radical nephrectomy (ORN) and epidural morphine analgesia. This was a randomized, prospective, and controlled study that explored the QoR on the first postoperative day after ORN. Eighty subjects were randomized into [...] Read more.
No studies are currently evaluating the quality of recovery (QoR) after open radical nephrectomy (ORN) and epidural morphine analgesia. This was a randomized, prospective, and controlled study that explored the QoR on the first postoperative day after ORN. Eighty subjects were randomized into two groups. The first group received general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural analgesia with morphine and ropivacaine. The second group received general anesthesia and continuous postoperative intravenous analgesia with tramadol. Both groups received multimodal analgesia with metamizole. The primary outcome measure was the total QoR-40 score. The secondary outcome measures were QoR-15, QoR-VAS, and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, anxiety, and nausea. The median difference in the QoR-40 score after 24 postoperative hours between the two groups of patients was 10 (95% CI: 15 to 5), p < 0.0001. The median score and IQR of QoR-40 during the first 24 postoperative hours in the epidural group was 180 (9.5), and in the control group, it was 170 (13). The general independence test for secondary outcomes between groups was significant (p < 0.01). QoR-VAS was correlated with QoR-40 (r = 0.63, p ≤ 0.001) and with QoR-15 (r = 0.54, p ≤ 0.001). The total QoR-40 and QoR-15 alpha coefficients with a 95% CI were 0.88 (0.85–0.92) and 0.73 (0.64–0.81), respectively. There was a significant difference in the QoR between the epidural and the control groups after ORN. The QoR-40 and QoR-15 showed good convergent validity and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Personalized Critical Care)
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