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J. Pers. Med., Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 184 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The exoskeleton enables individuals with spinal cord injury to stand upright, changing their mobility and health perspective. There have been a few attempts to identify the more appropriate brain and body signals needed to control robotic legs. This study aimed to highlight the role of homeostatic and interoceptive control in improving the reconstruction of one's own body experience with the exoskeleton. To ensure a personalized, user-centered exoskeleton, device acceptance is discussed, considering body signals and neuromodulation techniques. View this paper
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Article
Changes in Facial Profile after Modified Anterior Maxillary Subapical Osteotomy
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030508 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
(1) Background: This study explored the effects of modified anterior maxillary subapical osteotomy (AMSO) on facial profile changes in patients with bimaxillary protrusion. (2) Methods: Cephalograms of patients were collected preoperatively and over 2 months postoperatively. The following landmarks were recorded: pronasale (Prn), [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study explored the effects of modified anterior maxillary subapical osteotomy (AMSO) on facial profile changes in patients with bimaxillary protrusion. (2) Methods: Cephalograms of patients were collected preoperatively and over 2 months postoperatively. The following landmarks were recorded: pronasale (Prn), subnasale (Sn), labrale superius (Ls), anterior nasal spine (ANS), and incisor superius (Is). The following distances and angles were measured: ANS–Prn, ANS–Sn, ANS–Ls, Is–Sn, Is–Ls, SNA angle, and nasolabial (NLA) angle. (3) Results: Is and ANS were significantly retracted by 7.3 and 2.3 mm, respectively. Soft tissue landmarks (Prn, Sn, and Ls) were significantly retracted (1.2, 1.6, 4.4 mm, respectively). Postoperative changes in soft/hard tissue ratios were 0.54, 0.72, 0.31, and 0.60 for Prn/ANS, Sn/ANS, ANS/Is, and Ls/Is, respectively. The NLA angle was increased significantly by 7.1°. (4) Conclusions: The horizontal soft/hard tissue ratios of Sn/Is, ANS/Is, and Ls/Is were 0.22, 0.31, and 0.60, respectively. The NLA angle was increased significantly by 7.1°. The modified AMSO provides an increased blood supply, allows for direct vision, and results in fewer complications than other AMSO methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Systematic Review
Impact of Immunosuppressive Therapy on the Performance of Latent Tuberculosis Screening Tests in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030507 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is mandatory before commencing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor use. However, the impact of immunosuppressive therapy (IST), including corticosteroids and immunomodulators, on the performance of LTBI screening in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been [...] Read more.
Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is mandatory before commencing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor use. However, the impact of immunosuppressive therapy (IST), including corticosteroids and immunomodulators, on the performance of LTBI screening in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been fully elucidated. We searched all relevant studies published before November 2021 that examined the performance of interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) and tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) in patients with IBD who received IST, using the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. We performed meta-analyses of positive or indeterminate rates of IGRA or TST according to IST and calculated the concordance rates between IGRA and TST results. A total of 20 studies with 4045 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The IGRA-positive rate was lower in patients on IST than in those not on IST (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.55 (0.39–0.78)), whereas the IGRA-indeterminate rate was higher in patients on IST than in those not on IST (OR (95% CI) = 2.91 (1.36–6.24)). The TST-positive rate did not differ between the on-IST and not-on-IST groups (OR (95% CI) = 0.87 (0.51–1.50)). The concordance rate between IGRA and TST was 83.3% (95% CI, 78.5–88.1%). The IGRA-negative/TST-positive rate tended to be higher than that the IGRA-positive/TST-negative rate (9.5% vs. 5.8%, respectively), although the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, IGRA results were negatively affected by IST in patients with IBD, supporting requirements that IGRA should be performed before initiating IST. The use of both an IGRA and TST in patients with IBD on IST may improve the diagnosis rate of LTBI. Full article
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Communication
A Holistic Approach for the Identification of Success Factors in Secondary Cleft Osteoplasty
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030506 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Cleft lip and palate belong to the most frequent craniofacial anomalies. Secondary osteoplasty is usually performed between 7 and 11 years with the closure of the osseus defect by autologous bone. Due to widespread occurrence of the defect in conjunction with its social [...] Read more.
Cleft lip and palate belong to the most frequent craniofacial anomalies. Secondary osteoplasty is usually performed between 7 and 11 years with the closure of the osseus defect by autologous bone. Due to widespread occurrence of the defect in conjunction with its social significance due to possible esthetic impairments, the outcome of treatment is of substantial interest. The success of the treatment is determined by the precise rebuilding of the dental arch using autologous bone from the iliac crest. A detailed analysis of retrospective data disclosed a lack of essential and structured information to identify success factors for fast regeneration and specify the treatment. Moreover, according to the current status, no comparable process monitoring is possible during osteoplasty due to the lack of sensory systems. Therefore, a holistic approach was developed to determine the parameters for a successful treatment via the incorporation of patient data, the treatment sequences and sensor data gained by an attachable sensor module into a developed Dental Tech Space (DTS). This approach enables heterogeneous data sets to be linked inside of DTS, archiving and analysis, and is also for future considerations of respective patient-specific treatment plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine)
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Article
Individualized Biological Age as a Predictor of Disease: Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) Cohort
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030505 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Chronological age (CA) predicts health status but its impact on health varies with anthropometry, socioeconomic status (SES), and lifestyle behaviors. Biological age (BA) is, therefore, considered a more precise predictor of health status. We aimed to develop a BA prediction model from self-assessed [...] Read more.
Chronological age (CA) predicts health status but its impact on health varies with anthropometry, socioeconomic status (SES), and lifestyle behaviors. Biological age (BA) is, therefore, considered a more precise predictor of health status. We aimed to develop a BA prediction model from self-assessed risk factors and validate it as an indicator for predicting the risk of chronic disease. A total of 101,980 healthy participants from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included in this study. BA was computed based on body measurements, SES, lifestyle behaviors, and presence of comorbidities using elastic net regression analysis. The effects of BA on diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), combination of DM and HT, and chronic kidney disease were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. A younger BA was associated with a lower risk of DM (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.55–0.72), hypertension (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.68–0.81), and combination of DM and HT (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47–0.91). The largest risk of disease was seen in those with a BA higher than their CA. A consistent association was also observed within the 5-year follow-up. BA, therefore, is an effective tool for detecting high-risk groups and preventing further risk of chronic diseases through individual and population-level interventions. Full article
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Review
Reducing Tolerance for SABA and OCS towards the Extreme Ends of Asthma Severity
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030504 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory airway disease that imposes a great burden on public health worldwide. In the past two years, fundamental changes have been addressed in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommendations focusing mainly on the management of mild and [...] Read more.
Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory airway disease that imposes a great burden on public health worldwide. In the past two years, fundamental changes have been addressed in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommendations focusing mainly on the management of mild and severe asthma. The use of as-needed treatment containing inhaled corticosteroids plus fast-acting bronchodilators (either short or long-acting formoterol) in mild asthma has dominated the field, and both randomized and real-world studies favor such an approach and associate it with fewer exacerbations and good asthma control. At the same time, the effort to diminish the use of oral steroids (OCS) as maintenance treatment in severe asthma was substantially accomplished with the initiation of treatment with biologics. Still, these options are available at the moment only for severe asthmatics with a T2-high endotype, and relevant studies on biologics have yielded, as a primary outcome, the reduction or even cessation of OCS. Accordingly, OCS should be considered as a temporary option, mainly for the treatment of asthma exacerbations, and as a maintenance treatment only for a minority of patients with severe asthma, after ensuring good inhaler technique, modification of all possible contributory factors and comorbidities, and optimized pharmacotherapy using all other add-on treatments including biologics in the armamentarium of anti-asthma medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asthma: From Phenotypes to Personalized Medicine)
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Editorial
Special Issue: “Role of MicroRNA in Cancer Development and Treatment”
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030503 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Exposure to environmental contaminants may lead to changes in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), resulting in several health effects [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of MicroRNA in Cancer Development and Treatment)
Article
Human iPSC-Derived Retinal Organoids and Retinal Pigment Epithelium for Novel Intronic RPGR Variant Assessment for Therapy Suitability
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030502 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
The RPGR gene encodes Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator, a known interactor with ciliary proteins, which is involved in maintaining healthy photoreceptor cells. Variants in RPGR are the main contributor to X-linked rod-cone dystrophy (RCD), and RPGR gene therapy approaches are in clinical trials. [...] Read more.
The RPGR gene encodes Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator, a known interactor with ciliary proteins, which is involved in maintaining healthy photoreceptor cells. Variants in RPGR are the main contributor to X-linked rod-cone dystrophy (RCD), and RPGR gene therapy approaches are in clinical trials. Hence, elucidation of the pathogenicity of novel RPGR variants is important for a patient therapy opportunity. Here, we describe a novel intronic RPGR variant, c.1415 − 9A>G, in a patient with RCD, which was classified as a variant of uncertain significance according to current clinical diagnostic criteria. The variant lay several base pairs intronic to the canonical splice acceptor site, raising suspicion of an RPGR RNA splicing abnormality and consequent protein dysfunction. To investigate disease causation in an appropriate disease model, induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from patient fibroblasts and differentiated to retinal pigment epithelium (iPSC-RPE) and retinal organoids (iPSC-RO). Abnormal RNA splicing of RPGR was demonstrated in patient fibroblasts, iPSC-RPE and iPSC-ROs, leading to a predicted frameshift and premature stop codon. Decreased RPGR expression was demonstrated in these cell types, with a striking loss of RPGR localization at the ciliary transitional zone, critically in the photoreceptor cilium of the patient iPSC-ROs. Mislocalisation of rhodopsin staining was present in the patient’s iPSC-RO rod photoreceptor cells, along with an abnormality of L/M opsin staining affecting cone photoreceptor cells and increased photoreceptor apoptosis. Additionally, patient iPSC-ROs displayed an increase in F-actin expression that was consistent with an abnormal actin regulation phenotype. Collectively, these studies indicate that the splicing abnormality caused by the c.1415 − 9A>G variant has an impact on RPGR function. This work has enabled the reclassification of this variant to pathogenic, allowing the consideration of patients with this variant having access to gene therapy clinical trials. In addition, we have identified biomarkers of disease suitable for the interrogation of other RPGR variants of uncertain significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Gene Therapy Treatments for Inherited Retinal Diseases)
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Article
A Simple Algorithm Using Ventilator Parameters to Predict Successfully Rapid Weaning Program in Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030501 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Background: Ventilator weaning is one of the most significant challenges in the intensive care unit (ICU). Approximately 30% of patients fail to wean, resulting in prolonged use of ventilators and increased mortality. There are numerous high-performance prediction models available today, but they require [...] Read more.
Background: Ventilator weaning is one of the most significant challenges in the intensive care unit (ICU). Approximately 30% of patients fail to wean, resulting in prolonged use of ventilators and increased mortality. There are numerous high-performance prediction models available today, but they require a large number of parameters to predict and are thus impractical in clinical practice. Objectives: This study aims to create an artificial intelligence (AI) model for predicting weaning time and to identify the most simplified key predictors that will allow the model to achieve adequate accuracy with as few parameters as possible. Methods: This is a retrospective study of to-be-weaned patients (n = 1439) hospitalized in the cardiac ICU of Cheng Hsin General Hospital’s Department of Cardiac Surgery from November 2018 to August 2020. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether they could be weaned within 24 h (i.e., “patients weaned within 24 h” (n = 1042) and “patients not weaned within 24 h” (n = 397)). Twenty-eight variables were collected including demographic characteristics, arterial blood gas readings, and ventilation set parameters. We created a prediction model using logistic regression and compared it to other machine learning techniques such as decision tree, random forest, support vector machine (SVM), extreme gradient boosting, and artificial neural network. Forward, backward, and stepwise selection methods were used to identify significant variables, and the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of each AI model. Results: The SVM [receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) = 88%], logistic regression (ROC-AUC = 86%), and XGBoost (ROC-AUC = 85%) models outperformed the other five machine learning models in predicting weaning time. The accuracies in predicting patient weaning within 24 h using seven variables (i.e., expiratory minute ventilation, expiratory tidal volume, ventilation rate set, heart rate, peak pressure, pH, and age) were close to those using 28 variables. Conclusions: The model developed in this research successfully predicted the weaning success of ICU patients using a few and easily accessible parameters such as age. Therefore, it can be used in clinical practice to identify difficult-to-wean patients to improve their treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence Application in Health Care System)
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Review
Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter for Predicting Outcomes in Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030500 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
We aimed to identify the efficacy of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in predicting mortality and poor neurological outcomes (PNO) in post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) by the measurement time of outcomes. We conducted an extensive literature search in EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library, [...] Read more.
We aimed to identify the efficacy of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in predicting mortality and poor neurological outcomes (PNO) in post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) by the measurement time of outcomes. We conducted an extensive literature search in EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library, which included studies on the prognostic accuracy of ONSD in predicting PNO and mortality in PCAS by the measured time of outcomes. A total of 791 patients from nine studies were included. Increased ONSD was weakly associated with PNO by a high heterogeneity (standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval = 0.74 (0.22, 1.27); I2 = 87%). The analysis by the measurement time of PNO and mortality for ONSD had no significant difference due to insufficient articles or high heterogeneities. The prognostic accuracy of ONSD was 23.97 (pooled diagnostic odds ratio, I2 = 0%) and 0.94 (area under the curve) for short-term PNO. The pooled results showed low or very low quality and very low quality of evidence for PNO and mortality, respectively. ONSD measurement might be an effective predictor for short-term PNO in PCAS. An analysis by measurement time of outcomes showed no significant evidence for ONSD measurement effectiveness in predicting mortality and PNO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Emergency and Intensive Care)
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Review
Focus on Sex and Gender: What We Need to Know in the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030499 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, affecting mostly women with a female/male ratio of 3:1. It is characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis, leading to progressive joint damage. Sex differences have been reported in terms of disease course and characteristics, influencing patients reported [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, affecting mostly women with a female/male ratio of 3:1. It is characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis, leading to progressive joint damage. Sex differences have been reported in terms of disease course and characteristics, influencing patients reported outcome measures (PROMs) and pain perception, ultimately leading to male–female disparities in treatment response. Notwithstanding, sex and gender discrepancies are still under-reported in clinical trials. Therefore, there is a consistent need for a precise reference of sex and gender issues in RA studies to improve treat-to-target achievement. This narrative review explores the above-mentioned aspects of RA disease, discussing the latest core principles of RA recommendations, from safety issues to early arthritis concept and management, treat-to-target and difficult-to-treat notions, up to the most recent debate on vaccination. Our final purpose is to evaluate how sex and gender can impact current management guidelines and how this issue can be integrated for effective disease control. Full article
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Article
Women’s Experiences with Compliance with Pelvic Floor Home Exercise Therapy and Lifestyle Changes for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Symptoms: A Qualitative Study
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030498 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 620
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to investigate women’s experiences with compliance with prescribed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFMEs) and lifestyle changes 6–12 months after completing an individual pelvic floor physiotherapy program. This study was targeted to understanding factors affecting adherence to PFMEs and [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to investigate women’s experiences with compliance with prescribed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFMEs) and lifestyle changes 6–12 months after completing an individual pelvic floor physiotherapy program. This study was targeted to understanding factors affecting adherence to PFMEs and lifestyle changes to deal with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms. We designed this research as a descriptive qualitative study. We conducted this study from December 2016 to September 2017 in Madrid, Spain. Twenty-six women with symptomatic POP selected using a purposive sampling method participated in six focus groups and three one-to-one semi-structured interviews. Three authors coded and inductively analyzed transcript contents with iterative theme development. A thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) symptoms change; (2) PFMEs and lifestyle changes performance; and (3) a health practitioner–patient relationship. Women identified as adherent reported improvement in physical symptoms and emotional and general state as a result of the new knowledge achieved. Fear also promoted compliance with performing PFMEs and adopting lifestyle changes. Likewise, PFMEs preference and routine, integration of PFMEs and lifestyle changes into activities of daily living, support guides, therapeutic alliance, individual supervision, follow-up, and feedback were also identified as adherence facilitators. One of the biggest barriers that we identified was responsibility. Compliance with prescribed PFMEs and lifestyle changes can be improved with effective individual, women-centered, and supervised physiotherapy programs reducing symptoms, including exercises aligned with women’s preferences that are easy to integrate in daily living, promoting knowledge and awareness of their condition, providing written or electronic guidelines, with routine follow-up visits offering both positive feedback and clear and consistent messages, and enhancing therapeutic alliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nursing and Health Care)
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Case Report
A Telerehabilitation Approach to Chronic Facial Paralysis in the COVID-19 Pandemic Scenario: What Role for Electromyography Assessment?
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030497 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
There is a lack of data on patient and diagnostic factors for prognostication of complete recovery in patients with peripheral facial palsy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a telerehabilitave enhancement through the description of a case [...] Read more.
There is a lack of data on patient and diagnostic factors for prognostication of complete recovery in patients with peripheral facial palsy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a telerehabilitave enhancement through the description of a case report with the use of short-wave diathermy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined to facial proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) rehabilitation in unrecovered facial palsy, in a COVID-19 pandemic scenario describing a paradigmatic telerehabilitation report. A 43-year-old woman underwent a facial rehabilitation plan consisting of a synergistic treatment with facial PNF rehabilitation, short-wave diathermy, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (12 sessions lasting 45 min, three sessions/week for 4 weeks). Concerning the surface electromyography evaluation of frontal and orbicularis oris muscles, the calculated ratio between amplitude of the palsy side and normal side showed an improvement in terms of movement symmetry. At the end of the outpatient treatment, a daily telerehabilitation protocol with video and teleconsultation was provided, showing a further improvement in the functioning of a woman suffering from unresolved facial paralysis. Therefore, an adequate telerehabilitation follow-up seems to play a fundamental role in the management of patients with facial palsy. Full article
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Article
Is the TOAST Classification Suitable for Use in Personalized Medicine in Ischemic Stroke?
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030496 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Pathophysiologic classification of ischemic stroke is essential to a personalized approach to stroke treatment. The Trial of Org 101072 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification is the most frequently used tool to classify index ischemic strokes. We aimed to assess presence of small [...] Read more.
Pathophysiologic classification of ischemic stroke is essential to a personalized approach to stroke treatment. The Trial of Org 101072 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification is the most frequently used tool to classify index ischemic strokes. We aimed to assess presence of small and large vessel disease markers across the TOAST groups. In an observational study, 99 ischemic stroke patients were consecutively included and classified according to TOAST. The assessment was supplemented with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) score, based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests for carotid atherosclerosis, ankle–brachial index (ABI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and peripheral reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Markers of small and large vessel disease were present in all TOAST groups. Carotid stenosis and atrial fibrillation were associated with their respective TOAST groups (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). We found no association between the SVD score and the small vessel occlusion TOAST group (p = 0.59), and carotid atherosclerosis (p = 0.35), RHI (p = 0.39), ABI (p = 0.20), and eGFR (p = 0.79) were not associated with TOAST groups. The TOAST classification does not provide differential information on the pathophysiologies of the ischemic stroke. An operational classification that contains quantification of each vascular pathophysiology in the individual patient is pivotal for future research and development of personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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Article
Comparison of the Results of Therapy for cT1 Renal Carcinoma with Nephron-Sparing Surgery (NSS) vs. Percutaneous Thermal Ablation (TA)
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030495 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Implementation of ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into abdominal cavity diagnostics enabled early detection of cT1 graded renal cancers. According to European Association of Urology (EAU) and Polish urological Association (PUA) recommended method of treatment is sparing resection [...] Read more.
Implementation of ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into abdominal cavity diagnostics enabled early detection of cT1 graded renal cancers. According to European Association of Urology (EAU) and Polish urological Association (PUA) recommended method of treatment is sparing resection of renal parenchyma with tumour—nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). In selected cases other methods such as thermal ablation (TA) or cryoablation can be introduced /1/. Objectives: To evaluate the results of treatment of cT1 renal tumours with the use of NSS and TA methods. Material and methods: 140 patients with cT1 renal carcinoma were treated in 2nd Department of Urology of Medical University of Lodz between 2014 and 2017. Neuron-sparing surgery was performed in 56 cases (40%), while percutane-ous thermal ablation (TA) in 84 cases (60%). Demographic data, clinical data (lab results, Charlson index), nephrometry data (tumour size, location, R.E.N.A.L. score) post-operative data (Clavien-Dindo classifica-tion) were investigated. Histopathology results, Fuhrman malignancy grading, as total three-year survival of patients were evaluated. The following methods were used for statistical evaluation: Chi2, Fisher, W Shapiro-Wilk, U Mann-Whitney tests, Kaplan-Meier’s curve and Cox model. The results were displayed in a form of median and upper and lower quartile values (25–75%). Results: No statistical differences in gender nor left/right kidney location were observed. Patients, who underwent TA were at average 10 years older and had multiple comorbidities (median age for TA was 79, for NSS 68; median Charlson index for TA was 5 and for NSS was 3). TA patients had lesser haematological values (Hb, Ht). R.E.N.A.L. scoring demonstrated comparable nephrometry in both groups. NSS procedure was open laparotomy without temporary clamping of renal vessels. Surgical margins of resected tumours were negative. TA was performed with Cool-Tip Covidienequipment with the use of Cluster electrode and was ultraso-nography-guided. Post-treatment complications evaluated with the use of Clavien-Dindo classification were slightly more frequent for NSS method. Patients after NSS were discharged at average after 8.5 days and after TA after 3 days. Histopathological type and Fuhrman malignancy grading were comparable in both groups. TA treated patients’ death risk was 9-fold of that observed in NSS treated patients. There was 1 death for each group in perioperative period. Conclusion: 1. NSS was associated with slightly higher side effect rate but resulted in prolonged survival. 2. TA was applied to elderly patients with comorbidities. Despite less invasive treatment this group had poorer/reduced survival. 3. Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the treatment method were relevant survival factors in patients treated due to cT1 renal cancer tumours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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Article
Neoexpression of JUNO in Oral Tumors Is Accompanied with the Complete Suppression of Four Other Genes and Suggests the Application of New Biomarker Tools
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030494 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Background. Our study describes the neoexpression (Juno) and suppression (catsperD, dysferlin, Fer1L5 and otoferlin) of selected genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). As the expression pattern of these genes allows a “yes” or “no” statement by exhibiting an inverse expression pattern in [...] Read more.
Background. Our study describes the neoexpression (Juno) and suppression (catsperD, dysferlin, Fer1L5 and otoferlin) of selected genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). As the expression pattern of these genes allows a “yes” or “no” statement by exhibiting an inverse expression pattern in malignant versus benign tissues, they represent potential biomarkers for the characterization of oral malignancies, particularly OSCCs. Methods. Differential expression analyses of selected genes of interest were examined by quantitative PCR of oral cancer tissues compared to normal. Results. Five candidates out of initially nine genes were examined, demonstrating Juno as a putative new tumor marker selectively expressed in OSCCs. Interestingly, the expression of four other genes in benign tissues was completely repressed in tumor tissues with a specificity and sensitivity of 100%. No correlation was observed regarding patients’ sex, tumor staging and grading, and tumor site. Conclusion. The present study shows novel candidates that might be useful tools for oral cancer diagnosis. The neoexpression of Juno in cancerous tissues makes it a promising target molecule regarding its potential in diagnosis as well a therapeutic tool. Moreover, our observations suggest that also the repression of gene expression can be used for diagnosing—at least—OSCCs. Full article
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Article
Poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) Micelle of Photosensitizers for Targeted Photodynamic Therapy, Exhibits Prolonged Singlet Oxygen Generating Capacity and Superior Intracellular Uptake
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030493 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Targeted therapy by using nanomedicines based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is becoming a promising anticancer strategy. Many nano-designed photosensitizers (PSs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been developed which show superior therapeutic potentials than free PS. To further understand the [...] Read more.
Targeted therapy by using nanomedicines based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is becoming a promising anticancer strategy. Many nano-designed photosensitizers (PSs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been developed which show superior therapeutic potentials than free PS. To further understand the advantages of nano-designed PS, in this study, we used styrene-co-maleyl telomer (SMA) as a polymer platform to prepare a micellar type of PS with two well-characterized PSs—rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB)—and evaluated the outmatching benefits of SMA-PS micelles, especially focusing on the singlet oxygen (1O2) generation capacity and intracellular uptake profiles. In aqueous solutions, SMA-PS self-assembles to form micelles by non-covalent interactions between PS and SMA. SMA-PS micelles showed discrete distributions by dynamic light scattering having a mean particle size of 18–30 nm depending on the types of SMA and different PSs. The hydrodynamic size of SMA-PS was evaluated by Sephadex chromatography and it found to be 30–50 kDa. In the presence of human serum albumin, the sizes of SMA-PS remarkably increased, suggesting the albumin-binding property. 1O2 generation from the SMA-PS micelle was determined by electron spin resonance, in which the SMA-PS micelle showed comparatively more photo-stable, and consequently a more durable and constant, 1O2 generation capability than free PS. Moreover, intracellular uptake of SMA-PS micelles was extensively faster and higher than free PS, especially in tumor cells. Taken together, SMA-PS micelles appear highly advantageous for photodynamic therapy in addition to its capacity in utilizing the EPR effect for tumor targeted delivery. Full article
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Article
The Role of Preoperative Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor for Incisional Hernias after Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Liver Surgery for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030492 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
(1) Background: Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for liver resection is a globally established technique. In this study, we report on the incidence and risk factors for postoperative incisional hernia (IH) after hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for colorectal liver metastasis. (2) Methods: This was retrospective analysis [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for liver resection is a globally established technique. In this study, we report on the incidence and risk factors for postoperative incisional hernia (IH) after hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for colorectal liver metastasis. (2) Methods: This was retrospective analysis of 89 consecutive hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for colorectal liver metastasis. (3) Results: Participants were 39 females and 50 males. Median age was 65 years, and in 63%, the BMI was ≥25. Postoperative complications were encountered in 18% of the patients. Seven patients (7.8%) had postoperative incisional hernia in the hand port site. There was significantly higher incidence of incisional hernia in overweight patients (BMI ≥ 25) (p = 0.04), and in cases with simultaneous liver and colon resection (p = 0.02). In univariant and multivariant analyses, simultaneous liver and colon resection (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio ≤ 200 (p = 0.03, 0.04, respectively) were both independent risk factors for developing postoperative incisional hernia. (4) Conclusions: Both simultaneous liver and colon resection, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio ≤ 200 are independent risk factors for postoperative incisional hernia after hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for colorectal liver metastasis. Full article
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Article
Physical Activity Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures in Osteoporosis: A Longitudinal Study
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030491 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The purpose of our study was to examine the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures (fxs) according to the level of physical activity (PA) among osteoporosis using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) customized database. From NHIS data from 2009 to 2017, osteoporosis was [...] Read more.
The purpose of our study was to examine the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures (fxs) according to the level of physical activity (PA) among osteoporosis using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) customized database. From NHIS data from 2009 to 2017, osteoporosis was selected as requested. PA was classified into ‘high PA’ (n = 58,620), ‘moderate PA’ (n = 58,620), and ‘low PA’ (n = 58,620) and were matched in a 1:1:1 ratio by gender, age, income within the household unit, and region of residence. A stratified Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for each type of fx comparing PA groups. The ‘low PA’ group was the reference group. For vertebral fx, the adjusted HR (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) was 0.27 (0.26–0.28) for the ‘high PA’ group and 0.43 (0.42–0.44) for the ‘moderate PA’ group. For hip fx, the adjusted HR (95% CIs) was 0.37 (0.34–0.40) for the ‘high PA’ group and 0.51 (0.47–0.55) for the ‘moderate PA’ group. For distal radius fx, the adjusted HR (95% CIs) was 0.32 (0.30–0.33) for the ‘high PA’ group and 0.46 (0.45–0.48) for the ‘moderate PA’ group. The results of this study suggest that a higher intensity of PA is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic fxs, including vertebral fx, hip fx, and distal radius fx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-communicable Diseases, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence)
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Article
Effects of Artificial Extraoral Markers on Accuracy of Three-Dimensional Dentofacial Image Integration: Smartphone Face Scan versus Stereophotogrammetry
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030490 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) facial scanning has been gaining popularity in personalized dentistry. Integration of the digital dental model into the 3D facial image allows for a treatment plan to be made in accordance with the patients’ individual needs. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) facial scanning has been gaining popularity in personalized dentistry. Integration of the digital dental model into the 3D facial image allows for a treatment plan to be made in accordance with the patients’ individual needs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of extraoral markers on the accuracy of digital dentofacial integrations. Facial models were generated using smartphone and stereophotogrammetry. Dental models were generated with and without extraoral markers and were registered to the facial models by matching the teeth or markers (n = 10 in each condition; total = 40). Accuracy of the image integration was measured in terms of general 3D position, occlusal plane, and dental midline deviations. The Mann–Whitney U test and two-way analysis of variance were used to compare results among face-scanning systems and matching methods (α = 0.05). As result, the accuracy of dentofacial registration was significantly affected by the use of artificial markers and different face-scanning systems (p < 0.001). The deviations were smallest in stereophotogrammetry with the marker-based matching and highest in smartphone face scans with the tooth-based matching. In comparison between the two face-scanning systems, the stereophotogrammetry generally produced smaller discrepancies than smartphones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine)
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Article
Whole Exome Sequencing in Healthy Individuals of Extreme Constitution Types Reveals Differential Disease Risk: A Novel Approach towards Predictive Medicine
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030489 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Precision medicine aims to move from traditional reactive medicine to a system where risk groups can be identified before the disease occurs. However, phenotypic heterogeneity amongst the diseased and healthy poses a major challenge for identification markers for risk stratification and early actionable [...] Read more.
Precision medicine aims to move from traditional reactive medicine to a system where risk groups can be identified before the disease occurs. However, phenotypic heterogeneity amongst the diseased and healthy poses a major challenge for identification markers for risk stratification and early actionable interventions. In Ayurveda, individuals are phenotypically stratified into seven constitution types based on multisystem phenotypes termed “Prakriti”. It enables the prediction of health and disease trajectories and the selection of health interventions. We hypothesize that exome sequencing in healthy individuals of phenotypically homogeneous Prakriti types might enable the identification of functional variations associated with the constitution types. Exomes of 144 healthy Prakriti stratified individuals and controls from two genetically homogeneous cohorts (north and western India) revealed differential risk for diseases/traits like metabolic disorders, liver diseases, and body and hematological measurements amongst healthy individuals. These SNPs differ significantly from the Indo-European background control as well. Amongst these we highlight novel SNPs rs304447 (IFIT5) and rs941590 (SERPINA10) that could explain differential trajectories for immune response, bleeding or thrombosis. Our method demonstrates the requirement of a relatively smaller sample size for a well powered study. This study highlights the potential of integrating a unique phenotyping approach for the identification of predictive markers and the at-risk population amongst the healthy. Full article
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Article
Role of Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism on Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Swallowing
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030488 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the latest post-stroke dysphagia treatment modalities, and the effect of tDCS is known to be affected by various factors including genetic polymorphisms. However, the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms on tDCS in swallowing is unclear. [...] Read more.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the latest post-stroke dysphagia treatment modalities, and the effect of tDCS is known to be affected by various factors including genetic polymorphisms. However, the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms on tDCS in swallowing is unclear. In this prospective pilot study, we aim to explore the effect of tDCS on the swallowing cortex and subsequent swallowing motor function according to COMT polymorphism. Twenty-four healthy participants received either anodal tDCS or sham mode tDCS on the mylohyoid motor cortex at random order, after inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for preconditioning. The primary outcome was the changes of mylohyoid-motor-evoked potentials (MH-MEP) amplitude in each COMT polymorphism group, from the post-inhibitory rTMS baseline state to immediate, 30, and 60 min after tDCS. The secondary outcomes were the changes in swallowing function. The results showed that COMT Val/Val polymorphism showed improvement across time in the MH-MEP amplitudes and triggering time of swallowing after tDCS, whereas COMT Met carrier group did not show significant changes of MH-MEP or swallowing function across time. This therapeutic response variability of tDCS in the mylohyoid motor system according to COMT polymorphism support the importance of genetic analysis in individualized dysphagia treatment. Full article
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Article
Relation of the ‘Atrial Fibrillation Better Care (ABC) Pathway’ to the Quality of Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Taking Vitamin K Antagonists
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030487 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 559
Abstract
The Atrial Fibrillation Better Care (ABC) pathway was proposed for a more integrated atrial fibrillation (AF) care. We investigated if adherence to the ABC pathway was associated to the quality of anticoagulation control in a cohort of AF outpatients starting vitamin K antagonists [...] Read more.
The Atrial Fibrillation Better Care (ABC) pathway was proposed for a more integrated atrial fibrillation (AF) care. We investigated if adherence to the ABC pathway was associated to the quality of anticoagulation control in a cohort of AF outpatients starting vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) between July 2016 and June 2018. Patients were considered adherent to the ABC pathway if they met all of its components. The time in therapeutic range (TTR) was estimated at one year. In total, 1045 patients (51.6% female; median age 77 years; 63% ABC pathway adherent) were included. At one year, 474 (51.6%) of 919 patients with international normalized ratio (INR) data for TTR estimation had a TTR < 65%. Among ABC pathway non-adherent patients, a greater proportion had TRT < 65% (56.4% vs. 43.6%, p = 0.025), and TTR < 70% (64.9% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.033), with lower mean TTR in non-adherent patients (59.4 ± 22.3% vs. 63.9 ± 21.1%; p = 0.004). Logistic regression models demonstrated that the ABC pathway adherence in its continuous (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.59–0.96) and categorical (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.57–0.98) forms was independently associated with TTR ≥ 65%. In this ‘real-world’ cohort of AF patients starting VKAs, the ABC pathway adherent patients had better TTR, and more ABC criteria fulfilled increased the probability of achieving good TTR. Full article
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Article
Depression, Insomnia and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in COVID-19 Survivors: Role of Gender and Impact on Quality of Life
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030486 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
Evidence to date suggests that a significant proportion of COVID-19 patients experience adverse psychological outcomes and neuropsychiatric complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent hospitalization on the mental health, sleep, and quality of life [...] Read more.
Evidence to date suggests that a significant proportion of COVID-19 patients experience adverse psychological outcomes and neuropsychiatric complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent hospitalization on the mental health, sleep, and quality of life of COVID-19 survivors. Patients were assessed 1–2 months after hospital discharge using standardized screening tools for depression and anxiety (HADS), post-traumatic stress disorder (IES-R), insomnia (AIS), and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, disease severity and type of hospitalization were also collected. Amongst the 143 patients included, mental health symptoms were common (depression—19%; anxiety—27%; traumatic stress—39%; insomnia—33%) and more frequently reported in female than in male patients. Age, smoking status, comorbidities and illness severity were not found to significantly correlate with the presence of mood, sleep, or stress disorders. Finally, quality of life was worse for patients requiring ICU (p = 0.0057) or a longer hospital stay (p < 0.001) but was unaffected by factors such as sex and other measured outcomes. These findings highlight the need for appropriate intervention to properly manage the immediate and enduring mental health complications of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine for Covid-19 Patients-Clinical Considerations)
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Article
Normal Lung Tissue CT Density Changes after Volumetric-Arc Radiotherapy (VMAT) for Lung Cancer
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030485 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Radiation-induced lung injury remains a significant toxicity in thoracic radiotherapy. Because a precise diagnosis is difficult and commonly used assessment scales are unclear and subjective, there is a need to establish quantitative and sensitive grading methods. The lung tissue density change expressed in [...] Read more.
Radiation-induced lung injury remains a significant toxicity in thoracic radiotherapy. Because a precise diagnosis is difficult and commonly used assessment scales are unclear and subjective, there is a need to establish quantitative and sensitive grading methods. The lung tissue density change expressed in Hounsfield units (HUs) derived from CT scans seems a useful numeric surrogate. The study aimed to confirm a dose-response effect on HU value changes (ΔHU), their evolution in time, and the impact of selected clinical and demographic factors. We used dedicated, self-developed software to register and analyze 120 pairs of initial and follow-up CT scans of 47 lung cancer patients treated with dynamic arc radiotherapy. The differences in HU values between CT scans were calculated within discretized dose-bins limited by isodose lines. We have proved the dose-effect relationship, which is well described with a sigmoid model. We found the time evolution of HU changes to suit a typical clinical presentation of radiation-induced toxicity. Some clinical factors were found to correlate with ΔHU degree: planning target volume (PTV), V35 in the lung, patient’s age and a history of arterial hypertension, and initial lung ventilation intensity. Lung density change assessment turned out to be a sensitive and valuable method of grading post-RT lung toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Radiotherapy)
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Article
Daratumumab in AL Amyloidosis: A Real-Life Experience of the “RTM” (Regional Tuscan Myeloma Network)
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030484 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Systemic amyloidosis arises from monoclonal CD38+ plasma cells that produce misfolded immunoglobulin light chains, which form amyloid fibrils that are deposited into different tissues, leading to organ damage. Daratumumab is a human IgG/k monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, a glycoprotein uniformly expressed on [...] Read more.
Systemic amyloidosis arises from monoclonal CD38+ plasma cells that produce misfolded immunoglobulin light chains, which form amyloid fibrils that are deposited into different tissues, leading to organ damage. Daratumumab is a human IgG/k monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, a glycoprotein uniformly expressed on human plasma cells. Daratumumab has been utilized in recent years with unprecedented responses in multiple myeloma. In patients with relapsed or refractory AL amyloidosis, daratumumab has shown promising efficacy in terms of hematologic responses and improvement in organ function. Here, we report real-life treatment with Daratumumab in 33 AL amyloidosis patients treated within the Regional Tuscan Myeloma network at 5 centers with associated MGUS or SMM (n = 15) or symptomatic MM (n = 18). Patients were treated at relapsed/refractory disease stages (n = 29) with a median of one previous line of therapy or at diagnosis (n = 4). Daratumumab showed good efficacy, representing 60% of good hematological responses and 50% of organ responses in a real-life population of patients with an acceptable toxicity profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Targeted Therapy for Multiple Myeloma)
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Review
Dental and Skeletal Side Effects of Oral Appliances Used for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring in Adult Patients—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030483 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Background: Mandibular advancement devices for obstructive sleep apnea treatment are becoming increasingly popular among patients who do not prefer CPAP devices or surgery. Our study aims to evaluate the literature regarding potential dental and skeletal side effects caused by mandibular advancement appliances used [...] Read more.
Background: Mandibular advancement devices for obstructive sleep apnea treatment are becoming increasingly popular among patients who do not prefer CPAP devices or surgery. Our study aims to evaluate the literature regarding potential dental and skeletal side effects caused by mandibular advancement appliances used for adult OSA treatment. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for published and unpublished literature along with the reference lists of the eligible studies. Randomized clinical trials and non-randomized trials assessing dental and skeletal changes by comparing cephalometric radiographs were selected. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed individually and in duplicate. Fourteen articles were finally selected (two randomized clinical trials and 12 non-randomized trials). Results: The results suggest that mandibular advancement devices used for OSA treatment increase the lower incisor proclination by 1.54 ± 0.16°, decrease overjet by 0.89 ± 0.04 mm and overbite by 0.68 ± 0.04 mm, rotate the mandible downward and forward, and increase the SNA angle by to 0.06 ± 0.03°. The meta-analysis revealed high statistical heterogeneity. Conclusions: The MADs affect the lower incisor proclination, overjet, overbite, the rotation of the mandible and the SNA angle. More randomized clinical trials providing high-quality evidence are needed to support those findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory and Critical Care)
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Article
Intraoperative Blood Flow Analysis of DIEP vs. ms-TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction Combining Transit-Time Flowmetry and Microvascular Indocyanine Green Angiography
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030482 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Background: Vascular patency is the key element for high flap survival rates. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the blood flow characteristics of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (ms-TRAM) flaps for autologous breast [...] Read more.
Background: Vascular patency is the key element for high flap survival rates. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the blood flow characteristics of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (ms-TRAM) flaps for autologous breast reconstruction. Methods: This prospective clinical study combined Transit-Time Flowmetry and microvascular Indocyanine Green Angiography for the measurement of blood flow volume, vascular resistance, and intrinsic transit time. Results: Twenty female patients (mean age, 52 years) received 24 free flaps (14 DIEP and 10 ms-TRAM flaps). The mean arterial blood flow of the flap in situ was 7.2 ± 1.9 mL/min in DIEP flaps and 11.5 ± 4.8 mL/min in ms-TRAM flaps (p < 0.05). After anastomosis, the mean arterial blood flow was 9.7 ± 5.6 mL/min in DIEP flaps and 13.5 ± 4.2 mL/min in ms-TRAM flaps (p = 0.07). The arterial vascular resistance of DIEP flaps was significantly higher than that of ms-TRAM flaps. The intrinsic transit time of DIEP flaps was 52 ± 18 s, and that of ms-TRAM flaps was 33 ± 11 s (p < 0.05). The flap survival rate was 100%. One DIEP flap with the highest intrinsic transit time (77 s) required surgical revision due to arterial thrombosis. Conclusion: In this study, we established the blood flow characteristics of free DIEP and ms-TRAM flaps showing different blood flow rates, vascular resistances, and intrinsic transit times. These standard values will help to determine the predictive values for vascular compromise, hence improving the safety of autologous breast reconstruction procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Personalized Medicine)
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Review
Effectiveness of Digital Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Young People: Preliminary Findings from Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030481 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Various forms of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) have been developed to improve its scalability and accessibility for insomnia management in young people, but the efficacy of digitally-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (dCBT-i) remains uncertain. This study systematically reviewed and evaluated [...] Read more.
Various forms of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) have been developed to improve its scalability and accessibility for insomnia management in young people, but the efficacy of digitally-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (dCBT-i) remains uncertain. This study systematically reviewed and evaluated the effectiveness of dCBT-i among young individuals with insomnia. We conducted comprehensive searches using four electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Embase; until October 2021) and examined eligible records. The search strategy comprised the following three main concepts: (1) participants were adolescents or active college students; (2) dCBT-I was employed; (3) standardized tools were used for outcome measurement. Four randomized controlled trials qualified for meta-analysis. A significant improvement in self-reported sleep quality with a medium-to-large effect size after treatment (Hedges’s g = −0.58~−0.80) was noted. However, a limited effect was detected regarding objective sleep quality improvement (total sleep time and sleep efficiency measured using actigraphy). These preliminary findings from the meta-analysis suggest that dCBT-i is a moderately effective treatment in managing insomnia in younger age groups, and CBT-i delivered through the web or a mobile application is an acceptable approach for promoting sleep health in young people. Full article
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Review
Towards Machine Learning-Aided Lung Cancer Clinical Routines: Approaches and Open Challenges
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030480 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Advancements in the development of computer-aided decision (CAD) systems for clinical routines provide unquestionable benefits in connecting human medical expertise with machine intelligence, to achieve better quality healthcare. Considering the large number of incidences and mortality numbers associated with lung cancer, there is [...] Read more.
Advancements in the development of computer-aided decision (CAD) systems for clinical routines provide unquestionable benefits in connecting human medical expertise with machine intelligence, to achieve better quality healthcare. Considering the large number of incidences and mortality numbers associated with lung cancer, there is a need for the most accurate clinical procedures; thus, the possibility of using artificial intelligence (AI) tools for decision support is becoming a closer reality. At any stage of the lung cancer clinical pathway, specific obstacles are identified and “motivate” the application of innovative AI solutions. This work provides a comprehensive review of the most recent research dedicated toward the development of CAD tools using computed tomography images for lung cancer-related tasks. We discuss the major challenges and provide critical perspectives on future directions. Although we focus on lung cancer in this review, we also provide a more clear definition of the path used to integrate AI in healthcare, emphasizing fundamental research points that are crucial for overcoming current barriers. Full article
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Article
Evolution of Protein Functional Annotation: Text Mining Study
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030479 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Within the Human Proteome Project initiative framework for creating functional annotations of uPE1 proteins, the neXt-CP50 Challenge was launched in 2018. In analogy with the missing-protein challenge, each command deciphers the functional features of the proteins in the chromosome-centric mode. However, the neXt-CP50 [...] Read more.
Within the Human Proteome Project initiative framework for creating functional annotations of uPE1 proteins, the neXt-CP50 Challenge was launched in 2018. In analogy with the missing-protein challenge, each command deciphers the functional features of the proteins in the chromosome-centric mode. However, the neXt-CP50 Challenge is more complicated than the missing-protein challenge: the approaches and methods for solving the problem are clear, but neither the concept of protein function nor specific experimental and/or bioinformatics protocols have been standardized to address it. We proposed using a retrospective analysis of the key HPP repository, the neXtProt database, to identify the most frequently used experimental and bioinformatic methods for analyzing protein functions, and the dynamics of accumulation of functional annotations. It has been shown that the dynamics of the increase in the number of proteins with known functions are greater than the progress made in the experimental confirmation of the existence of questionable proteins in the framework of the missing-protein challenge. At the same time, the functional annotation is based on the guilty-by-association postulate, according to which, based on large-scale experiments on API-MS and Y2H, proteins with unknown functions are most likely mapped through “handshakes” to biochemical processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Bioinformatics in Precision Medicine)
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