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Land, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 59 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The boreal forests of Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula have experienced significant land-cover change over the past half century including deforestation (loss of established forest), afforestation (conversion of historically non-forested areas to forest), and reforestation (re-establishment of historical forests). To detect and quantify these land cover changes, we produced a spatially explicit time series of land cover types and transitions. Our approach aims to extend the geospatial record of land-cover change and to better quantify how disturbance events and natural succession have shaped the distribution of vegetation types across the peninsula. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Challenging a Global Land Surface Model in a Local Socio-Environmental System
Land 2020, 9(10), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100398 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Land surface models (LSMs) predict how terrestrial fluxes of carbon, water, and energy change with abiotic drivers to inform the other components of Earth system models. Here, we focus on a single human-dominated watershed in southwestern Michigan, USA. We compare multiple processes in [...] Read more.
Land surface models (LSMs) predict how terrestrial fluxes of carbon, water, and energy change with abiotic drivers to inform the other components of Earth system models. Here, we focus on a single human-dominated watershed in southwestern Michigan, USA. We compare multiple processes in a commonly used LSM, the Community Land Model (CLM), to observational data at the single grid cell scale. For model inputs, we show correlations (Pearson’s R) ranging from 0.46 to 0.81 for annual temperature and precipitation, but a substantial mismatch between land cover distributions and their changes over time, with CLM correctly representing total agricultural area, but assuming large areas of natural grasslands where forests grow in reality. For CLM processes (outputs), seasonal changes in leaf area index (LAI; phenology) do not track satellite estimates well, and peak LAI in CLM is nearly double the satellite record (5.1 versus 2.8). Estimates of greenness and productivity, however, are more similar between CLM and observations. Summer soil moisture tracks in timing but not magnitude. Land surface reflectance (albedo) shows significant positive correlations in the winter, but not in the summer. Looking forward, key areas for model improvement include land cover distribution estimates, phenology algorithms, summertime radiative transfer modelling, and plant stress responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Landscape Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Variation in Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil
Land 2020, 9(10), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100397 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 479
Abstract
In the past decades, sugarcane production in Brazil has expanded rapidly to meet increasing ethanol demand. The large majority of this expansion occurred in Sao Paulo state. We used an integrated approach considering location-specific biophysical characteristics to determine the environmental impacts of sugarcane [...] Read more.
In the past decades, sugarcane production in Brazil has expanded rapidly to meet increasing ethanol demand. The large majority of this expansion occurred in Sao Paulo state. We used an integrated approach considering location-specific biophysical characteristics to determine the environmental impacts of sugarcane expansion and their spatial variation in Sao Paulo state (2004–2015). The included environmental impacts are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity, soil erosion, and water quantity. All impacts were integrated into a single environmental performance index to determine trade-offs between impacts. Our results show a strong spatial variation in environmental impacts and trade-offs between them. The magnitude and direction of these impacts are mostly driven by the type of land use change and by the heterogeneity of the biophysical conditions. Areas where expansion of sugar cane has resulted in mostly negative environmental impacts are located in the center and east of the state (related to the change of shrublands, eucalyptus, and forest), while areas where sugar cane expansion has resulted in positive impacts are located in the center-west and north (related to the change of annual crops). Identifying areas with mainly positive and negative impacts enables the development of strategies to mitigate negative effects and enhance positive ones for future sugarcane expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy and Land)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Innovation Resources in Higher Education Institutions on the Development of Sci-Tech Parks’ Enterprises in the Urban Innovative Districts at the Stage of Urbanization Transformation
Land 2020, 9(10), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100396 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Innovation is an inevitable way to enhance regional competitiveness, promote urbanization and achieve sustainable development. The sci-tech park is one of the main land use types in the construction of a new town and the critical space carriers of urbanization. This study focuses [...] Read more.
Innovation is an inevitable way to enhance regional competitiveness, promote urbanization and achieve sustainable development. The sci-tech park is one of the main land use types in the construction of a new town and the critical space carriers of urbanization. This study focuses on the correlation between higher education institutions (HEIs) innovation and sci-tech enterprises (STEs) development, and the Hangzhou West Hi-tech Corridor as a case study. Innovation indicators of HEIs related to teaching staff, talent cultivation, scientific research quality, academic influence, and university-enterprise cooperation, as well as development indicators of STEs related to aggregation degree, development level, and innovation level are selected. The results show that HEI innovation is significantly positively correlated with STE development. The number of senior titled teachers, average number of citations per paper, and number of invested enterprises exhibit a strong positive correlation with STE development indicators. Regarding the correlation between HEI innovation and STE development, academic research HEIs and professional application HEIs are stronger than vocational skill HEIs. This study is conducive to improving land use efficiency and a sustainable development level of urban innovative districts. Suggestions are provided to support the researches and practices of urban innovative spatial planning and advancement of the urbanization process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Uncovering Ecosystem Services of Expropriated Land: The Case of Urban Expansion in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia
Land 2020, 9(10), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100395 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 364
Abstract
In Ethiopia, urban expansion happens at high rates and results in land expropriations often at the cost of agriculture and forests. The process of urban expansion does not include assessment of ecosystem services (ES). This has been causing unintended environmental problems. This study [...] Read more.
In Ethiopia, urban expansion happens at high rates and results in land expropriations often at the cost of agriculture and forests. The process of urban expansion does not include assessment of ecosystem services (ES). This has been causing unintended environmental problems. This study aims to uncover ES of three most important land use types (cropland, agroforestry, and grassland) that are threatened by land expropriation for urban expansion in Bahir Dar City. The study applied a participatory approach using community perception and expert judgments (N = 108). Respondents were asked to locate their perceptions on the use of 35 different ES, and then to evaluate the potential of the land use. Respondents were shown to have the ability to differentiate between ES and land use in terms of their potential to deliver ES. The results show that agroforestry is expected to have a high relevant potential to deliver 31% of all ES, but cropland 20% and grassland 14%. Food, fodder, timber, firewood, fresh water, energy, compost, climate regulation, erosion prevention, and water purification and treatment were identified as the ten most important services. It is not only the provisioning services that are being supplied by the land use types which are expropriated for urbanization, but also regulating, supporting and cultural services. To ensure sustainable urban land development, we suggest the consideration of the use of ES and the potential of the land use to supply ES when making land use decisions, including land expropriation for urban expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Relationships between Land Use and Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Future Crop Tree Release Treatments on Forest Carbon as REDD+ Mitigation Benefits
Land 2020, 9(10), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100394 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Sustainable forest management activities, such as future crop tree (FCT) release treatments, became part of the REDD+ strategy to avoid carbon emissions from forests. FCT release treatments are intended to achieve increased growth of FCTs by removing competitor trees. This initially leads to [...] Read more.
Sustainable forest management activities, such as future crop tree (FCT) release treatments, became part of the REDD+ strategy to avoid carbon emissions from forests. FCT release treatments are intended to achieve increased growth of FCTs by removing competitor trees. This initially leads to a reduction of the forest carbon pool and represents a carbon debt. We estimated that the time it takes for FCTs to offset the carbon debt through increased growth on experimental sites of 10 km² in Belize, Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. We further investigated whether the costs of treatment can be compensated by the generated financial carbon benefits. An average of 2.3 FCT per hectare were released through the removal of an average of 3.3 competitors per hectare. This corresponds to an average above ground biomass (AGB) deficit of 2.3 Mg FCT−1. Assuming a 30% increase in growth, the FCT would need on average 130 years to offset the carbon loss. For carbon prices from US$ 5 to 100 Mg CO2e−1 an additional increment between 0.6 and 22.7 Mg tree−1 would be required to cover the treatment costs of US$ 4.2 to 8.4 FCT−1. Assuming a carbon price of US$ 10 Mg CO2e−1, the additional increment required would be between 5.8 and 11.4 Mg tree−1, thus exceeding the biological growth potential of most individual trees. The release of FCTs does not ensure an increase in forest carbon stocks, and refinancing of treatment costs is problematic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Landscapes and Services in Peri-Urban Areas and Choice of Housing Location: An Application of Discrete Choice Experiments
Land 2020, 9(10), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100393 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The recent decades have witnessed a significant increase in the population in peri-urban areas which led to a progressive transformation of peri-urban landscapes, and the reduced ability of agriculture to provide ecosystem services. In order to understand the complex relationships established in peri-urban [...] Read more.
The recent decades have witnessed a significant increase in the population in peri-urban areas which led to a progressive transformation of peri-urban landscapes, and the reduced ability of agriculture to provide ecosystem services. In order to understand the complex relationships established in peri-urban areas between reference urban centre, urban services (US) and ecosystem services (ES), with particular attention to the landscape, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was carried out in the transitional peri-urban areas of six municipalities located near the city of Perugia (Italy). The two main goals of this study are analysing the effect of the presence of US and ES on the demand for housing, and exploring the implications in terms of peri-urban land use policy. The results highlight that the availability of some ES can have a significant impact on choice of housing location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Peri-Urban Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment Method and Scale of Observation Influence Ecosystem Service Bundles
Land 2020, 9(10), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100392 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The understanding of relationships between ecosystem services and the appropriate spatial scales for their analysis and characterization represent opportunities for sustainable land management. Bundles have appeared as an integrated method to assess and visualize consistent associations among multiple ecosystem services. Most of the [...] Read more.
The understanding of relationships between ecosystem services and the appropriate spatial scales for their analysis and characterization represent opportunities for sustainable land management. Bundles have appeared as an integrated method to assess and visualize consistent associations among multiple ecosystem services. Most of the bundle assessments focused on a static framework at a specific spatial scale. Here, we addressed the effects of applying two cluster analyses (static and dynamic) for assessing bundles of ecosystem services across four different scales of observation (two administrative boundaries and two sizes of grids) over 13 years (from 2000 to 2013). We used the ecosystem services matrix to model and map the potential supply of seven ecosystem services in a case study system in the central high-Andean Puna of Peru. We developed a sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the matrix. The differences between the configuration, spatial patterns, and historical trajectories of bundles were measured and compared. We focused on two hypotheses: first, bundles of ecosystem services are mainly affected by the method applied for assessing them; second, these bundles are influenced by the scale of observation over time. For the first hypothesis, the results suggested that the selection of a method for assessing bundles have inferences on the interactions with land-use change. The diverse implications to management on ecosystem services support that static and dynamic assessments can be complementary to obtain better contributions for decision-making. For the second hypothesis, our study showed that municipality and grid-scales kept similar sensitivity in capturing the aspects of ecosystem service bundles. Then, in favorable research conditions, we recommend the combination of a municipal and a fine-grid scale to assure robustness and successfully land-use planning processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Guide to Public Green Space Planning for Urban Ecosystem Services
Land 2020, 9(10), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100391 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Street trees, native plantings, bioswales, and other forms of green infrastructure alleviate urban air and water pollution, diminish flooding vulnerability, support pollinators, and provide other benefits critical to human well-being. Urban planners increasingly value such urban ecosystem services (ES), and effective methods for [...] Read more.
Street trees, native plantings, bioswales, and other forms of green infrastructure alleviate urban air and water pollution, diminish flooding vulnerability, support pollinators, and provide other benefits critical to human well-being. Urban planners increasingly value such urban ecosystem services (ES), and effective methods for deciding among alternative planting regimes using urban ES criteria are under active development. In this effort, integrating stakeholder values and concerns with quantitative urban ES assessments is a central challenge; although it is widely recommended, specific approaches have yet to be explored. Here, we develop, apply, and evaluate such a method in the Friendly Area Neighborhood of Eugene, Oregon by investigating the potential for increased urban ES through the conversion of public lawn to alternative planting regimes that align with expressed stakeholder priorities. We first estimated current urban ES from green space mapping and published supply rates, finding lawn cover and associated ES to be dominant. Resident and expert priorities were then revealed through surveys and Delphi analyses; top priorities included air quality, stormwater quality, native plantings, and pollinator habitat, while concerns focused on cost and safety. Unexpectedly, most residents expressed a willingness to support urban ES improvements financially. This evidence then informed the development of planting regime alternatives among which we compared achievable future urban ES delivery, revealing clear differences among those that maximized stakeholder priorities, those that maximized quantitative urban ES delivery, and their integration. The resulting contribution is a straightforward method for identifying planting regimes with a high likelihood of success in delivering desired urban ES in specific local contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Valuation of Mediterranean Cultural Landscapes: Exploring Landscape Preferences and Ecosystem Services Perceptions through a Visual Approach
Land 2020, 9(10), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100390 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Mediterranean cultural landscapes have been recognized as multifunctional landscapes that are currently threatened by two opposing trends: rural abandonment and agricultural intensification. Uncovering people’s perceptions of different landscape configurations, and how inhabitants value the contributions of nature to human wellbeing, is essential to [...] Read more.
Mediterranean cultural landscapes have been recognized as multifunctional landscapes that are currently threatened by two opposing trends: rural abandonment and agricultural intensification. Uncovering people’s perceptions of different landscape configurations, and how inhabitants value the contributions of nature to human wellbeing, is essential to understanding current landscape trends. In this study, we analyze the social perception of the cultural landscapes of Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain) based on 389 face-to-face visual questionnaires in an attempt to understand individuals’ landscape preferences, the reasons behind those preferences and how those landscapes are perceived as suppliers of ecosystem services by different groups of stakeholders. Four groups of stakeholders were identified that differed in how they perceive and value the cultural landscape. An urban-related group was characterized by their preferences for pine plantations and “green” landscapes, guided mostly by aesthetic criteria. A livestock-related group showed a clear preference for wood–pasture landscapes (dehesas) due to their ability to supply multiple ecosystem services. An environmentally aware group showed preferences for dehesas and Mediterranean forests, mainly guided by ecological criteria. Finally, an olive-related group showed a clear preference for olive grove landscapes as key for the regional economy and their cultural identity. Overall, the local inhabitants of Sierra Morena perceived a higher supply of ecosystem services in moderately disturbed landscapes, such as dehesas and mosaic landscapes, than in highly disturbed ones, such as conventional olive groves and pine plantations, or in less used landscapes, such as the Mediterranean forest. Understanding the differences in valuation/demand for ecosystem services among groups of stakeholders, characterized by their landscape preferences, provides important information with which to identify potential trade-offs and conflicts, thereby providing insights into the improvement of landscape planning and decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Transformation and Changes in Land Use Intensity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Agroforestry and Other Sustainable Practices in the Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP)
Land 2020, 9(10), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100389 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 461
Abstract
With growing global demand for food, unsustainable farming practices and large greenhouse gas emissions, farming systems need to sequester more carbon than they emit, while also increasing productivity and food production. The Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP) recruited farmer groups committed to more [...] Read more.
With growing global demand for food, unsustainable farming practices and large greenhouse gas emissions, farming systems need to sequester more carbon than they emit, while also increasing productivity and food production. The Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP) recruited farmer groups committed to more Sustainable Agricultural Land Management (SALM) practices and provided these groups with initial advisory services on SALM, farm enterprise development and village savings and loan associations. Recommended SALM practices included agroforestry, cover crops, mulching, composting manure, terracing, reduced tillage and water harvesting. The effects of the KACP on the uptake of SALM practices, maize yield, perceived food self-sufficiency and savings during the initial four years were assessed comparing control and project farmers using interviews, field visits and measurements. Farmers participating in the KACP seemed to have increased uptake of most SALM practices and decreased the use of practices to be avoided under the KACP recommendations. Agroforestry and terraces showed positive effects on maize yield. During all four years, the KACP farms had higher maize yield than control farms, but yield differences were similar in 2009 and 2012 and there was no overall significant effect of the KACP. In 2012, the KACP farms had higher food self-sufficiency and tended to have higher monetary savings than control farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
A Trend Analysis of Leaf Area Index and Land Surface Temperature and Their Relationship from Global to Local Scale
Land 2020, 9(10), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100388 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Although the way in which vegetation phenology mediates the feedback of vegetation to climate systems is now well understood, the magnitude of these changes is still unknown. A thorough understanding of how the recent shift in phenology may impact on, for example, land [...] Read more.
Although the way in which vegetation phenology mediates the feedback of vegetation to climate systems is now well understood, the magnitude of these changes is still unknown. A thorough understanding of how the recent shift in phenology may impact on, for example, land surface temperature (LST) is important. To address this knowledge gap, it is important to quantify these impacts and identify patterns from the global to the regional scale. This study examines the trend and linear regression modeling of the leaf area index (LAI) and LST derived from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, specifically to assess their spatial distribution and changing trends at the continental and regional scales. The change detection analysis of interannual variability in the global LAI and LST between two periods (2003–2010 and 2011–2018) demonstrates more positive LAI trends than negative, while for LST most changes were not significant. The relationships between LAI and LST were assessed across the continents to ascertain the response of vegetation to changes in LST. The regression between LAI and LST was negative in Australia (R2 = 0.487 ***), positive but minimal in Africa (R2 = 0.001), positive in North America (R2 = 0.641 ***), negative in Central America (R2 = 0.119), positive in South America (R2 = 0.253 *) and positive in Europe (R2 = 0.740 ***). Medium temperatures enhance photosynthesis and lengthen the growing season in Europe. We also found a significant greening trend in China (trendp = 0.16 ***) and India (trendp = 0.13 ***). The relationships between LAI and LST in these most prominent greening countries of the world are R2 = 0.06 and R2 = 0.25 for China and India, respectively. Our deductions here are twofold—(1) In China, an insignificant association appeared between greening trend and temperature. (2) In India, the significant greening trend may be a factor in lowering temperatures. Therefore, temperature may stabilize if the greening trend continues. We attribute the trends in both countries to the different land use management and climate mitigation policies adopted by these countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Planning and Design for Building Neighborhood Resilience to Climate Change
Land 2020, 9(10), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100387 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 543
Abstract
The aim of the paper was to present the procedure of building neighborhood resilience to climate threats, embedded in planning (from the strategic to local level) and design process and focused on usage of natural adaptive potential. The presented approach encompasses: (1) the [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper was to present the procedure of building neighborhood resilience to climate threats, embedded in planning (from the strategic to local level) and design process and focused on usage of natural adaptive potential. The presented approach encompasses: (1) the strategic identification of focal areas in terms of climate adaptation needs, (2) comprehensive diagnosis of local ecological vulnerability and natural adaptive potential to build adaptive capacity, and (3) incorporation of natural adaptive potential through an identified set of planning and design tools. For diagnosis and strategic environmental impact assessment, the multicriteria analysis has been elaborated. The described procedure is applied to the City of Warsaw on the strategic level, by elaboration of the ranking of districts in terms of priority to take adaptation actions based on climatic threats, demographic vulnerability, and assessment of Warsaw Green Infrastructure potential. For further analysis at the planning and design stage, the district with the most urgent adaptation needs has been chosen, and within its borders, two neighborhoods (existing and planned one) with diagnosed ecological sensitivity were selected. Both case studies were analyzed in terms of environmental conditions, urban structure, and planning provisions. It enabled identification of existing natural adaptive potential and assessment of its use. As a result, propositions for enhancing neighborhood resilience to climate change were suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Impacts of Soil Tillage System on Isoflavone Concentration of Soybean as Functional Food Ingredients
Land 2020, 9(10), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100386 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Soybean is an important natural source of isoflavones, but their concentration is likely to be influenced by external factors, such as climatic conditions and soil tillage systems. However, there is minimal information about the effects of such external factors on the isoflavone concentration [...] Read more.
Soybean is an important natural source of isoflavones, but their concentration is likely to be influenced by external factors, such as climatic conditions and soil tillage systems. However, there is minimal information about the effects of such external factors on the isoflavone concentration in soybeans grown in Europe. Therefore, in this study, field experiments were established in Romania to investigate the potential impacts of three different soil tillage systems—conventional, minimum tillage and no-tillage—on crop yields and the isoflavone concentration of soybeans for three experimental years, 2014–2016. Our experimental results indicated that the soil tillage systems had little impact on the soybean yields each year. However, the 2016 yield was found to be higher than the 2014 and 2015 yields under all three soil systems. For every experimental year, the higher yield was recorded by the conventional system, followed by the minimum tillage system and no-tillage system under first weed control (weed control two (wct2): S-metolaclor 960 g/L, imazamox 40 g/L and propaquizafop 100 g/L). Likewise, the soil tillage system did not have a significant influence on the total isoflavone concentrations. Nevertheless, we noticed some variations in the individual isoflavone concentration (daidzin, genistin, glycitin, daidzein, genistein) in each year. Altogether, the minimum tillage and no-tillage systems may be employed as a suitable soil tillage system in soybean farming without an impact on the total isoflavone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Tillage Systems and Conservative Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Where Do Ecosystem Services Come From? Assessing and Mapping Stakeholder Perceptions on Water Ecosystem Services in the Muga River Basin (Catalonia, Spain)
Land 2020, 9(10), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100385 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Reductions in water availability and increasing rainfall variability are generating a narrative of growing competition for water in the Mediterranean basin. In this article, we explore the distribution and importance of water resources in the Muga River Basin (Catalonia, Spain) based on key [...] Read more.
Reductions in water availability and increasing rainfall variability are generating a narrative of growing competition for water in the Mediterranean basin. In this article, we explore the distribution and importance of water resources in the Muga River Basin (Catalonia, Spain) based on key stakeholders’ perceptions. We performed a sociocultural evaluation of the main water ecosystem services in the region through stakeholder interviews and participatory mapping. The basin was generally perceived as a hotspot of ecosystem services, but we detected varying opinions and considerable differences in the perceptions of importance and spatial distribution of water ecosystem services. These discrepancies were linked to the varying levels of stakeholders’ dependence on water. Our findings are important for contributing to correct water planning and management in the river basin, which is a complex water social system marked by conflicts between different stakeholder groups vying for the same resource. This complex situation requires bottom-up strategies to create transparent, participatory decision-making models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inventory and Distribution of Rock Glaciers in Northeastern Yakutia
Land 2020, 9(10), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100384 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Rock glaciers are common forms of relief of the periglacial belt of many mountain structures in the world. They are potential sources of water in arid and semi-arid regions, and therefore their analysis is important in assessing water reserves. Mountain structures in the [...] Read more.
Rock glaciers are common forms of relief of the periglacial belt of many mountain structures in the world. They are potential sources of water in arid and semi-arid regions, and therefore their analysis is important in assessing water reserves. Mountain structures in the north-east of Yakutia have optimal conditions for the formation of rock glaciers, but they have not yet been studied in this regard. In this article, for the first time, we present a detailed list of rock glaciers in this region. Based on geoinformation mapping using remote sensing data and field studies within the Chersky, Verkhoyansk, Momsky and Suntar-Khayata ranges, 4503 rock glaciers with a total area of 224.6 km2 were discovered. They are located within absolute altitudes, from 503 to 2496 m. Their average minimum altitude was at 1456 m above sea level, and the maximum at 1527 m. Most of these formations are located on the sides of the trough valleys, and form extended sloping types of rock glaciers. An assessment of the exposure of the slopes where the rock glaciers are located showed that most of the rock glaciers are facing north and south. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permafrost Landscape)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Resident or Present? Population Census Data Tell You More about Suburbanization
Land 2020, 9(10), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100383 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 445
Abstract
The present study analyzes population redistribution across metropolitan regions considering together changes over time in the spatial distribution of resident and present population from census data. Considering population dynamics in Athens, Greece, between 1991 and 2011, the results of this study evidenced how [...] Read more.
The present study analyzes population redistribution across metropolitan regions considering together changes over time in the spatial distribution of resident and present population from census data. Considering population dynamics in Athens, Greece, between 1991 and 2011, the results of this study evidenced how the ratio of present to resident population increases more rapidly in urban than rural areas along the last twenty years. By revealing different expansion processes at the regional and local scales, the present-to-resident ratio of usual population was correlated to selected variables (population density and growth, distance from the inner city and settlement dispersion) with the aim at delineating apparent and latent relationships with the local socioeconomic context. Statistical analysis indicates that the present-to-resident population ratio is reflective of the intense suburbanization observed until the early 1990s in Athens, determining population redistribution and settlement dispersion over larger areas. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Four Decades of Land-Cover Change on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska: Detecting Disturbance-Influenced Vegetation Shifts Using Landsat Legacy Data
Land 2020, 9(10), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100382 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Across Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula, disturbance events have removed large areas of forest over the last half century. Simultaneously, succession and landscape evolution have facilitated forest regrowth and expansion. Detecting forest loss within known pulse disturbance events is often straightforward given that reduction in [...] Read more.
Across Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula, disturbance events have removed large areas of forest over the last half century. Simultaneously, succession and landscape evolution have facilitated forest regrowth and expansion. Detecting forest loss within known pulse disturbance events is often straightforward given that reduction in tree cover is a readily detectable and measurable land-cover change. Land-cover change is more difficult to quantify when disturbance events are unknown, remote, or environmental response is slow in relation to human observation. While disturbance events and related land-cover change are relatively instant, assessing patterns of post-disturbance succession requires long term monitoring. Here, we describe a method for classifying land cover and quantifying land-cover change over time, using Landsat legacy imagery for three historical eras on the western Kenai Peninsula: 1973–2002, 2002–2017, and 1973–2017. Scenes from numerous Landsat sensors, including summer and winter seasons, were acquired between 1973 and 2017 and used to classify vegetation cover using a random forest classifier. Land-cover type was summarized by era and combined to produce a dataset capturing spatially explicit land-cover change at a moderate 30-m resolution. Our results document large-scale forest loss across the study area that can be attributed to known disturbance events including beetle kill and wildfire. Despite numerous and extensive disturbances resulting in forest loss, we estimate that the study area has experienced net forest gain over the duration of our study period due to reforestation within large fire events that predate this study. Transition between forest and graminoid non-forest land cover including wetlands and herbaceous uplands is the most common land-cover change—representing recruitment of a graminoid dominated understory following forest loss and the return of forest canopy given sufficient time post-disturbance. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Aboveground Biomass Distribution in a Multi-Use Savannah Landscape in Southeastern Kenya: Impact of Land Use and Fences
Land 2020, 9(10), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100381 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Savannahs provide valuable ecosystem services and contribute to continental and global carbon budgets. In addition, savannahs exhibit multiple land uses, e.g., wildlife conservation, pastoralism, and crop farming. Despite their importance, the effect of land use on woody aboveground biomass (AGB) in savannahs is [...] Read more.
Savannahs provide valuable ecosystem services and contribute to continental and global carbon budgets. In addition, savannahs exhibit multiple land uses, e.g., wildlife conservation, pastoralism, and crop farming. Despite their importance, the effect of land use on woody aboveground biomass (AGB) in savannahs is understudied. Furthermore, fences used to reduce human–wildlife conflicts may affect AGB patterns. We assessed AGB densities and patterns, and the effect of land use and fences on AGB in a multi-use savannah landscape in southeastern Kenya. AGB was assessed with field survey and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, and a land cover map was developed using Sentinel-2 satellite images in Google Earth Engine. The highest woody AGB was found in riverine forest in a conservation area and in bushland outside the conservation area. The highest mean AGB density occurred in the non-conservation area with mixed bushland and cropland (8.9 Mg·ha−1), while the lowest AGB density (2.6 Mg·ha−1) occurred in overgrazed grassland in the conservation area. The largest differences in AGB distributions were observed in the fenced boundaries between the conservation and other land-use types. Our results provide evidence that conservation and fences can create sharp AGB transitions and lead to reduced AGB stocks, which is a vital role of savannahs as part of carbon sequestration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Land Cover Change Mapping for Transformational Change)
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The Sustainable Management of Land and Fisheries Resources Using Multicriteria Techniques: A Meta-Analysis
Land 2020, 9(10), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100380 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
In recent years modern societies have attached a multifunctional requirement to the use of renewable resources, making their optimal sustainable management more complex. In the last decades, in many cases, this complexity is addressed by formulating management models with the help of the [...] Read more.
In recent years modern societies have attached a multifunctional requirement to the use of renewable resources, making their optimal sustainable management more complex. In the last decades, in many cases, this complexity is addressed by formulating management models with the help of the concepts and methods belonging to the well-known multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) paradigm. The purpose of this paper was to undertake a hermeneutic meta-analysis of the literature provided in primary journals on issues related to the management of these resources with the help of the MCDM paradigm. In this way, the paper aimed to obtain new, basic insights with considerations that might improve the efficiency of future research in the field studied. The meta-analysis was implemented by formulating and testing a battery of hypotheses of how the MCDM methods have been used in the past for the formulation of management models for the type of resource analyzed. Full article
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Integrating Ecosystem Services into Land-Use Modeling to Assess the Effects of Future Land-Use Strategies in Northern Ghana
Land 2020, 9(10), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100379 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
In West Africa, where the majority of the population relies on natural resources and rain-fed agriculture, regionally adapted agricultural land-use planning is increasingly important to cope with growing demand for land-use products and intensifying climate variability. As an approach to identify effective future [...] Read more.
In West Africa, where the majority of the population relies on natural resources and rain-fed agriculture, regionally adapted agricultural land-use planning is increasingly important to cope with growing demand for land-use products and intensifying climate variability. As an approach to identify effective future land-use strategies, this study applied spatially explicit modeling that addresses the spatial connectivity between the provision of ecosystem services and agricultural land-use systems. Considering that the status of ecosystem services varies with the perception of stakeholders, local knowledge, and characteristics of a case study area, two adjoining districts in northern Ghana were integrated into an assessment process of land-use strategies. Based on agricultural land-management options that were identified together with the local stakeholders, 75 future land-use strategies as combinations of multiple agricultural practices were elaborated. Potential impacts of the developed land-use strategies on ecosystem services and land-use patterns were assessed in a modeling platform that combines Geographic Information System (GIS) and Cellular Automaton (CA) modules. Modeled results were used to identify best land-use strategies that could deliver multiple ecosystem services most effectively. Then, local perception was applied to determine the feasibility of the best land-use strategies in practice. The results presented the different extent of trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services delivered by future land-use strategies and their different feasibility depending on the district. Apart from the fact that findings were context-specific and scale-dependent, this study revealed that the integration of different local characteristics and local perceptions to spatially explicit ecosystem service assessment is beneficial for determining locally tailored recommendations for future agricultural land-use planning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of City Integration Processes in Rapidly Urbanizing Areas Based on Remote Sensing Imagery
Land 2020, 9(10), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100378 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Since China’s reform and development commenced, in the context of rapid urbanization and coordinated regional development, Chinese cities with a close geographic proximity and social ties have gradually formed an integrated city development model. As a new phenomenon in China’s urbanization process, existing [...] Read more.
Since China’s reform and development commenced, in the context of rapid urbanization and coordinated regional development, Chinese cities with a close geographic proximity and social ties have gradually formed an integrated city development model. As a new phenomenon in China’s urbanization process, existing research on China’s integrated cities mainly focuses on typical case studies, and most research has been limited to literature reviews and theoretical analyses. The growing application of remote sensing technology in urbanization research in recent years has provided new opportunities for the analysis of city integration. Therefore, based on multi-spectral Landsat-8 and nighttime light images (SNPP/VIIRS, Suomi National Polar-orbiting Platform/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite), this paper selects four of the most representative integrated cities with different backgrounds in China to analyze the land-use conversion, plot light fluctuation, and light gravity center shift in the boundary zone between cities. The results show that (1) Guangfo has the highest level of integration and urban expansion is mainly concentrated in the south-central part of the boundary area; (2) Guanshen’s level of integration is second to Guangfo’s and is mainly concentrated in the west; (3) HuSu’s integration is still in the initial stage and its increase in light intensity lags behind the expansion of building land during the study period; (4) although the light intensity and building land area increased significantly during the study period in Xixian, the overall development level of Xixian still lagged behind coastal cities due to the restriction of its geographical location. Our application results expand the data sources for integrated city research and the obtained results can potentially support decision-making and planning in the process of urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural–Urban Gradients: Landscape and Nature Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Retrieving the National Main Commodity Maps in Indonesia Based on High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Data Using Cloud Computing Platform
Land 2020, 9(10), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100377 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Indonesia has the most favorable climates for agriculture because of its location in the tropical climatic zones. The country has several commodities to support economics growth that are driven by key export commodities—e.g., oil palm, rubber, paddy, cacao, and coffee. Thus, identifying the [...] Read more.
Indonesia has the most favorable climates for agriculture because of its location in the tropical climatic zones. The country has several commodities to support economics growth that are driven by key export commodities—e.g., oil palm, rubber, paddy, cacao, and coffee. Thus, identifying the main commodities in Indonesia using spatially-explicit tools is essential to understand the precise productivity derived from the agricultural sectors. Many previous studies have used predictions developed using binary maps of general crop cover. Here, we present national commodity maps for Indonesia based on remote sensing data using Google Earth Engine. We evaluated a machine learning algorithm—i.e., Random Forest to parameterize how the area in commodity varied in Indonesia. We used various predictors to estimate the productivity of various commodities based on multispectral satellite imageries (36 predictors) at 30-meters spatial resolution. The national commodity map has a relatively high accuracy, with an overall accuracy of about 95% and Kappa coefficient of about 0.90. The results suggest that the oil palm plantation was the highest commodity product that occupied the largest land of Indonesia. However, this study also showed that the land area in rubber, rice paddies, and cacao commodities was underestimated due to its lack of training samples. Improvement in training data collection for each commodity should be done to increase the accuracy of the commodity maps. The commodity data can be viewed online (website can be found in the end of conclusions). This data can further provide significant information related to the agricultural sectors to investigate food provisioning, particularly in Indonesia. Full article
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Spatial Structure of a Potential Ecological Network in Nanping, China, Based on Ecosystem Service Functions
Land 2020, 9(10), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100376 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 526
Abstract
The increasing scale of urbanization and human activities has resulted in the fragmentation of natural habitats, leading to the reduction of ecological landscape connectivity and biodiversity. Taking Nanping as the study area, the core areas with good connectivity were extracted as ecological sources [...] Read more.
The increasing scale of urbanization and human activities has resulted in the fragmentation of natural habitats, leading to the reduction of ecological landscape connectivity and biodiversity. Taking Nanping as the study area, the core areas with good connectivity were extracted as ecological sources using a morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and landscape connectivity index. Then the ecosystem service functions of the ecological sources were evaluated based on the InVEST model. Finally, we extracted the potential ecological corridor based on the land type, elevation and ecosystem service functions. The results showed that the ecological source with higher landscape connectivity is distributed in the north and there are clear landscape connectivity faults in the northern and southern regions. Moreover, the areas with high habitat quality, soil retention and water production are mainly distributed in the northern ecological source areas. The 15 potential ecological corridors extracted were distributed unevenly. Among them, the important ecological corridors formed a triangle network, while the general ecological corridors were concentrated in the northwest. Therefore, it is suggested that the important core patches in the north be protected, and the effective connection between the north and south be improved. These results can provide a scientific basis for ecological construction and hierarchical management of the ecological networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Informing Protected Area Decision Making through Academic-Practitioner Collaborations
Land 2020, 9(10), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100375 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
This study examined knowledge mobilization and collaboration practices of practitioners in a Canadian provincial park agency, BC Parks. Data was collected through four focus groups, an on line survey (N = 125), and a follow up workshop. Results showed that the most important [...] Read more.
This study examined knowledge mobilization and collaboration practices of practitioners in a Canadian provincial park agency, BC Parks. Data was collected through four focus groups, an on line survey (N = 125), and a follow up workshop. Results showed that the most important information sources used by the agency were “internal” (e.g., policy and management guidelines), while “external sources” such as academic researchers or journals were rated lower. However, those who collaborated with outside groups, including academics, and those working in a science capacity within the agency, rated external information sources more positively. Barriers and enabling conditions for effective knowledge mobilization were identified. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Landscape Potential and Light Pollution as Key Factors for Astrotourism Development: A Case Study of a Slovak Upland Region
Land 2020, 9(10), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100374 - 06 Oct 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Astrotourism is considered to be a modern form of ecotourism. The main resource for astrotourism is a high-quality night sky, but this is very sensitive to natural as well as anthropogenic factors; for example, land utilization and expansion of urban areas often cause [...] Read more.
Astrotourism is considered to be a modern form of ecotourism. The main resource for astrotourism is a high-quality night sky, but this is very sensitive to natural as well as anthropogenic factors; for example, land utilization and expansion of urban areas often cause the negative effect of light pollution. The aim of the study is to perform a lighting survey by night sky brightness (NSB) measurements using the sky quality meter (SQM-L) at 20 study sites of the Slovenské stredohorie Upland region (Slovakia) and to assess the region’s potential for astrotourism development (PAD) using a multicriteria analysis. The NSB values ranged from 19.90 (city Žiar nad Hronom at Žiarska kotlina Basin) to 21.54 mag/arcsec2 (recreation area Poľana at Poľana Mountains). At 14 out of 20 study sites, the NSB values even reached 21.2 mag/arcsec2, as recommended by the International Dark-Sky Association for dark-sky parks. Four study sites were categorized as sites with medium PAD, and sixteen with low PAD. No study site reached a high or very high PAD. The best conditions for astrotourism development are fulfilled mainly by the Poľana Mountains geographical unit. The findings can be used for sustainable astrotourism development, land management, and planning to ensure socioeconomic development, together with nature and dark-sky conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Landscape Ecology)
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Modelling Land Cover Changes in Peri-Urban Areas: A Case Study of George Town Conurbation, Malaysia
Land 2020, 9(10), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100373 - 05 Oct 2020
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Drastic growth of urban populations has caused expansion of peri-urban areas—the transitional zone between a city and its hinterland. Although urbanisation may bring economic opportunities and improve infrastructure in an area, uncontrolled urban expansion towards peri-urban areas will negatively impact the environment and [...] Read more.
Drastic growth of urban populations has caused expansion of peri-urban areas—the transitional zone between a city and its hinterland. Although urbanisation may bring economic opportunities and improve infrastructure in an area, uncontrolled urban expansion towards peri-urban areas will negatively impact the environment and the community living within the area. Malaysia, for example, has become one of the most urbanised countries in East Asia. However, cities in Malaysia are relatively small and less densely populated compared with other cities in East Asia. This indicates that urban expansion has been sprawling towards peri-urban areas, and not being controlled and properly managed. To ensure urban expansions occur sustainably, urban growth boundary (UGB) can potentially be used as a mechanism to contain and limit urban expansion, and allow urban growth to be planned to achieve sustainable development. A scientific approach is essential to determine an UGB that allows future growth to be predicted and taken into consideration. Potentially, urban spatial models have been widely used to plan and predict future urban expansions. George Town Conurbation, the second largest urban conurbation in Malaysia, has been chosen as the study area in this study. This study aims to demonstrate the application of a GIS-Cellular Automata model, known as FutureSim, which was developed to simulate land cover changes and generate a designated UGB for this area. The model was developed based on the transition rule derived from land cover changes, from 2010 to 2018, and then used to predict future land cover changes under two different planning scenarios—compact growth and urban sprawl scenarios. With the accuracy of the model exceeding 74%, FutureSim was used to predict land cover change until 2030. The model can potentially be used to assist planners and policymakers to make decisions on the allocation of sustainable land use and planning for rapidly developing regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Land Use/Land Cover Changes and the Relationship with Land Surface Temperature Using Landsat and MODIS Imageries in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia
Land 2020, 9(10), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100372 - 05 Oct 2020
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Mountainous regions are more sensitive to climatic condition changes and are susceptible to recent increases in temperature. Due to urbanization and land use/land cover (LULC) issues, Cameron Highlands has been impacted by rising land surface temperature (LST) variation. Thus, this study was carried [...] Read more.
Mountainous regions are more sensitive to climatic condition changes and are susceptible to recent increases in temperature. Due to urbanization and land use/land cover (LULC) issues, Cameron Highlands has been impacted by rising land surface temperature (LST) variation. Thus, this study was carried out to explore the impact of the LULC change on LST in the Cameron Highlands from 2009 to 2019 using remote sensing images acquired from Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI/TIRS), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 11A Thermal sensors. A split-window algorithm was applied to Landsat 8 images (2013–2019) to derive the LST. Air temperature data of the study area were also obtained to cross-validate data sources. Based on the validation results, the accuracy of LULC and LST outputs were more than 94.6% and 80.0%, respectively. The results show that the current trend of urban growth continues at a rate of 0.16% per year, and the area experienced an LST increase of 2 °C between 2009 and 2019. This study is crucial for land planners and environmentalists to understand the impacts of LULC change on LST and to propose appropriate policy measures to control development in Cameron Highlands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transformation of Industrial Land in Urban Renewal in Shenzhen, China
Land 2020, 9(10), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100371 - 04 Oct 2020
Viewed by 348
Abstract
The redevelopment and transformation of industrial land has become an important part of urban renewal in China. This study adopts a spatial perspective to investigate the transformation of industrial land in Shenzhen based on a set of reliable data of all urban redevelopment [...] Read more.
The redevelopment and transformation of industrial land has become an important part of urban renewal in China. This study adopts a spatial perspective to investigate the transformation of industrial land in Shenzhen based on a set of reliable data of all urban redevelopment projects of industrial land from 2010 to 2018. Research shows that the development of the real estate market, local government’s strategic demand for upgrading industrial structure, and the policy objective of improving land use intensity are important factors that affect the industrial land transformation. Industrial land has decreased significantly in urban renewal. About 881.79 ha (76.82%) of industrial land has been transformed into commercial, residential, and new industrial spaces. The planned industrial space is mainly located in the central and western regions, while the new commercial and residential spaces are mainly located outside the Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Redevelopment of industrial land has also transferred a certain scale of land to local governments for providing public facilities with an uneven spatial distribution between SEZ and non-SEZ. Therefore, industrial land transformation has brought significant effects on the urban spatial structure of this city. The study concludes with an evaluation of current industrial land redevelopment activities and provides suggestions for sustainable land development in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Promoted Urbanization of the Countryside: The Case of Santiago’s Periphery, Chile (1980–2017)
Land 2020, 9(10), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100370 - 03 Oct 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Urbanization of the countryside affects rural areas, especially in the immediate surroundings of large cities. Normally, this occurs as an unpromoted process, but in Chile, it is driven by the legal framework. This research focuses on rural residential plots (RRPs) around the capital [...] Read more.
Urbanization of the countryside affects rural areas, especially in the immediate surroundings of large cities. Normally, this occurs as an unpromoted process, but in Chile, it is driven by the legal framework. This research focuses on rural residential plots (RRPs) around the capital city, Santiago. The analysis seeks to understand the significance and consequences of RRPs during the last four decades and the role of a favorable legal framework in affecting their development. By examining data and official cartography on rural residential plots, the analysis shows a large phenomenon of rapid RRP development in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile (MR). The study confirms the existence of an ongoing process that is still partially latent and potentially both uncontrolled and evolving. This work demonstrates the negative effect that land liberalization policies can have by promoting territorial transformations that policymakers cannot subsequently control. The conclusions provide a critical perspective on the counter-urbanization process in the context of fragility and scarce resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Flood-Based Farming Systems with Bayesian Networks
Land 2020, 9(10), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100369 - 02 Oct 2020
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Many actors in agricultural research, development, and policy arenas require accurate information on the spatial extents of cropping and farming practices. While remote sensing provides ways for obtaining such information, it is often difficult to distinguish between different types of agricultural practices or [...] Read more.
Many actors in agricultural research, development, and policy arenas require accurate information on the spatial extents of cropping and farming practices. While remote sensing provides ways for obtaining such information, it is often difficult to distinguish between different types of agricultural practices or identify particular farming systems. Stochastic system behavior or similarity in the spectral signatures of different system components can lead to misclassification. We addressed this challenge by using a probabilistic reasoning engine informed by expert knowledge and remote sensing data to map flood-based farming systems (FBFS) across Kisumu County in Kenya and the Tigray region in Ethiopia. Flood-based farming is an important form of agricultural production employed in regions with seasonal water surplus, which can be harvested and used to irrigate crops. Geographic settings for FBFS vary widely in terms of hydrology, vegetation, and local practices of agronomic flooding. Agronomic success is often difficult to anticipate, because the timing and amount of flooding usually cannot be precisely predicted. We generated a Bayesian network model to describe the FBFS settings of the study regions. We acquired three years (2014–2016) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra spectral data as eight-day composite time series and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to compute 10 spatial data metrics corresponding to 10 of the 17 Bayesian network nodes. We used the spatial data metrics in a fully probabilistic framework to generate the 10 spatial data nodes. We then used these as inputs for the probabilistic model to generate prior and posterior spatial estimates for specific metrics along with their spatially explicit uncertainties. We show how such an approach can be used to predict plausible areas for FBFS based on several scenarios. We demonstrate how spatially explicit information can be derived from remote sensing data as fuzzy quantifiers for incorporating uncertainties when mapping complex systems. The approach achieved a remarkably accurate result in both study areas, where 84–90% of various FBFS fields sampled were correctly mapped as having a high chance of being suitable for the practice. Full article
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