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Soil Diversity (Pedodiversity) and Ecosystem Services
 
 
Article

Soil Carbon Regulating Ecosystem Services in the State of South Carolina, USA

1
Department of Forestry and Environmental Conservation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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Department of Soil and Water Sciences, University of Tripoli, Tripoli 13538, Libya
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Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Anderson, SC 29625, USA
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Economics Department, Reed College, Portland, OR 97202, USA
5
University Key Lab for Geomatics Technology and Optimized Resources Utilization in Fujian Province, No. 15 Shangxiadian Road, Fuzhou 350002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chiara Piccini
Land 2021, 10(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030309
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 13 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Management for Sustainability)
Sustainable management of soil carbon (C) at the state level requires valuation of soil C regulating ecosystem services (ES) and disservices (ED). The objective of this study was to assess the value of regulating ES from soil organic carbon (SOC), soil inorganic carbon (SIC), and total soil carbon (TSC) stocks, based on the concept of the avoided social cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the state of South Carolina (SC) in the United States of America (U.S.A.) by soil order, soil depth (0–200 cm), region and county using information from the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database. The total estimated monetary mid-point value for TSC in the state of South Carolina was $124.36B (i.e., $124.36 billion U.S. dollars, where B = billion = 109), $107.14B for SOC, and $17.22B for SIC. Soil orders with the highest midpoint value for SOC were: Ultisols ($64.35B), Histosols ($11.22B), and Inceptisols ($10.31B). Soil orders with the highest midpoint value for SIC were: Inceptisols ($5.91B), Entisols ($5.53B), and Alfisols ($5.0B). Soil orders with the highest midpoint value for TSC were: Ultisols ($64.35B), Inceptisols ($16.22B), and Entisols ($14.65B). The regions with the highest midpoint SOC values were: Pee Dee ($34.24B), Low Country ($32.17B), and Midlands ($29.24B). The regions with the highest midpoint SIC values were: Low Country ($5.69B), Midlands ($5.55B), and Pee Dee ($4.67B). The regions with the highest midpoint TSC values were: Low Country ($37.86B), Pee Dee ($36.91B), and Midlands ($34.79B). The counties with the highest midpoint SOC values were Colleton ($5.44B), Horry ($5.37B), and Berkeley ($4.12B). The counties with the highest midpoint SIC values were Charleston ($1.46B), Georgetown ($852.81M, where M = million = 106), and Horry ($843.18M). The counties with the highest midpoint TSC values were Horry ($6.22B), Colleton ($6.02B), and Georgetown ($4.87B). Administrative areas (e.g., counties, regions) combined with pedodiversity concepts can provide useful information to design cost-efficient policies to manage soil carbon regulating ES at the state level. View Full-Text
Keywords: accounting; carbon emissions, CO2; climate change; inorganic; organic; pedodiversity accounting; carbon emissions, CO2; climate change; inorganic; organic; pedodiversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mikhailova, E.A.; Zurqani, H.A.; Post, C.J.; Schlautman, M.A.; Post, G.C.; Lin, L.; Hao, Z. Soil Carbon Regulating Ecosystem Services in the State of South Carolina, USA. Land 2021, 10, 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030309

AMA Style

Mikhailova EA, Zurqani HA, Post CJ, Schlautman MA, Post GC, Lin L, Hao Z. Soil Carbon Regulating Ecosystem Services in the State of South Carolina, USA. Land. 2021; 10(3):309. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mikhailova, Elena A., Hamdi A. Zurqani, Christopher J. Post, Mark A. Schlautman, Gregory C. Post, Lili Lin, and Zhenbang Hao. 2021. "Soil Carbon Regulating Ecosystem Services in the State of South Carolina, USA" Land 10, no. 3: 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030309

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