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Land, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 105 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This research exploits the recurring change detected in vegetation cover over time to gauge the predictable (resilient) behavior as well as its chaoticity in a semi-arid Mediterranean region (Apulia, Italy). Interestingly, the results show the spatial rendering of recurrence variables, confirming the well-known hot spots of soil degradation and desertification taking place in the region, which are characterized by greater EVI chaoticity, but they also identified new potential candidate sites where focus the monitoring activities. The novelty of the research lies in the spatially explicit identification of resilient and less resilient areas to desertification that can support the definition of more targeted interventions and conservation priorities for better planning and sustainable management of Mediterranean drylands. View this paper
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Review
A Systematic Review of Drivers and Constraints on Agricultural Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa
Land 2021, 10(3), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030332 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Understanding the dynamics of agricultural expansion, their drivers, and interactions is critical for biodiversity conservation, ecosystem-services provision, and the future sustainability of agricultural development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is limited understanding of the drivers of agricultural expansion. A systematic review of [...] Read more.
Understanding the dynamics of agricultural expansion, their drivers, and interactions is critical for biodiversity conservation, ecosystem-services provision, and the future sustainability of agricultural development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is limited understanding of the drivers of agricultural expansion. A systematic review of the drivers of agricultural expansion was conducted from 1970 to 2020 using Web of Science, Elsevier Scopus and Google Scholar. Two researchers reviewed the papers separately based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fifteen papers were included in the final systematic review. The paper proposed expansion pathways in a conceptual framework and identified proximate and underlying drivers. Population dynamics and government policies were found to be key underlying drivers of agricultural expansion. The proximate drivers include economic opportunities such as agriculture mechanisation and cash crops production, and more troubling trends such as soil fertility decline and climate change and variability. This paper further explores the constraints that have been found to slow down agricultural expansion, including strong land institutions and good governance. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Tourism and Natural Protected Areas: Exploring Local Population Perceptions in a Post-Conflict Scenario
Land 2021, 10(3), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030331 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
The expansion of urban areas around the world and the application of the sustainability paradigm to tourism discourses has favored an increase in the number of people visiting natural protected areas (NPAs) in their leisure time. While tourism is desired to boost the [...] Read more.
The expansion of urban areas around the world and the application of the sustainability paradigm to tourism discourses has favored an increase in the number of people visiting natural protected areas (NPAs) in their leisure time. While tourism is desired to boost the economy of destinations, mismanagement can bring negative consequences for social–ecological systems, particularly in post-conflict rural scenarios. In the context of a broader ethnographic research, we analyzed the perceptions of the local population about tourism development in the NPA Jaltepeque Estuary (El Salvador, Central America) and the establishment of a Biosphere Reserve in the area, using structured questionnaires and Multiple Correspondence Analysis for the typification of social actors. We found that overall, the population regards positively the development of tourism in the area. Fishermen are the only ones who highlight the negative economic consequences of tourism development, claiming disparity in the distribution of benefits and an increase in the cost of living. We conclude that although tourism development is an activity desired by local people, there is a need in the community to discuss how this process of socio-economic transformation should be approached and an evident conflict between two different models: the one desired and offered by the population and the one that is currently being developed in the nearby Costa del Sol corridor. Full article
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Article
Rural Roads Are Paving the Way for Land-Use Intensification in the Uplands of Laos
Land 2021, 10(3), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030330 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Road expansion has played a prominent role in the agrarian transition that marked the integration of swidden-based farming systems into the market economy in Southeast Asia. Rural roads deeply altered the landscape and livelihood structures by allowing the penetration of boom crops such [...] Read more.
Road expansion has played a prominent role in the agrarian transition that marked the integration of swidden-based farming systems into the market economy in Southeast Asia. Rural roads deeply altered the landscape and livelihood structures by allowing the penetration of boom crops such as hybrid maize in remote territories. In this article, we investigate the impact of rural road developments on livelihoods in northern Laos through a longitudinal study conducted over a period of 15 years in a forest frontier. We studied adaptive management strategies of local stakeholders through the combination of individual surveys, focus group discussions, participatory mapping and remote-sensing approaches. The study revealed the short-term benefits of the maize feeder roads on poverty alleviation and rural development, but also the negative long-term effects on agroecosystem health and agricultural productivity related to unsustainable land use. Lessons learnt about the mechanisms of agricultural intensification helped understanding the constraints faced by external interventions promoting sustainable land management practices. When negotiated by local communities for their own interest, roads may provide livelihood-enhancing opportunities through access to external resources, rather than undermining them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Transformation and Changes in Land Use Intensity)
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Article
Simulation of Gross Primary Productivity Using Multiple Light Use Efficiency Models
Land 2021, 10(3), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030329 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the most basic variable in a carbon cycle study that determines the carbon that enters the ecosystem. The remote sensing-based light use efficiency (LUE) model is one of the primary tools that is currently used to estimate the [...] Read more.
Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the most basic variable in a carbon cycle study that determines the carbon that enters the ecosystem. The remote sensing-based light use efficiency (LUE) model is one of the primary tools that is currently used to estimate the GPP at the regional scale. Many remote sensing-based GPP models have been developed in the last several decades, and these models have been well evaluated at some sites. However, an accurate estimation of the GPP remains challenging work using LUE models because of uncertainties in the model caused by model parameters, model forcing, and vegetation spatial heterogeneity. In this study, five widely used LUE models, Glo-PEM, VPM, EC-LUE, the MODIS GPP algorithm, and C-fix, were selected to simulate the GPP of the Heihe River Basin forced using in situ measurements. A multiple-model averaging method, Bayesian model averaging (BMA), was used to combine the five models to obtain a more reliable GPP estimation. The BMA was trained using carbon flux data from five eddy covariance towers located at dominant vegetation types in the study area. Generally, the BMA method performed better than any single LUE model. From the case study in the study area, it is indicated that the trained BMA is an efficient method to combine multiple LUE models and can improve the GPP simulation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Systems and Global Change)
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Article
Effect of Organic Fertilizer on Soil Bacteria in Maize Fields
Land 2021, 10(3), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030328 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Soil microorganisms play an important role in agricultural ecosystems, but their response to organic fertilizer application has not been thoroughly elucidated. Thus, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the responses of soil bacterial to organic fertilizer amendment (composted from pig manure) in the [...] Read more.
Soil microorganisms play an important role in agricultural ecosystems, but their response to organic fertilizer application has not been thoroughly elucidated. Thus, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the responses of soil bacterial to organic fertilizer amendment (composted from pig manure) in the field during the entire growth cycle of maize plants. Four treatments were studied: treatment with 2 kg·m−2 organic fertilizer application (OF_2), treatment with 4 kg·m−2 organic fertilizer application (OF_4), treatment with 6 kg·m−2 organic fertilizer application (OF_6), and a controlled treatment (CK) without fertilization. The results revealed that the bacterial richness in OF_2 was significantly lower than that of CK (p < 0.05). Soil eutrophication bacteria Bacteroidetes increased effectively in all fertilized soils, relative abundance in OF_2, OF_4, and OF_6 for the entire maize growth cycle was 68.00%, 71.40%, and 77.93% higher than that in CK, respectively. In addition, soil nitrobacteria (Nitrospirae, Nitrospira), were markedly decreased (p < 0.05) with fertilization amount. The relative abundance of the nitrogen-fixing genus Adhaeribacter in OF_6 was 209.28%, 72.8% and 35.66% higher than that in CK, OF_2 and OF_4 at mature stage. The pathogenic genus Flavolibacterium was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in fertilized soil at the seeding stage. The driving factor governing the variations of bacterial community in CK, OF_2, OF_4 and OF_6 were pH value, available phosphorus, available phosphorus, and chromium, respectively. The findings highlight that part of the soil functional or pathogenic bacteria population was susceptible to organic fertilizer application; and the driving factor of bacterial composition change was associated with the rate of fertilization. More targeted experiments are needed to enhance the understanding of functional bacteria and the synergistic effect of soil physicochemical property physical on soil bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic of Natural Ecosystems under Anthropogenic Disturbances)
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Article
Landscape and Tourism: European Expert Views on an Intricate Relationship
Land 2021, 10(3), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030327 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Although the centrality of landscape to tourism is unquestionable and already a broadly established scientific area of research, much remains to be explored and understood regarding their interrelatedness. The objective of this research was to investigate, analyze and assess notions and perceptions of [...] Read more.
Although the centrality of landscape to tourism is unquestionable and already a broadly established scientific area of research, much remains to be explored and understood regarding their interrelatedness. The objective of this research was to investigate, analyze and assess notions and perceptions of the reciprocal relationship between the landscape and tourism through an electronic survey among European researchers and scientists of relevant and associated academic fields. This was achieved with the aid of an interview questionnaire survey, focusing on the experts’ (a) perceptions/understandings and visions of future optimization of the reciprocal relationship tourism–landscape, (b) their conceptualizations of landscapes of tourism, and 9c) their assessments of the prospects (opportunities) and challenges (threats) coming out of the close tourism–landscape relationship, both for the tourism industry and the local societies involved. Our findings point to an emergence of a definition for “landscapes of tourism”. The experts elaborated on the high significance of the tourism–landscape relationship, through well-balanced and realistic opinions vis-à-vis the positive and negative aspects of the researched relationship but leaning towards its negative aspects. Overall, the findings reveal significant social sensitivities, environmental concerns, support for the principles of sustainability, locality, participatory governance and a call for appropriate governmental planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Tourism, Landscapes of Tourism)
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Article
Digitization as a Driver fur Rural Development—An Indicative Description of German Coworking Space Users
Land 2021, 10(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030326 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Background: The urban-rural land divide is visible through where people choose to work. This article aims to detect how, where and why people use rural coworking spaces instead of or in addition to working in urban areas. Methods: The research relied on both [...] Read more.
Background: The urban-rural land divide is visible through where people choose to work. This article aims to detect how, where and why people use rural coworking spaces instead of or in addition to working in urban areas. Methods: The research relied on both documented evidence and a structured survey among users of coworking spaces. Results: We found that the choice of working in rural coworking spaces draws on certain benefits and opportunities for its users, such as avoiding social isolation, separating private and professional life, reducing the commuting. An additional benefit for rural towns and villages is that the presence of a coworking space can make the location more vital, lively and attractive. Conclusions (and recommendations): Coworking space could partially bridge the urban-rural land divide. However, understanding this requires more insights in the behavior of rural coworking space users. Further research could look into modelling cause-effect relations and predicting coworking user behavior and the effect on their environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Perspectives: People, Tenure, Planning, Tools, Space, and Health)
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Article
Spatial Unevenness of Formation, Remediation and Persistence of Post-Agricultural Brownfields
Land 2021, 10(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030325 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
The fall of the Iron Curtain created a vacuum upon which large-scale collectivized agriculture was largely abandoned. Post-agricultural brownfields emerge in multiple manners across national, regional and local levels. While these sites remain rarely explored, we aimed to better understand the spatial consequences [...] Read more.
The fall of the Iron Curtain created a vacuum upon which large-scale collectivized agriculture was largely abandoned. Post-agricultural brownfields emerge in multiple manners across national, regional and local levels. While these sites remain rarely explored, we aimed to better understand the spatial consequences of the formation, persistence and reuse of these sites. The regions of South Bohemia and South Moravia in the Czech Republic are used to show the location of post-agricultural brownfields identified in 2004 through 2018. Using Global Moran’s I test we have found that post-agricultural brownfields existing in 2004, long-term brownfields in 2018 and brownfields established between 2004 and 2018 are spatially clustered, but remediated brownfields between 2004 and 2018 are not. Next, the Anselin’s Local Moran’s I test identified where the spatial clusters exist. The clusters identified were examined for differences in their social, economic and environmental development by the means of logistic regression. The results show that the brownfields initially identified in 2004 are concentrated in regions with lower quality agricultural land while simultaneously located in the hinterlands of regional urban centers. In contrast, peripheral regions most often contained long-term brownfields. Brownfield sites identified after 2004 occurred in regions with higher agricultural quality of land and where corn usually grows. Full article
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Review
Global Land Grabbing: A Critical Review of Case Studies across the World
by and
Land 2021, 10(3), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030324 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Over the past several decades, land investments have dramatically increased to meet global food and biofuel demands, produce industrial commodities, protect environments and develop urban centres. Scholars and media actors have labelled this phenomenon “land grabbing”, owing to its many negative impacts. Since [...] Read more.
Over the past several decades, land investments have dramatically increased to meet global food and biofuel demands, produce industrial commodities, protect environments and develop urban centres. Scholars and media actors have labelled this phenomenon “land grabbing”, owing to its many negative impacts. Since existing knowledge was generated from individual case-studies, global land grabbing patterns are relatively underexamined, and broader extrapolations of results to inform land grabbing theories are limited. Thus, there is an urgent need to conduct a large-N analyse on existing knowledge of land grabbing to enhance the understanding of the state-of-the-art knowledge and identify the gaps in research. We conducted a critical review of existing scholarly literature on case studies of land grabbing. Based on formal criteria, we selected 128 case studies from 124 articles out of 252 peer-reviewed articles published since 2007. We examined geographic distribution and commonly referenced topics in existing research and the clarified environmental and socioeconomic outcomes of land grabbing, presenting the most current knowledge on the topic to date. Findings from this research also revealed substantial gaps in the existing literature in terms of conceptualization, methodology and research area. The paper concludes with a call for more interdisciplinary, holistic research that looks at broader regional/temporal contexts and the inclusion of more evidence-based data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Socio-Economic and Political Issues)
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Article
Evaluating the Impact of Large-Scale Agricultural Investments on Household Food Security Using an Endogenous Switching Regression Model
Land 2021, 10(3), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030323 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
This study set out to estimate the effects of large-scale agricultural investments (LSAIs) on household food security in one community each in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique. An endogenous switching regression model was adopted to control for a possible selection bias due to unobserved [...] Read more.
This study set out to estimate the effects of large-scale agricultural investments (LSAIs) on household food security in one community each in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique. An endogenous switching regression model was adopted to control for a possible selection bias due to unobserved factors. It was found that households with members employed by large-scale agricultural investment companies were more likely larger households headed by younger migrant males holding smaller plots and fewer livestock than non-engaged households. The endogenous switching regression results confirmed the presence of both a positive and negative selection bias. In general, the results showed that households with a member employed by an LSAI enjoyed better household food security, higher dietary diversity, better food consumption scores and more adequate household food provisioning. Households without employed members could also enjoy these benefits should the LSAIs employ their members. However, the seasonal nature and low wages paid by LSAI may only support the purchase of food and not facilitate savings and investments to significantly improve food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Rush in Africa)
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Article
Transition Pathways of Agroecological Innovation in Portugal’s Douro Wine Region. A Multi-Level Perspective
Land 2021, 10(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030322 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 759
Abstract
The Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) is an analytical framework developed to explain transitions towards sustainability. This article aims to contribute to enhancing the use of the MLP to understand the transitions towards sustainability in agriculture. We propose that MLP is an insightful framework to [...] Read more.
The Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) is an analytical framework developed to explain transitions towards sustainability. This article aims to contribute to enhancing the use of the MLP to understand the transitions towards sustainability in agriculture. We propose that MLP is an insightful framework to capture particular micro-level trajectories of adopting innovations. The Douro wine region in Northern Portugal, known worldwide for the wines that are produced there, was the study area of our empirical research. This region has become the stage for developing a complex agroecological innovation, the Ecological Infrastructures (EIs). These consist of a combination of techniques that aim to expand the ecosystem services of the vineyards. The uniqueness of its development at the farm level originates a multiplicity of innovation trajectories, which are the focus of this study. Content analysis of 20 interviews with winegrowers was performed, and the results were analysed through the MLP framework. This allowed us to conclude that a process of transition towards the sustainability of region-level winegrowing is underway, and that it can be explained by the overlapping of different paths of adopting innovation. Our research shows that in-depth analysis of qualitative data, done through content analysis, can be used to amplify the insightfulness of MLP by enabling it to uncover the microscale transition pathways that shape uneven region-level transitions. Full article
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Article
Application of Drone and WorldView-4 Satellite Data in Mapping and Monitoring Grazing Land Cover and Pasture Quality: Pre- and Post-Flooding
Land 2021, 10(3), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030321 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Frequent flooding worldwide, especially in grazing environments, requires mapping and monitoring grazing land cover and pasture quality to support land management. Although drones, satellite, and machine learning technologies can be used to map land cover and pasture quality, there have been limited applications [...] Read more.
Frequent flooding worldwide, especially in grazing environments, requires mapping and monitoring grazing land cover and pasture quality to support land management. Although drones, satellite, and machine learning technologies can be used to map land cover and pasture quality, there have been limited applications in grazing land environments, especially monitoring land cover change and pasture quality pre- and post-flood events. The use of high spatial resolution drone and satellite data such as WorldView-4 can provide effective mapping and monitoring in grazing land environments. The aim of this study was to utilize high spatial resolution drone and WorldView-4 satellite data to map and monitor grazing land cover change and pasture quality pre-and post-flooding. The grazing land cover was mapped pre-flooding using WorldView-4 satellite data and post-flooding using real-time drone data. The machine learning Random Forest classification algorithm was used to delineate land cover types and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to monitor pasture quality. This study found a seven percent (7%) increase in pasture cover and a one hundred percent (100%) increase in pasture quality post-flooding. The drone and WorldView-4 satellite data were useful to detect grazing land cover change at a finer scale. Full article
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Article
Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth: Evidence from Yangtze River Economic Zone
Land 2021, 10(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030320 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
To better understand the impacts of infrastructure investment on economic growth and, we used Cobb-Douglas production function model to develop the stock of public infrastructure capital into the economic growth model. It applies spatial panel data model effect analysis to statistical data of [...] Read more.
To better understand the impacts of infrastructure investment on economic growth and, we used Cobb-Douglas production function model to develop the stock of public infrastructure capital into the economic growth model. It applies spatial panel data model effect analysis to statistical data of the Yangtze River Economic Zone with 131 cities from 2003 to 2016 and investigates the relationship between different types of public infrastructure capital stock and regional economic growth in different periods. The empirical results show that (1) the economic growth of the cities in the Yangtze River Economic Zone has characteristics of significant spatial dependence, the degree and significance of spatial dependence are gradually declining, and the spatial agglomeration of the economic growth in the cities in the region is relatively stable. (2) Different types of public infrastructure capital stock have distinct spatial effects on regional economic growth. The capital stock of energy infrastructure significantly promotes global economic growth. The capital stock of transportation infrastructure significantly stimulates the local economic growth and inhibits the economic growth of the adjacent areas. The capital stock of water-related infrastructure restrains local economic growth and promotes economic growth in adjacent areas. These findings indicate that increasing investment in public infrastructure development in the Yangtze River Economic Zone remains an effective measure to promote regional economic growth. Under the premise of limited resources, taking full account of the effects of various types of investment can promote the mutual benefit of the economies in the region and effectively achieve the strategic objectives for the Yangtze River Economic Zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Use Planning/Land Planning)
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Article
What Drives Different Governance Modes and Marketization Performance for Collective Commercial Construction Land in Rural China?
Land 2021, 10(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030319 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 526
Abstract
The collective commercial construction land (CCCL) reform in China has attracted considerable attention worldwide, but studies on the influencing factors and performance of governance modes for CCCL marketization are still in their infancy. First, by deconstructing CCCL, this study developed a conceptual framework [...] Read more.
The collective commercial construction land (CCCL) reform in China has attracted considerable attention worldwide, but studies on the influencing factors and performance of governance modes for CCCL marketization are still in their infancy. First, by deconstructing CCCL, this study developed a conceptual framework from the perspective of transaction cost economics. Based on a series of surveys, interviews, and closed questionnaires in two pilot areas, this study determined the influencing factors for governance mode choice for CCCL marketization through comparative case studies and compared the performance of the government-led and self-organized modes. This study concluded that asset specificity, uncertainty, and frequency were the main influencing factors for transaction costs, which could influence the choice of governance mode for CCCL marketization. Moreover, the characteristics of the two aforementioned governance modes, transaction costs, and specific revenue distribution resulted in different marketization performances. Full article
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Article
Where Do I Allocate My Urban Allotment Gardens? Development of a Site Selection Tool for Three Cities in Benin
Land 2021, 10(3), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030318 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
In the context of rapid urbanization, poorer residents in cities across low- and middle-income countries increasingly experience food and nutrition deficiencies. The United Nations has highlighted urban agriculture (UA) as a viable solution to food insecurity, by empowering the urban poor to produce [...] Read more.
In the context of rapid urbanization, poorer residents in cities across low- and middle-income countries increasingly experience food and nutrition deficiencies. The United Nations has highlighted urban agriculture (UA) as a viable solution to food insecurity, by empowering the urban poor to produce their own fresh foods and make some profit from surplus production. Despite its potential role in reducing poverty and food insecurity, there appears to be little political will to support urban agriculture. This is seen in unclear political mandates that are sustained by information gaps on selection criteria for UA sites. The research reported here addresses this issue in the form of a decision-making support tool that assesses the suitability of cadastral units and informal plots for allotment gardens in urban and peri-urban areas. The tool was developed and tested for three rapidly expanding cities in Benin, a low-income country in West Africa, based on an ordered logit model that relates a set of 300 expert assessments on site suitability to georeferenced information on biophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Soil, land use, groundwater depth, vicinity to market and women’s safety were significant factors in the assessment. Scaled up across all cadastral units and informal sites, the tool generated detailed baseline maps on site suitability and availability of areas. Its capacity to support policymakers in selecting appropriate sites comes to the fore by reporting changes in site suitability under scenarios of improved soil fertility and enhanced safety for women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture in Urban Food Systems: Models and Practices)
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Article
Spatio-Temporal Non-Stationarity and Its Influencing Factors of Commercial Land Price: A Case Study of Hangzhou, China
Land 2021, 10(3), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030317 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Investigating the characteristics and mechanisms of the spatial and temporal variations of commercial land prices and its major subdivisions has great theoretical and practical significance in the study of urban economy and its spatial refinement management. Unlike general commodity prices, land prices are [...] Read more.
Investigating the characteristics and mechanisms of the spatial and temporal variations of commercial land prices and its major subdivisions has great theoretical and practical significance in the study of urban economy and its spatial refinement management. Unlike general commodity prices, land prices are influenced by geographical location and tend to fluctuate over time. However, most scholars have not explored the influence mechanism of commercial land prices in both time and space. To help bridge this gap, this study takes the sample commercial land prices in the main urban area of Hangzhou from 2006 to 2015 as the empirical research object and investigates the spatiotemporal evolution mechanism of urban commercial land prices through a comparative analysis of the multiple regression analysis (MRA) with ordinary least squares (OLS), the geographically weighted regression (GWR), the temporally weighted regression (TWR), and the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) models. Results indicate that the land prices of land for financial facilities (Commercial Land Category 1) and commercial-business land (Commercial Land Category 2) in Hangzhou show different spatial and temporal evolutions and are influenced by the common factors of residential land price level (PL), maturity of living services (EN), and plot ratio (FRO) in the district. Meanwhile the main difference between the two influencing factors is the significant difference in sensitivity to locational centrality and industrial structure. Furthermore, we find that the spatial and temporal evolution of commercial land prices has three main mechanism: location selection, point-axis evolution, and function-promoting. Our findings will provide guidelines for scientifically guiding the coordinated development of urban land price and industrial economy and realizing the fine management and allocation of urban spatial resources. Full article
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Article
Addressing the Differences in Farmers’ Willingness and Behavior Regarding Developing Green Agriculture—A Case Study in Xichuan County, China
Land 2021, 10(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030316 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
The development of green agriculture is an effective way to realize the sustainable development of agriculture, which is of great significance for guaranteeing national food security, improving the supply ability of agricultural products, promoting the healthy development of cultivated land, and realizing green [...] Read more.
The development of green agriculture is an effective way to realize the sustainable development of agriculture, which is of great significance for guaranteeing national food security, improving the supply ability of agricultural products, promoting the healthy development of cultivated land, and realizing green development. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has proposed the establishment of a green-development-oriented agricultural support system, which intends to reverse the worsening of the agricultural ecological environment; however, in 2019, the input of agricultural chemical fertilizer still exceeded the international limit of the safe application of chemical fertilizer. In recent years, agriculture has surpassed industry to become the largest non-point source pollution industry in China, seriously affecting the rural ecological civilization construction and the advancement of green sustainable development coordinated. To analyze the key factors affecting the development of green agriculture, in this study, logistic binary regression analysis was used to measure the main factors affecting farmers’ green agricultural production willingness and green agricultural production behavior. The results show that a farmer’s age, land type, compensation for land transfer, technical service organization, related training, and economic and technological subsidies had significant effects on their green agricultural production willingness. The age of farmers, number of staff, risk of green agricultural production technology, technical service organization, and economic and technological subsidies were shown to have significant effects on the green agricultural production behavior of farmers, where the different factors influenced the behavior to different degrees. Based on the above findings, it is suggested that the Chinese government should help farmers to carry out agricultural green transformation through technical training, policy popularization, economic subsidies, and educational support. Full article
Review
Social Vulnerability Assessment for Landslide Hazards in Malaysia: A Systematic Review Study
Land 2021, 10(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030315 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Landslides represent one of the world’s most dangerous and widespread risks, annually causing thousands of deaths and billions of dollars worth of damage. Building on and around hilly areas in many regions has increased, and it poses a severe threat to the physical [...] Read more.
Landslides represent one of the world’s most dangerous and widespread risks, annually causing thousands of deaths and billions of dollars worth of damage. Building on and around hilly areas in many regions has increased, and it poses a severe threat to the physical infrastructure and people living within such zones. Quantitative assessment of social vulnerability in Malaysia is worrying because it has been given less attention than hazard-related studies. Therefore, this study’s objective is to find out the indicators used for social vulnerability assessment in the context of a landslide in Malaysia. The analysis is critical for understanding the measures of social vulnerability, given that the incorporation of climate change and disaster risk mitigation issues in urban planning and management are considered priorities in ensuring a stable population growth and avoiding economic disruption. A systematic study on the Scopus and Web of Science repositories was conducted based on the PRISMA Report analysis method. This article concluded that there are six important indicators of social vulnerability in the context of landslide in Malaysia. Full article
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Article
Appropriate Management Scale of Farmland and Regional Differences under Different Objectives in Shaanxi Province, China
Land 2021, 10(3), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030314 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
Agricultural development is facing two problems: insufficient grain production and low profit of farmers. There is a contradiction between the government’s goal of increasing production and the farmer’s goal of increasing profit. Exploring the appropriate management scale of farmland under different objectives is [...] Read more.
Agricultural development is facing two problems: insufficient grain production and low profit of farmers. There is a contradiction between the government’s goal of increasing production and the farmer’s goal of increasing profit. Exploring the appropriate management scale of farmland under different objectives is of great significance to alleviate the conflict of interests between the government and farmers. In this study the Cobb-Douglas production function model was used to measure the appropriate management scale of farmland under different objectives in Shaanxi Province and analyze the regional differences. Under the two objectives, the appropriate management scale of the Loess Plateau was the largest in the three regions, followed by Qinba Mountains and Guanzhong Plain. Farmland area and quality were the main influencing factors for the appropriate management scale of farmland under the goal of maximizing the farmland yield, while the nonagricultural employment rate and farmland transfer rate were the main influencing factors under the goal of maximizing farmers’ profits. It is easy for Shaanxi Province to increase farmers’ profits, but more land needed to be transferred to increase farmland yield. These results suggest that in order to balance the goal of increasing yield and profit, the transfer of rural surplus labor should be promoted, and the nonagricultural employment rate should be improved. In Loess Plateau, restoring the ecological environment and enhancing the farmland quality. In Guanzhong Plain, avoiding urban land encroachment on farmland. In Qinba Mountains, developing farming techniques and moderately increasing the intensity of farmland exploit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Use Planning/Land Planning)
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Article
Botanical Composition and Species Diversity of Arid and Desert Rangelands in Tataouine, Tunisia
Land 2021, 10(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030313 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
Natural rangelands occupy about 5.5 million hectares of Tunisia’s landmass, and 38% of this area is in Tataouine governorate. Although efforts towards natural restoration are increasing rapidly as a result of restoration projects, the area of degraded rangelands has continued to expand and [...] Read more.
Natural rangelands occupy about 5.5 million hectares of Tunisia’s landmass, and 38% of this area is in Tataouine governorate. Although efforts towards natural restoration are increasing rapidly as a result of restoration projects, the area of degraded rangelands has continued to expand and the severity of desertification has continued to intensify. Any damage caused by disturbances, such as grazing and recurrent drought, may be masked by a return of favorable rainfall conditions. In this work, conducted during March 2018, we surveyed the botanical composition and species diversity of natural rangelands in Tataouine in southern Tunisia. The flora comprised about 279 species belonging to 58 families, with 54% annuals and 46% perennials. The Asteraceae family had the greatest richness of species, followed by Poaceae, Fabaceae, Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Boraginaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, and Cistaceae. Therophytes made the highest contribution, followed by chamaephytes and hemicryptophytes. Of all these species, 40% were palatable to highly palatable and more than 13% are used in both traditional and modern medicine. Full article
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Article
What Drives Landowners to Resist Selling Their Land? Insights from Ethical Capitalism and Landowners’ Perceptions
Land 2021, 10(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030312 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
Foreign land grabbing is acknowledged as a phenomenon that generates disempowerment and dispossession of local farmers, human rights violations. Previous studies have revealed the lack of ethical benchmarks in foreign large-scale land transactions that raise moral concerns. It is evident that when resources [...] Read more.
Foreign land grabbing is acknowledged as a phenomenon that generates disempowerment and dispossession of local farmers, human rights violations. Previous studies have revealed the lack of ethical benchmarks in foreign large-scale land transactions that raise moral concerns. It is evident that when resources are scarce and people depend on them, the balance between values and interests transforms itself into a dilemma. Within this context, the aims of the paper were to bring to the fore critical reflection on a more ethical perspective of large-scale land acquisitions and to extend the scant information on what factors determine landowners not to sell their land to foreigners to limit land grabbing. This context justifies the need for a critical reflection on a more ethical perspective of large-scale land acquisitions. Therefore, two objectives were set. The first one is to document the role of ethics in large-scale land transactions. Based on the land grabbing literature, authors selected a set of eight land grabbing narratives, most often interrelated and overlapping, that pose ethical considerations. The second objective is to reveal how well a set of variables can predict the “Resistance to sell” the land to foreigners even when an attractive price is offered. As ethics is a social construct, the analysis captured the stakeholders’ perspective on land grabbing. Therefore, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 332 Romanian landowners from twelve randomly selected counties to reveal their perceptions. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to observe how well a set of seven variables could predict landowners’ “Resistance to sell” their land to foreign buyers. The use of PLS-SEM was justified by the existence of single items and the need to examine many structural model relations. Results showed that the variables with the strongest contribution to the prediction of the dependent variable are the “Probability to join an association for farmers rights defense”, the “Importance of the land price offered by the potential foreign buyer”, and the “Perceived effect of agricultural land conversion to urban land”. Raising awareness on the importance of buyer attributes, increasing people’s perception of the negative effect of agricultural land conversion to urban land, or strengthening the state’s image as a necessary actor to limit land grabbing will increase landowners’ resistance to sell their land to foreigners. Finally, it can be inferred that, within this frame of discussion, ethics should be valued as a means to create economically viable and morally justifiable solutions for foreign large-scale land transactions. Full article
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Article
The Sliding Scale between Usufruct and Ownership: The Example of Swedish Multi-Family Housing
Land 2021, 10(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030311 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
This paper aims to elucidate the sliding scale between usufruct and ownership by applying a property rights framework to three Swedish forms of tenure in multifamily housing. The framework deconstructs the bundles of rights of rental, tenant-ownership and ownership to highlight commonalities and [...] Read more.
This paper aims to elucidate the sliding scale between usufruct and ownership by applying a property rights framework to three Swedish forms of tenure in multifamily housing. The framework deconstructs the bundles of rights of rental, tenant-ownership and ownership to highlight commonalities and differences connected to the right to use and exclude, the right to transfer and the right to the value. It is concluded that the three tenure forms have many traits in common but that there are distinct differences in some areas, most notably in connection to the right to the value. The property rights framework applied in the study may be applicable also on a general level as a method to analyze and compare tenures of different types in different countries. Further, ways to improve the framework and cover more facets of outcomes of property rights patterns are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
Article
Assessment of River-Sea Interaction in the Danube Nearshore Area (Ukraine) by Bioindicators and Statistical Mapping
Land 2021, 10(3), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030310 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
There is a lack of understanding of the main drivers that form the picture of biological communities of transitional waters in deltaic ecosystems under the influence of terrestrial sources. Analysis of hydrochemical parameters in relation to phytoplankton communities in the Ukrainian part of [...] Read more.
There is a lack of understanding of the main drivers that form the picture of biological communities of transitional waters in deltaic ecosystems under the influence of terrestrial sources. Analysis of hydrochemical parameters in relation to phytoplankton communities in the Ukrainian part of the Danube coastal zone (in August 2018) is the focus of current work. The goal was to identify patterns in the distribution of environmental parameters (salinity and nutrients) in the area of the shipping channel through the Bystry arm, as well as to assess the state of water quality. The ecological bioindicators approach using modern statistical methods, and ecological mapping shows sufficient achievements in interpreting the results. The indicators of salinity (mesohalobes) had better describe the character of the transportation of fresh riverine waters than salinity gradient. The composition of 35 indicator phytoplankton species corresponds to 3 and 4 water quality classes in the coastal zone. High N:P ratios showed an imbalance in the ecosystem as an indicator of production and destruction processes. Statistical maps of the indicator species distribution revealed the river current’s influence on the nearshore water mass. Ecological maps of surface and bottom variables show various environmental impacts resulting from dredging in the shipping channel and excavated soil dumping. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and statistical maps revealed two pools of factors with oppositely directed effects on phytoplankton: salinity, on one hand, and nutrients, on the other. Miozoa and Chlorophyta have an opposite interaction with salinity and oxygen and can be ecosystem change indicators in further analysis Full article
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Article
Soil Carbon Regulating Ecosystem Services in the State of South Carolina, USA
Land 2021, 10(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030309 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Sustainable management of soil carbon (C) at the state level requires valuation of soil C regulating ecosystem services (ES) and disservices (ED). The objective of this study was to assess the value of regulating ES from soil organic carbon (SOC), soil inorganic carbon [...] Read more.
Sustainable management of soil carbon (C) at the state level requires valuation of soil C regulating ecosystem services (ES) and disservices (ED). The objective of this study was to assess the value of regulating ES from soil organic carbon (SOC), soil inorganic carbon (SIC), and total soil carbon (TSC) stocks, based on the concept of the avoided social cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the state of South Carolina (SC) in the United States of America (U.S.A.) by soil order, soil depth (0–200 cm), region and county using information from the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database. The total estimated monetary mid-point value for TSC in the state of South Carolina was $124.36B (i.e., $124.36 billion U.S. dollars, where B = billion = 109), $107.14B for SOC, and $17.22B for SIC. Soil orders with the highest midpoint value for SOC were: Ultisols ($64.35B), Histosols ($11.22B), and Inceptisols ($10.31B). Soil orders with the highest midpoint value for SIC were: Inceptisols ($5.91B), Entisols ($5.53B), and Alfisols ($5.0B). Soil orders with the highest midpoint value for TSC were: Ultisols ($64.35B), Inceptisols ($16.22B), and Entisols ($14.65B). The regions with the highest midpoint SOC values were: Pee Dee ($34.24B), Low Country ($32.17B), and Midlands ($29.24B). The regions with the highest midpoint SIC values were: Low Country ($5.69B), Midlands ($5.55B), and Pee Dee ($4.67B). The regions with the highest midpoint TSC values were: Low Country ($37.86B), Pee Dee ($36.91B), and Midlands ($34.79B). The counties with the highest midpoint SOC values were Colleton ($5.44B), Horry ($5.37B), and Berkeley ($4.12B). The counties with the highest midpoint SIC values were Charleston ($1.46B), Georgetown ($852.81M, where M = million = 106), and Horry ($843.18M). The counties with the highest midpoint TSC values were Horry ($6.22B), Colleton ($6.02B), and Georgetown ($4.87B). Administrative areas (e.g., counties, regions) combined with pedodiversity concepts can provide useful information to design cost-efficient policies to manage soil carbon regulating ES at the state level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Management for Sustainability)
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Article
Comparison of Attitudes towards Roadside Vegetation Management across an Exurban Landscape
Land 2021, 10(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030308 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Exurban development is the fastest growing land use across the United States (US). Its prevalence on the East Coast is susceptible to natural disaster events such as hurricanes and nor’easters. However, the socio-ecological processes related to disaster mitigation within exurban areas remain understudied. [...] Read more.
Exurban development is the fastest growing land use across the United States (US). Its prevalence on the East Coast is susceptible to natural disaster events such as hurricanes and nor’easters. However, the socio-ecological processes related to disaster mitigation within exurban areas remain understudied. Our objective was to integrate social and landscape data to compare resident attitudes towards utility roadside vegetation management across four areas in the state of Connecticut, US. We collected data from residents using two mail surveys completed in 2017 and 2019 (n = 1962). From the survey questions, three attitude variables measured perceptions of the utility vegetation management process, and tradeoffs between protecting trees and maintaining reliable power. Across all locations, respondents with more favorable attitudes toward vegetation management were more likely to have greater knowledge about trees, and beliefs that trees should be used for human benefit; land cover characteristics and sociodemographic variables were less strongly associated with attitudes scores. Respondents differed among study areas in their preferences for aesthetics of roadside trees and their basic beliefs regarding the importance of trees. The results suggested that social processes within the exurban landscapes are spatially heterogeneous. Therefore, local variation in residential preferences for vegetation management may influence support for natural disaster management policy. Full article
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Article
Assessing Vegetation Heritage Value: The Alentejo Central (Portugal) as a Case Study
Land 2021, 10(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030307 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
Vegetation natural heritage can be valued in itself, but also as a habitat for many wildlife species. This study presents a methodological essay concerning the evaluation of plant heritage, applied in Central Alentejo, in the south of Portugal. This evaluation was based on [...] Read more.
Vegetation natural heritage can be valued in itself, but also as a habitat for many wildlife species. This study presents a methodological essay concerning the evaluation of plant heritage, applied in Central Alentejo, in the south of Portugal. This evaluation was based on the following criteria: horizontal and vertical structure of vegetation, tree cover density, rare plant species richness, phytocenotic maturity, importance as ecological corridor, historical record, scientific and educational potential and recreational potential. The vegetation heritage value (VHV) was calculated using a linear combination of the weighted criteria. In this way it was possible to identify the most interesting areas for conservation purposes. Of the 7500 km2 analyzed, 52% are natural and semi-natural areas, and of these, 18.8% have very high VHV, 70.7% have high VHV and only 10.5% average VHV. The highest VHV areas are actually included under the protected areas of Natura 2000 sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Landscape Ecology)
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Article
Modelling the Impacts of Habitat Changes on the Population Density of Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) Based on Its Landscape Preferences
Land 2021, 10(3), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030306 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
The dramatic decline of the abundance of farmland bird species can be related to the level of land-use intensity or the land-cover heterogeneity of rural landscapes. Our study area in central Europe (Hungary) included 3049 skylark observation points and their 600 m buffer [...] Read more.
The dramatic decline of the abundance of farmland bird species can be related to the level of land-use intensity or the land-cover heterogeneity of rural landscapes. Our study area in central Europe (Hungary) included 3049 skylark observation points and their 600 m buffer zones. We used a very detailed map (20 × 20 m minimum mapping unit), the Hungarian Ecosystem Basemap, as a land-cover dataset for the calculation of three landscape indices: mean patch size (MPS), mean fractal dimension (MFRACT), and Shannon diversity index (SDI) to describe the landscape structure of the study areas. Generalized linear models were used to analyze the effect of land-cover types and landscape patterns on the abundance of the Eurasian skylark (Alauda arvensis). According to our findings, the proportions of arable land, open sand steppes, closed grassland patches, and shape complexity and size characteristics of these land cover patches have a positive effect on skylark abundance, while the SDI was negatively associated with the skylark population. On the basis of the used statistical model, the abundance density (individuals/km*) of skylarks could be estimated with 37.77% absolute percentage error and 2.12 mean absolute error. We predicted the skylark population density inside the Natura 2000 Special Protected Area of Hungary which is 0–6 individuals/km* and 23746 ± 8968 skylarks. The results can be implemented for the landscape management of rural landscapes, and the method used are adaptable for the density estimation of other farmland bird species in rural landscapes. According to our findings, inside the protected areas should increase the proportion, the average size and shape complexity of arable land, salt steppes and meadows, and closed grassland land cover patches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Roles for Landscape Ecology in Future Farming Systems)
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Review
Inclusionary Housing: An Evaluation of a New Public Rental Housing Governance Instrument in China
Land 2021, 10(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030305 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Inclusionary housing (IH) is a regulatory instrument adopted by local governments in many countries to produce affordable housing by capturing resources created through the marketplace. In order to assess whether it is efficient, scholarly attention has been widely focused on its evaluation. However, [...] Read more.
Inclusionary housing (IH) is a regulatory instrument adopted by local governments in many countries to produce affordable housing by capturing resources created through the marketplace. In order to assess whether it is efficient, scholarly attention has been widely focused on its evaluation. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating IH from a governance perspective. Since IH is about involving private actors in affordable housing production, the governance point of view of cooperating governmental and non-governmental actors governing society to achieve societal goals is highly relevant. The two most important elements of governance—actors and interrelationships among these actors—are taken to build an analytical framework to explore and evaluate the governance of IH. Based on a research approach that combines a literature review and a case study of China, this paper concludes that the ineffective governance of Chinese IH is based on three challenges: (1) The distribution of costs and benefits across actors is unequal since private developers bear the cost, but do not enjoy the increments of land value; (2) there is no sufficient compensation for developers to offset the cost; and (3) there is no room for negotiations for flexibility in a declining market. Given that IH is favored in many Chinese cities, this paper offers the policy implications: local governments should bear more costs of IH, rethink their relations with developers, provide flexible compliance options for developers, and perform differently in a flourishing housing market and a declining housing market. Full article
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Article
Exploring the Global Research Trends of Land Use Planning Based on a Bibliometric Analysis: Current Status and Future Prospects
Land 2021, 10(3), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030304 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The land topic has generally become a major socioeconomic issue that currently attracts attention globally. To explore the issue, various countries devote much attention to land use planning. This paper searches the Core Collection of the Web of Science and collects 1771 land [...] Read more.
The land topic has generally become a major socioeconomic issue that currently attracts attention globally. To explore the issue, various countries devote much attention to land use planning. This paper searches the Core Collection of the Web of Science and collects 1771 land use planning articles published between 1990 and 2019. The R software, biblioshiny package, and CiteSpace are applied in this paper. The results show the following: (1) the number of papers related to land use planning has shown an overall growth trend, which can be divided into the following four stages: initial exploration, preliminary growth, stable development, and rapid development; (2) the United States is in an absolute leading position as the primary research force among developed countries. The top 3 countries related to international cooperation are the United States, China, and Italy; (3) land use planning, land use, GIS, urban planning, China, spatial planning and climate change are some high-frequency keywords used in land use planning; (4) the current research hot spots mainly focus on the relationship between land use spatial planning and regional planning, land informatization development, public participation, urban sprawl, and sustainable development; (5) the themes show 8 evolutionary paths related to the following four topics: ecosystem protection, climate and natural change, urban sprawl and agricultural development, and GIS development; (6) this paper proposes that strengthening integration within disciplines, introducing new theories and methods, and sustainable land use will become future research directions requiring more land use planning attention. Full article
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Article
Does the Construction and Operation of High-Speed Rail Improve Urban Land Use Efficiency? Evidence from China
Land 2021, 10(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030303 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The construction and operation of high-speed rail (HSR) has become an important policy for China to achieve efficiency and fairness and promote high-quality economic growth. HSR promotes the flow of production factors such as labor and capital and affects economic growth, and may [...] Read more.
The construction and operation of high-speed rail (HSR) has become an important policy for China to achieve efficiency and fairness and promote high-quality economic growth. HSR promotes the flow of production factors such as labor and capital and affects economic growth, and may further affect urban land use efficiency (ULUE). To explore the impact of HSR on ULUE, this paper uses panel data of 284 cities in China from 2005 to 2018, and constructs Propensity Score Matching-Differences in Differences model to evaluate the effect of HSR on ULUE. The result of entire China demonstrates that the HSR could significantly improves the ULUE. Meanwhile, this paper also considers the heterogeneity of results caused by geographic location, urban levels and scales. It demonstrates that the HSR has a significantly positive effect on ULUE of Eastern, Central China, and large-sized cities. However, in Western China, in medium-sized, and small-sized cities, the impact of HSR on ULUE is not significant. This paper concludes that construction and operation of HSR should be linked to urban development planning and land use planning. Meanwhile, the cities with different geographical locations and scales should take advantage of HSR to improve ULUE and promote urban coordinated development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
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