Special Issue "Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Meine van Noordwijk
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
World Agroforestry Centre, Southeast Asia Regional Office, JL. CIFOR, Situ Gede, Bogor, Indonesia
Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: agroforestry; ecosystem services; landscape; water

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Sustainable Development Goals have called attention to the need for the multifunctionality of landscapes that simultaneously contribute to multiple goals. In the UN decade of landscape restoration, as well as in response to the climate change urgency and biodiversity extinction crisis, an increase in global tree cover is widely seen as desirable, but its management by farmers and/or forest managers remains contested. As a dynamic interface between agriculture and forestry, agroforestry has only recently been formally recognized as a relevant part of land use (with ‘trees outside forest’) in important parts of the world—but not everywhere yet. Agroforestry research relates tree–soil–crop–livestock interactions at the plot level with landscape-level analysis of social-ecological systems and efforts to transcend the historical dichotomy between forest and agriculture as separate policy domains. An ‘ecosystem services’ perspective quantifies land productivity, flows of water, net greenhouse gas emissions, and/or biodiversity conservation and combines an ‘actor’ perspective (farmer, landscape manager) with that of ‘downstream’ stakeholders (in the same watershed, ecologically conscious consumers elsewhere, global citizens) and higher-level regulators designing land use policies and spatial zoning. Several voluntary, performance-based economic incentive mechanisms (including payments for ecosystem services, co-investment in environmental stewardship, social-ecological certification) have emerged and have been subject to action-research-based learning. A synthesis across the plot, landscape, and policy level 'theories of change' is expected to reveal further opportunities to strengthen the cross-scale linkages.

For this Special Issue, we invite case studies or synthesis papers that achieve the following:

1) Quantify change in ecosystem services in forest–agriculture interface landscapes and relate such to stakeholder concerns and farmer/manager decisions;

2) Analyze efforts to increase the feedback from external stakeholders to land use decisions (including ‘agroforestry’) within landscapes; and/or

3) Describe and analyze efforts to transcend an existing forestry versus agriculture dichotomy in land use policies.

Prof. Dr. Meine van Noordwijk
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Earthworm Diversity, Forest Conversion and Agroforestry in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
Land 2021, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010036 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
The conversion of natural forests to different land uses still occurs in various parts of Southeast Asia with poor records of impact on ecosystem services and biodiversity. We quantified such impacts on earthworm diversity in two communes of Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Both [...] Read more.
The conversion of natural forests to different land uses still occurs in various parts of Southeast Asia with poor records of impact on ecosystem services and biodiversity. We quantified such impacts on earthworm diversity in two communes of Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Both communes are situated within buffer zones of a nature reserve where remaining natural forests are under threat of continued conversion. We identified 25 different earthworm species, out of which 21 were found in natural forests, 15 in agroforestry, 14 in planted forests, and seven each in annual croplands and home gardens. Out of the six species that were omnipresent inhabitants of all observed habitats, Pontoscolex corethrurus largely dominated habitats with intensive anthropogenic activities but was rare in natural forests. Natural and regenerated forests had a much denser earthworm population in the top 10 cm of soil rather than in deeper soil layers. We conclude that the conversion of natural forests into different land uses has reduced earthworm diversity which can substantially affect soil health and ecosystem functions in the two communes. Protection of the remaining natural forests is urgent, while the promotion of a tree-based farming system such as agroforestry can reconcile earthworm conservation and local livelihoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Agroforestry as Policy Option for Forest-Zone Oil Palm Production in Indonesia
Land 2020, 9(12), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120531 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
With 15–20% of Indonesian oil palms located, without a legal basis and permits, within the forest zone (‘Kawasan hutan’), international concerns regarding deforestation affect the totality of Indonesian palm oil export. ‘Forest zone oil palm’ (FZ-OP) is a substantive issue that requires analysis [...] Read more.
With 15–20% of Indonesian oil palms located, without a legal basis and permits, within the forest zone (‘Kawasan hutan’), international concerns regarding deforestation affect the totality of Indonesian palm oil export. ‘Forest zone oil palm’ (FZ-OP) is a substantive issue that requires analysis and policy change. While spatial details of FZ-OP remain contested, we review literature on (1) the legal basis of the forest zone and its conversion, (2) social stratification in oil palm production (large-scale, plasma and independent growers), and (3) environmental consequences of forest conversion to FZ-OP, before discussing policy options in a range of social and ecological contexts. Policy options range from full regularization (as FZ-OP stands could meet international forest definitions), to conditional acceptance of diversified smallholder plantings in ‘agroforestry concessions’, to gradually phasing out FZ-OP and eviction/destruction. A nuanced and differentiated approach to FZ-OP is needed, as certification of legality along supply chains is vulnerable to illegal levies and corruption. Corporate actors trading internationally can avoid use of uncertified raw materials, effectively shifting blame and depressing farmgate prices for domestic-market palm oil, but this will not return forest conditions or stop further forest conversion. We discuss an agenda for follow-up policy research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Gendered Migration and Agroforestry in Indonesia: Livelihoods, Labor, Know-How, Networks
Land 2020, 9(12), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120529 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
Migration connects land use in areas of origin with areas of new residence, impacting both through individual, gendered choices on the use of land, labor, and knowledge. Synthesizing across two case studies in Indonesia, we focus on five aspects: (i) conditions within the [...] Read more.
Migration connects land use in areas of origin with areas of new residence, impacting both through individual, gendered choices on the use of land, labor, and knowledge. Synthesizing across two case studies in Indonesia, we focus on five aspects: (i) conditions within the community of origin linked to the reason for people to venture elsewhere, temporarily or permanently; (ii) the changes in the receiving community and its environment, generally in rural areas with lower human population density; (iii) the effect of migration on land use and livelihoods in the areas of origin; (iv) the dynamics of migrants returning with different levels of success; and (v) interactions of migrants in all four aspects with government and other stakeholders of development policies. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions in the study areas showed how decisions vary with gender and age, between individuals, households, and groups of households joining after signs of success. Most of the decision making is linked to perceived poverty, natural resource and land competition, and emergencies, such as natural disasters or increased human conflicts. People returning successfully may help to rebuild the village and its agricultural and agroforestry systems and can invest in social capital (mosques, healthcare, schools). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Vietnam’s Nationally Determined Contribution with Mitigation Targets for Agroforestry: A Technical and Economic Estimate
Land 2020, 9(12), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120528 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
The Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of several non-Annex I countries mention agroforestry but mostly without associated mitigation target. The absence of reliable data, including on existing agroforestry practices and their carbon storage, partially constrains the target setting. In this paper, we estimate the [...] Read more.
The Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of several non-Annex I countries mention agroforestry but mostly without associated mitigation target. The absence of reliable data, including on existing agroforestry practices and their carbon storage, partially constrains the target setting. In this paper, we estimate the mitigation potential of agroforestry carbon sequestration in Vietnam using a nationwide agroforestry database and carbon data from the literature. Sequestered carbon was estimated for existing agroforestry systems and for areas into which these systems can be expanded. Existing agroforestry systems in Vietnam cover over 0.83 million hectares storing a 1346 ± 92 million ton CO2 equivalent including above-, belowground, and soil carbon. These systems could be expanded to an area of 0.93–2.4 million hectares. Of this expansion area, about 10% is considered highly suitable for production, with a carbon sequestration potential of 2.3–44 million ton CO2 equivalent over the period 2021–2030. If neglecting agroforestry’s potential for modifying micro-climates, climate change can reduce the highly suitable area of agroforestry and associated carbon by 34–48% in 2050. Agroforestry can greatly contribute to Vietnam’s 2021–2030 NDC, for example, to offset the greenhouse gas emissions of the agriculture sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Context-Specific Factors to Increase Tree Survival for Scaling Ecosystem Restoration Efforts in East Africa
Land 2020, 9(12), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120494 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
Increasing tree cover in agricultural lands can contribute to achieving global and national restoration goals, more so in the drylands where trees play a key role in enhancing both ecosystem and livelihood resilience of the communities that depend on them. Despite this, drylands [...] Read more.
Increasing tree cover in agricultural lands can contribute to achieving global and national restoration goals, more so in the drylands where trees play a key role in enhancing both ecosystem and livelihood resilience of the communities that depend on them. Despite this, drylands are characterized by low tree survival especially for tree species preferred by local communities. We conducted a study in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya and Ethiopia with 1773 households to assess how different tree planting and management practices influence seedling survival. Using on-farm planned comparisons, farmers experimented and compared tree survival under different planting and management practices as well as under varying socioeconomic and biophysical contexts in the two countries. Seedling survival was monitored at least six months after planting. Results show that watering, manure application, seedling protection by fencing and planting in a small hole (30 cm diameter and 45 cm depth) had a significant effect on tree seedling survival in Kenya, while in Ethiopia, mulching, watering and planting niche were significant to tree survival. Household socioeconomics and farms’ biophysical characteristics such as farm size, education level of the household head, land tenure, age of the household head had significant effects on seedling survival in both Ethiopia and Kenya while presence of soil erosion on the farm had a significant effect in Kenya. Soil quality ranking was positively correlated with tree survival in Ethiopia, regardless of species assessed. Current findings have confirmed effects of context specific variables some involving intrahousehold socioeconomic status such education level of the household head, and farm size that influence survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Local Knowledge about Ecosystem Services Provided by Trees in Coffee Agroforestry Practices in Northwest Vietnam
Land 2020, 9(12), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120486 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
In recent decades in northwest Vietnam, Arabica coffee has been grown on sloping land in intensive, full sun monocultures that are not sustainable in the long term and have negative environmental impacts. There is an urgent need to reverse this negative trend by [...] Read more.
In recent decades in northwest Vietnam, Arabica coffee has been grown on sloping land in intensive, full sun monocultures that are not sustainable in the long term and have negative environmental impacts. There is an urgent need to reverse this negative trend by promoting good agricultural practices, including agroforestry, to prevent further deforestation and soil erosion on slopes. A survey of 124 farmers from three indigenous groups was conducted in northwest Vietnam to document coffee agroforestry practices and the ecosystem services associated with different tree species used in them. Trees were ranked according to the main ecosystem services and disservices considered to be locally relevant by rural communities. Our results show that tree species richness in agroforestry plots was much higher for coffee compared to non-coffee plots, including those with annual crops and tree plantations. Most farmers were aware of the benefits of trees for soil improvement, shelter (from wind and frost), and the provision of shade and mulch. In contrast, farmers had limited knowledge of the impact of trees on coffee quality and other interactions amongst trees and coffee. Farmers ranked the leguminous tree species Leucaena leucocephala as the best for incorporating in coffee plots because of the services it provides to coffee. Nonetheless, the farmers’ selection of tree species to combine with coffee was highly influenced by economic benefits provided, especially by intercropped fruit trees, which was influenced by market access, determined by the proximity of farms to a main road. The findings from this research will help local extension institutions and farmers select appropriate tree species that suit the local context and that match household needs and constraints, thereby facilitating the transition to a more sustainable and climate-smart coffee production practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Landscape Restoration: A Stocktake
Land 2020, 9(11), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110465 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
With the increase in demand for landscape restoration and the limited resources available, there is need for economic analysis of landscape restoration to help prioritize investment of the resources. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a commonly applied tool in the economic analysis of landscape [...] Read more.
With the increase in demand for landscape restoration and the limited resources available, there is need for economic analysis of landscape restoration to help prioritize investment of the resources. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a commonly applied tool in the economic analysis of landscape restoration, yet its application seems limited and varied. We undertake a review of CBA applications to understand the breadth, depth, and gaps. Of the 2056 studies identified in literature search, only 31 met our predefined criteria. Three studies offered a global perspective, while more than half were conducted in Africa. Only six countries benefit from at least 2 CBA studies, including Brazil, Ethiopia, Kenya, Vietnam, South Africa, and Tanzania. About 60% focus on agroforestry, afforestation, reforestation, and assisted natural regeneration practices. Only 16% covered all cost categories, with opportunity costs being the least covered. Eighty-four percent apply direct use values, while only 16% captured the non-use values. Similarly, lack of reliable data due to predictions and assumptions involved in data generation influenced CBA results. The limited number of eligible studies and the weaknesses identified hereinabove suggest strong need for improvements in both the quantity and quality of CBA to better inform planning, policies, and investments in landscape restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit Tree-Based Agroforestry Systems for Smallholder Farmers in Northwest Vietnam—A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment
Land 2020, 9(11), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110451 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Rapid expansion of unsustainable farming practices in upland areas of Southeast Asia threatens food security and the environment. This study assessed alternative agroforestry systems for sustainable land management and livelihood improvement in northwest Vietnam. The performance of fruit tree-based agroforestry was compared with [...] Read more.
Rapid expansion of unsustainable farming practices in upland areas of Southeast Asia threatens food security and the environment. This study assessed alternative agroforestry systems for sustainable land management and livelihood improvement in northwest Vietnam. The performance of fruit tree-based agroforestry was compared with that of sole cropping, and farmers’ perspectives on agroforestry were documented. After seven years, longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.)-maize-forage grass and son tra (Docynia indica (Wall.) Decne)-forage grass systems had generated 2.4- and 3.5-fold higher average annual income than sole maize and sole son tra, respectively. Sole longan gave no net profit, due to high investment costs. After some years, competition developed between the crop, grass, and tree components, e.g., for nitrogen, and the farmers interviewed reported a need to adapt management practices to optimise spacing and pruning. They also reported that agroforestry enhanced ecosystem services by controlling surface runoff and erosion, increasing soil fertility and improving resilience to extreme weather. Thus, agroforestry practices with fruit trees can be more profitable than sole-crop cultivation within a few years. Integration of seasonal and fast-growing perennial plants (e.g., grass) is essential to ensure quick returns. Wider adoption needs initial incentives or loans, knowledge exchange, and market links. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Agroforestry and Other Sustainable Practices in the Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP)
Land 2020, 9(10), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100389 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
With growing global demand for food, unsustainable farming practices and large greenhouse gas emissions, farming systems need to sequester more carbon than they emit, while also increasing productivity and food production. The Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP) recruited farmer groups committed to more [...] Read more.
With growing global demand for food, unsustainable farming practices and large greenhouse gas emissions, farming systems need to sequester more carbon than they emit, while also increasing productivity and food production. The Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP) recruited farmer groups committed to more Sustainable Agricultural Land Management (SALM) practices and provided these groups with initial advisory services on SALM, farm enterprise development and village savings and loan associations. Recommended SALM practices included agroforestry, cover crops, mulching, composting manure, terracing, reduced tillage and water harvesting. The effects of the KACP on the uptake of SALM practices, maize yield, perceived food self-sufficiency and savings during the initial four years were assessed comparing control and project farmers using interviews, field visits and measurements. Farmers participating in the KACP seemed to have increased uptake of most SALM practices and decreased the use of practices to be avoided under the KACP recommendations. Agroforestry and terraces showed positive effects on maize yield. During all four years, the KACP farms had higher maize yield than control farms, but yield differences were similar in 2009 and 2012 and there was no overall significant effect of the KACP. In 2012, the KACP farms had higher food self-sufficiency and tended to have higher monetary savings than control farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Agroforestry Innovation through Planned Farmer Behavior: Trimming in Pine–Coffee Systems
Land 2020, 9(10), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100363 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
Knowledge transfer depends on the motivations of the target users. A case study of the intention of Indonesian coffee farmers to use a tree canopy trimming technique in pine–based agroforestry highlights path-dependency and complexity of social-ecological relationships. Farmers have contracts permitting coffee cultivation [...] Read more.
Knowledge transfer depends on the motivations of the target users. A case study of the intention of Indonesian coffee farmers to use a tree canopy trimming technique in pine–based agroforestry highlights path-dependency and complexity of social-ecological relationships. Farmers have contracts permitting coffee cultivation under pine trees owned by the state forestry company but have no right to fell trees. A multidisciplinary international team of scientists supported farmers at the University of Brawijaya Forest in East Java to trial canopy trimming to improve light for coffee production while maintaining tree density. Data were collected using surveys through interviews, case study analysis using in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and nonparticipant observations. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we found that though farmer attitudes toward trimming techniques were positive, several factors needed to be scrutinized: perceived limited socio-policy support and resources. While there is hope that canopy trimming can improve coffee production and local ecosystem services, a participatory and integrative extension and communication strategy will be needed. In the relationship between farmers as agents and forest authorities as principals, any agroforestry innovation needs to incorporate knowledge and concerns in the triangle of farmers, policymakers and empirical science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
A Discounted Cash Flow and Capital Budgeting Analysis of Silvopastoral Systems in the Amazonas Region of Peru
Land 2020, 9(10), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100353 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Silvopasture is a type of agroforestry that could deliver ecosystem services and support local livelihoods by integrating trees into pasture-based livestock systems. This study modeled the financial returns from silvopastures, planted forests, and conventional cattle-pasture systems in Amazonas, Peru using capital budgeting techniques. [...] Read more.
Silvopasture is a type of agroforestry that could deliver ecosystem services and support local livelihoods by integrating trees into pasture-based livestock systems. This study modeled the financial returns from silvopastures, planted forests, and conventional cattle-pasture systems in Amazonas, Peru using capital budgeting techniques. Forests had a lower land expectation value (USD 845 per hectare) than conventional cattle systems (USD 1275 per hectare) at a 4% discount rate. “Typical” model silvopastures, based on prior landowner surveys in the Amazonas region, were most competitive at low discount rates. The four actual silvopastoral systems we visited and examined had higher returns (4%: USD 1588 to USD 9524 per hectare) than either alternative pure crop or tree system, more than likely through strategies for generating value-added such as on-site retail stands. Silvopasture also offers animal health and environmental benefits, and could receive governmental or market payments to encourage these practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Traditional Pollarding Practices for Dimorphic Ash Tree (Fraxinus dimorpha) Support Soil Fertility in the Moroccan High Atlas
Land 2020, 9(9), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090334 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Shaping and pollarding of dimorphic ash tree (Fraxinus dimorpha) are two traditional practices used by the local inhabitants in agropastoral parklands of the Moroccan High Atlas to secure their production systems and increase tree production and strength. This study focused on [...] Read more.
Shaping and pollarding of dimorphic ash tree (Fraxinus dimorpha) are two traditional practices used by the local inhabitants in agropastoral parklands of the Moroccan High Atlas to secure their production systems and increase tree production and strength. This study focused on assessing the impact of these practices on soil quality. Abiotic parameters and mycorrhizal attributes of the samples of four soil types related to different ash tree morphotypes were assessed and compared. Rhizospheric soils (Rs) of three F. dimorpha morphotypes were sampled: trees regularly pollarded and shaped for stem anastomosis (An), regularly pollarded multistemmed trees (Na), and multistemmed trees belonging to a public forest under national forestry service management and sporadically illegally pollarded (Fo). The fourth soil was a non-Rs found in bare soils, which represented the control (Nr). Results showed a sizable difference between An soil properties and the other soil types ones, with significantly higher phosphorus (×6), nitrogen (×5), and carbon (×2) levels and higher mycorrhizal (×6) status than Nr soil, and showed 37% more mycorrhization intensity than Fo. Na showed intermediary levels between An and Fo. Fo had ×2 P, ×3 Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), 58% more Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content, and twice the spore density compared with Nr. It is concluded that shaping and pollarding have a positive impact on the soil characteristics of the studied species and could make a useful contribution to sound agroforest management schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Organic Matter, Mitigation of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Cocoa–Based Agroforestry Systems
Land 2020, 9(9), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090323 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
Belowground roles of agroforestry in climate change mitigation (C storage) and adaptation (reduced vulnerability to drought) are less obvious than easy-to-measure aspects aboveground. Documentation on these roles is lacking. We quantified the organic C concentration (Corg) and soil physical properties in [...] Read more.
Belowground roles of agroforestry in climate change mitigation (C storage) and adaptation (reduced vulnerability to drought) are less obvious than easy-to-measure aspects aboveground. Documentation on these roles is lacking. We quantified the organic C concentration (Corg) and soil physical properties in a mountainous landscape in Sulawesi (Indonesia) for five land cover types: secondary forest (SF), multistrata cocoa–based agroforestry (CAF) aged 4–5 years (CAF4), 10–12 years (CAF10), 17–34 years (CAF17), and multistrata (mixed fruit and timber) agroforest (MAF45) aged 45–68 years. With four replicate plots per cover type, we measured five pools of C-stock according to IPCC guidelines, soil bulk density (BD), macro porosity (MP), hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and available water capacity of the soil (AWC). The highest C-stock, in SF, was around 320 Mg ha−1, the lowest, 74 Mg ha−1, was in CAF4, with the older agroforestry systems being intermediate with 120 to 150 Mg ha−1. Soil compaction after forest conversion led to increased BD and reduced MP, Ks, and AWC. Older agroforestry partly recovered buffering: AWC per m of rooted soil profile increased by 5.7 mm per unit (g kg−1) increase of Corg. The restored AWC can support about a week’s worth of evapotranspiration without rain, assisting in climate change adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Storage Potential of Silvopastoral Systems of Colombia
Land 2020, 9(9), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090309 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Nine Latin American countries plan to use silvopastoral practices—incorporating trees into grazing lands—to mitigate climate change. However, the cumulative potential of scaling up silvopastoral systems at national levels is not well quantified. Here, we combined previously published tree cover data based on 250 [...] Read more.
Nine Latin American countries plan to use silvopastoral practices—incorporating trees into grazing lands—to mitigate climate change. However, the cumulative potential of scaling up silvopastoral systems at national levels is not well quantified. Here, we combined previously published tree cover data based on 250 m resolution MODIS satellite remote sensing imagery for 2000–2017 with ecofloristic zone carbon stock estimates to calculate historical and potential future tree biomass carbon storage in Colombian grasslands. Between 2000 and 2017, tree cover across all Colombian grasslands increased from 15% to 18%, with total biomass carbon (TBC) stocks increasing from 0.41 to 0.48 Pg. The range in 2017 carbon stock values in grasslands based on ecofloristic zones (5 to 122 Mg ha−1) suggests a potential for further increase. Increasing all carbon stocks to the current median and 75th percentile levels for the respective eco-floristic zone would increase TBC stocks by about 0.06 and 0.15 Pg, respectively. Incorporated into national C accounting, such Tier 2 estimates can set realistic targets for silvopastoral systems in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) implementation plans in Colombia and other Latin American countries with similar contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Tree Roots Anchoring and Binding Soil: Reducing Landslide Risk in Indonesian Agroforestry
Land 2020, 9(8), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080256 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Tree root systems stabilize hillslopes and riverbanks, reducing landslide risk, but related data for the humid tropics are scarce. We tested fractal allometry hypotheses on differences in the vertical and horizontal distribution of roots of trees commonly found in agroforestry systems and on [...] Read more.
Tree root systems stabilize hillslopes and riverbanks, reducing landslide risk, but related data for the humid tropics are scarce. We tested fractal allometry hypotheses on differences in the vertical and horizontal distribution of roots of trees commonly found in agroforestry systems and on shear strength of soil in relation to root length density in the topsoil. Proximal roots of 685 trees (55 species; 4–20 cm stem diameter at breast height, dbh) were observed across six landscapes in Indonesia. The Index of Root Anchoring (IRA) and the Index of Root Binding (IRB) were calculated as ΣDv2/dbh2 and as ΣDh2/dbh2, respectively, where Dv and Dh are the diameters of vertical (angle > 45°) and horizontal (angle < 45°) proximal roots. High IRA values (>1.0) were observed in coffee and several common shade trees. Common fruit trees in coffee agroforestry had low medium values, indicating modest ‘soil anchoring’. Where root length density (Lrv) in the topsoil is less than 10 km m−3 shear strength largely depends on texture; for Lrv > 10 shear strength was >1.5 kg m−2 at the texture tested. In conclusion, a mix of tree species with deep roots and grasses with intense fine roots provides the highest hillslope and riverbank stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
People-Centric Nature-Based Land Restoration through Agroforestry: A Typology
Land 2020, 9(8), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080251 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2957
Abstract
Restoration depends on purpose and context. At the core it entails innovation to halt ongoing and reverse past degradation. It aims for increased functionality, not necessarily recovering past system states. Location-specific interventions in social-ecological systems reducing proximate pressures, need to synergize with transforming [...] Read more.
Restoration depends on purpose and context. At the core it entails innovation to halt ongoing and reverse past degradation. It aims for increased functionality, not necessarily recovering past system states. Location-specific interventions in social-ecological systems reducing proximate pressures, need to synergize with transforming generic drivers of unsustainable land use. After reviewing pantropical international research on forests, trees, and agroforestry, we developed an options-by-context typology. Four intensities of land restoration interact: R.I. Ecological intensification within a land use system, R.II. Recovery/regeneration, within a local social-ecological system, R.III. Reparation/recuperation, requiring a national policy context, R.IV. Remediation, requiring international support and investment. Relevant interventions start from core values of human identity while addressing five potential bottlenecks: Rights, Know-how, Markets (inputs, outputs, credit), Local Ecosystem Services (including water, agrobiodiversity, micro/mesoclimate) and Teleconnections (global climate change, biodiversity). Six stages of forest transition (from closed old-growth forest to open-field agriculture and re-treed (peri)urban landscapes) can contextualize interventions, with six special places: water towers, riparian zone and wetlands, peat landscapes, small islands and mangroves, transport infrastructure, and mining scars. The typology can help to link knowledge with action in people-centric restoration in which external stakeholders coinvest, reflecting shared responsibility for historical degradation and benefits from environmental stewardship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Agroforestry Landscape Management: Changing the Game
Land 2020, 9(8), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080243 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Location-specific forms of agroforestry management can reduce problems in the forest–water–people nexus, by balancing upstream and downstream interests, but social and ecological finetuning is needed. New ways of achieving shared understanding of the underlying ecological and social-ecological relations is needed to adapt and [...] Read more.
Location-specific forms of agroforestry management can reduce problems in the forest–water–people nexus, by balancing upstream and downstream interests, but social and ecological finetuning is needed. New ways of achieving shared understanding of the underlying ecological and social-ecological relations is needed to adapt and contextualize generic solutions. Addressing these challenges between thirteen cases of tropical agroforestry scenario development across three continents requires exploration of generic aspects of issues, knowledge and participative approaches. Participative projects with local stakeholders increasingly use ‘serious gaming’. Although helpful, serious games so far (1) appear to be ad hoc, case dependent, with poorly defined extrapolation domains, (2) require heavy research investment, (3) have untested cultural limitations and (4) lack clarity on where and how they can be used in policy making. We classify the main forest–water–people nexus issues and the types of land-use solutions that shape local discourses and that are to be brought to life in the games. Four ‘prototype’ games will be further used to test hypotheses about the four problems identified constraining game use. The resulting generic forest–water–people games will be the outcome of the project “Scenario evaluation for sustainable agroforestry management through forest-water-people games” (SESAM), for which this article provides a preview. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Infiltration-Friendly Agroforestry Land Uses on Volcanic Slopes in the Rejoso Watershed, East Java, Indonesia
Land 2020, 9(8), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080240 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
Forest conversion to agriculture can induce the loss of hydrologic functions linked to infiltration. Infiltration-friendly agroforestry land uses minimize this loss. Our assessment of forest-derived land uses in the Rejoso Watershed on the slopes of the Bromo volcano in East Java (Indonesia) focused [...] Read more.
Forest conversion to agriculture can induce the loss of hydrologic functions linked to infiltration. Infiltration-friendly agroforestry land uses minimize this loss. Our assessment of forest-derived land uses in the Rejoso Watershed on the slopes of the Bromo volcano in East Java (Indonesia) focused on two zones, upstream (above 800 m a.s.l.; Andisols) and midstream (400–800 m a.s.l.; Inceptisols) of the Rejoso River, feeding aquifers that support lowland rice areas and drinking water supply to nearby cities. We quantified throughfall, infiltration, and erosion in three replications per land use category, with 6–13% of rainfall with intensities of 51–100 mm day−1. Throughfall varied from 65 to 100%, with a zone-dependent intercept but common 3% increase in canopy retention per 10% increase in canopy cover. In the upstream watershed, a tree canopy cover > 55% was associated with the infiltration rates needed, as soil erosion per unit overland flow was high. Midstream, only a tree canopy cover of > 80% qualified as “infiltration-friendly” land use, due to higher rainfall in this zone, but erosion rates were relatively low for a tree canopy cover in the range of 20–80%. The tree canopy characteristics required for infiltration-friendly land use clearly vary over short distances with soil type and rainfall intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Gendered Species Preferences Link Tree Diversity and Carbon Stocks in Cacao Agroforest in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
Land 2020, 9(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9040108 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The degree to which the maintenance of carbon (C) stocks and tree diversity can be jointly achieved in production landscapes is debated. C stocks in forests are decreased by logging before tree diversity is affected, while C stocks in monoculture tree plantations increase, [...] Read more.
The degree to which the maintenance of carbon (C) stocks and tree diversity can be jointly achieved in production landscapes is debated. C stocks in forests are decreased by logging before tree diversity is affected, while C stocks in monoculture tree plantations increase, but diversity does not. Agroforestry can break this hysteresis pattern, relevant for policies in search of synergy. We compared total C stocks and tree diversity among degraded forest, complex cacao/fruit tree agroforests, simple shade-tree cacao agroforestry, monoculture cacao, and annual crops in the Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. We evaluated farmer tree preferences and the utility value of the system for 40 farmers (male and female). The highest tree diversity (Shannon–Wiener H index 2.36) and C stocks (282 Mg C ha−1) were found in degraded forest, followed by cacao-based agroforestry systems (H index ranged from 0.58–0.93 with C stocks of 75–89 Mg ha−1). Male farmers selected timber and fruit tree species with economic benefits as shade trees, while female farmers preferred production for household needs (fruit trees and vegetables). Carbon stocks and tree diversity were positively related (R2 = 0.72). Adding data from across Indonesia (n = 102), agroforestry systems had an intermediate position between forest decline and reforestation responses. Maintaining agroforestry in the landscape allows aboveground C stocks up to 50 Mg ha−1 and reduces biodiversity loss. Agroforestry facilitates climate change mitigation and biodiversity goals to be addressed simultaneously in sustainable production landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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