Agricultural development is facing two problems: insufficient grain production and low profit of farmers. There is a contradiction between the government’s goal of increasing production and the farmer’s goal of increasing profit. Exploring the appropriate management scale of farmland under different objectives is of great significance to alleviate the conflict of interests between the government and farmers. In this study the Cobb-Douglas production function model was used to measure the appropriate management scale of farmland under different objectives in Shaanxi Province and analyze the regional differences. Under the two objectives, the appropriate management scale of the Loess Plateau was the largest in the three regions, followed by Qinba Mountains and Guanzhong Plain. Farmland area and quality were the main influencing factors for the appropriate management scale of farmland under the goal of maximizing the farmland yield, while the nonagricultural employment rate and farmland transfer rate were the main influencing factors under the goal of maximizing farmers’ profits. It is easy for Shaanxi Province to increase farmers’ profits, but more land needed to be transferred to increase farmland yield. These results suggest that in order to balance the goal of increasing yield and profit, the transfer of rural surplus labor should be promoted, and the nonagricultural employment rate should be improved. In Loess Plateau, restoring the ecological environment and enhancing the farmland quality. In Guanzhong Plain, avoiding urban land encroachment on farmland. In Qinba Mountains, developing farming techniques and moderately increasing the intensity of farmland exploit.
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