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Water, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea
Water 2016, 8(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040169
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect
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Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC), turbidity, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture in Irrigated Lands by Assimilation of Landsat Vegetation Indices, Surface Energy Balance Products, and Relevance Vector Machines
Water 2016, 8(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040167
Received: 9 January 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy
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Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy balance, weather parameters, and vegetation indices) has demonstrated a relationship between these factors and soil moisture, practical continuous spatial quantification of the latter is still unavailable for use in water and agricultural management. In this study, a methodology is presented to estimate volumetric surface soil moisture by statistical selection from potential predictors that include vegetation indices and energy balance products derived from satellite (Landsat) imagery and weather data as identified in scientific literature. This methodology employs a statistical learning machine called a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) to identify and relate the potential predictors to soil moisture by means of stratified cross-validation and forward variable selection. Surface soil moisture measurements from irrigated agricultural fields in Central Utah in the 2012 irrigation season were used, along with weather data, Landsat vegetation indices, and energy balance products. The methodology, data collection, processing, and estimation accuracy are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture)
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Open AccessArticle Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea
Water 2016, 8(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040168
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring
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Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN), and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN). The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Study of Bottom Rack Occlusion by Flow with Gravel-Sized Sediment. Application to Ephemeral Streams in Semi-Arid Regions
Water 2016, 8(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040166
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (7240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rainfall runoff collection in ephemeral streams is an objective in semi-arid zones. Rack intake systems are proposed to collect these flash floods with intensive sediment transport. The design parameters address the problem of clogging the spacing between bars. Experiments for two different void
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Rainfall runoff collection in ephemeral streams is an objective in semi-arid zones. Rack intake systems are proposed to collect these flash floods with intensive sediment transport. The design parameters address the problem of clogging the spacing between bars. Experiments for two different void ratio racks are shown. Flows, longitudinal slopes in the rack, and water with three gravel-sized sediments were tested. Results such as effective void ratio due to the gravel deposition over the rack, the evolution of the flow rejected during each test, and the quantification of materials collected and deposited, are presented. The optimal longitudinal rack slope seems to be close to 30%. The effective void ratio is related to several hydraulic parameters calculated at the beginning of the rack. Some adjustments were proposed to predict the effective void ratio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time Series Analysis of Floods across the Niger River Basin
Water 2016, 8(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040165
Received: 7 November 2015 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (10097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years. Time series for three subregions (Guinean, Sahelian, Benue) show a
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This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years. Time series for three subregions (Guinean, Sahelian, Benue) show a general consistency between the annual maximum discharge (AMAX) and climatic decadal patterns in West Africa regarding both trends and major changepoints. Variance analysis reveals rather stable AMAX distributions except for the Sahelian region, implying that the changes in flood behavior differ within the basin and affect mostly the dry Sahelian region. The timing of the floods within the year has changed only downstream of the Inner Niger Delta due to retention processes. The results of the hydro-climatic analysis generally correspond to the presented damage statistics on people affected by catastrophic floods. The damage statistics shows positive trends for the entire basin since the beginning in the 1980s, with the most extreme increase in the Middle Niger. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Large-Scale, Multi-Resolution Watershed Modeling Framework Using the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)
Water 2016, 8(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040164
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, large-scale watershed modeling has been implemented broadly in the field of water resources planning and management. Complex hydrological, sediment, and nutrient processes can be simulated by sophisticated watershed simulation models for important issues such as water resources allocation, sediment transport,
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In recent years, large-scale watershed modeling has been implemented broadly in the field of water resources planning and management. Complex hydrological, sediment, and nutrient processes can be simulated by sophisticated watershed simulation models for important issues such as water resources allocation, sediment transport, and pollution control. Among commonly adopted models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been demonstrated to provide superior performance with a large amount of referencing databases. However, it is cumbersome to perform tedious initialization steps such as preparing inputs and developing a model with each changing targeted study area. In this study, the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is introduced to serve as a national-scale Decision Support System (DSS) to conduct challenging watershed modeling tasks. HAWQS is a web-based DSS developed and maintained by Texas A & M University, and supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Three different spatial resolutions of Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC8, HUC10, and HUC12) and three temporal scales (time steps in daily/monthly/annual) are available as alternatives for general users. In addition, users can specify preferred values of model parameters instead of using the pre-defined sets. With the aid of HAWQS, users can generate a preliminarily calibrated SWAT project within a few minutes by only providing the ending HUC number of the targeted watershed and the simulation period. In the case study, HAWQS was implemented on the Illinois River Basin, USA, with graphical demonstrations and associated analytical results. Scientists and/or decision-makers can take advantage of the HAWQS framework while conducting relevant topics or policies in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources
Water 2016, 8(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040163
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF) by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua) as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Each
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We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF) by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua) as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI) was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Consumption)
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Open AccessOpinion Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Metallic Iron Filters: Modeling Gone Astray
Water 2016, 8(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040162
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since its introduction about 25 years ago, metallic iron (Fe0) has shown its potential as the key component of reactive filtration systems for contaminant removal in polluted waters. Technical applications of such systems can be enhanced by numerical simulation of a
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Since its introduction about 25 years ago, metallic iron (Fe0) has shown its potential as the key component of reactive filtration systems for contaminant removal in polluted waters. Technical applications of such systems can be enhanced by numerical simulation of a filter design to improve, e.g., the service time or the minimum permeability of a prospected system to warrant the required output water quality. This communication discusses the relevant input quantities into such a simulation model, illustrates the possible simplifications and identifies the lack of relevant thermodynamic and kinetic data. As a result, necessary steps are outlined that may improve the numerical simulation and, consequently, the technical design of Fe0 filters. Following a general overview on the key reactions in a Fe0 system, the importance of iron corrosion kinetics is illustrated. Iron corrosion kinetics, expressed as a rate constant kiron, determines both the removal rate of contaminants and the average permeability loss of the filter system. While the relevance of a reasonable estimate of kiron is thus obvious, information is scarce. As a conclusion, systematic experiments for the determination of kiron values are suggested to improve the database of this key input parameter to Fe0 filters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Ecogeomorphological (EGM) Stream Design and Assessment Tools for the Piedmont of Alabama, USA
Water 2016, 8(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040161
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
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Abstract
Regional data needed for effective stream restoration include hydraulic geometry relationships (i.e., regional curves) and reference channel morphology parameters. Increasingly ecological conditions are being considered when designing, implementing, and assessing restoration efforts. We provide morphology relationships and associated ecological endpoint curves
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Regional data needed for effective stream restoration include hydraulic geometry relationships (i.e., regional curves) and reference channel morphology parameters. Increasingly ecological conditions are being considered when designing, implementing, and assessing restoration efforts. We provide morphology relationships and associated ecological endpoint curves for reference streams in the Alabama piedmont. Twenty-one reference stream reaches were identified in the Tallapoosa drainage of Alabama, ranging from 0.2 to 242 km2 drainage area. Geomorphic surveys were conducted in each stream to measure riffle cross-sections and longitudinal profiles and related to drainage area to develop regional curves. Fish, crayfish, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from each surveyed reach and related to drainage area and geomorphic data to provide associated biological community endpoints. Bankfull channel cross-section area, width, mean depth, and estimated discharge were strongly correlated to watershed drainage area, similar to efforts in other areas of the Piedmont ecoregion. Multiple measures of fish assemblages and crayfish size were strongly predicted by drainage area and geomorphic dimensions. Macroinvertebrates showed no taxonomic and limited functional relationships with drainage area and geomorphic dimension. These tools, which integrate geomorphological and ecological conditions, can result in improved stream evaluations and designs increasing the effectiveness of stream restoration projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Node Grouping for Water Distribution System Demand Estimation
Water 2016, 8(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040160
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Real-time state estimation is defined as the process of calculating the state variable of interest in real time not being directly measured. In a water distribution system (WDS), nodal demands are often considered as the state variable (i.e., unknown variable) and
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Real-time state estimation is defined as the process of calculating the state variable of interest in real time not being directly measured. In a water distribution system (WDS), nodal demands are often considered as the state variable (i.e., unknown variable) and can be estimated using nodal pressures and pipe flow rates measured at sensors installed throughout the system. Nodes are often grouped for aggregation to decrease the number of unknowns (demands) in the WDS demand estimation problem. This study proposes an optimal node grouping model to maximize the real-time WDS demand estimation accuracy. This Kalman filter-based demand estimation method is linked with a genetic algorithm for node group optimization. The modified Austin network demand is estimated to demonstrate the proposed model. True demands and field measurements are synthetically generated using a hydraulic model of the study network. Accordingly, the optimal node groups identified by the proposed model reduce the total root-mean-square error of the estimated node group demand by 24% compared to that determined by engineering knowledge. Based on the results, more pipe flow sensors should be installed to measure small flows and to further enhance the demand estimation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Undermining Demand Management with Supply Management: Moral Hazard in Israeli Water Policies
Water 2016, 8(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040159
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most water managers use a mixture of both supply-side and demand-side policies, seeking to capitalize on the relative advantages of each. However, supply augmentation undertaken to avoid overdrafts can reduce the effectiveness of demand management policies if the two strategies are not carefully
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Most water managers use a mixture of both supply-side and demand-side policies, seeking to capitalize on the relative advantages of each. However, supply augmentation undertaken to avoid overdrafts can reduce the effectiveness of demand management policies if the two strategies are not carefully integrated. Such a result can stem from a type of moral hazard phenomenon by which consumers, aware of the increases in potential supply, discount the importance of conservation. This is illustrated by the case of Israel. Initial national-scale water-supply projects were followed by over-extraction, which, in turn, compelled implementation of wide-spread demand management measures to reduce consumption. With the recent advent of large-scale desalination in Israel, public perception regarding the importance of conservation has diminished and consumption has increased—this, despite periodic drought conditions and critically low levels of water reserves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying Spatial Changes in the Structure of Water Quality Constituents in a Large Prairie River within Two Frameworks of a Water Quality Model
Water 2016, 8(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040158
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A global sensitivity analysis was carried out on a water quality model to quantify the spatial changes in parameter sensitivity of a model of a large prairie river, the South Saskatchewan River (SSR). The method is used to assess the relative impacts of
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A global sensitivity analysis was carried out on a water quality model to quantify the spatial changes in parameter sensitivity of a model of a large prairie river, the South Saskatchewan River (SSR). The method is used to assess the relative impacts of major nutrient loading sources and a reservoir on the river’s water quality. The river completely freezes over during winter; hence, the sensitivity analysis was carried out seasonally, for winter and summer, to account for the influence of ice-covered conditions on nutrient transformations. Furthermore, the integrity of the river’s aquatic ecosystem was examined through the inter-relationship between variables and comparing hierarchy index values and water quality indices at four locations along the river. Sensitivities of model parameters varied slightly at different locations along the river, with the phytoplankton growth rate being the most influential parameter. Nitrogen and phosphorus transformation processes were more sensitive in winter, while chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen parameters showed higher sensitivity in summer. A more complicated correlation between variables was observed downstream of the junction of the Red Deer River. Our results reveal that the lower correlation between variables may suggest a more balanced and healthier system, although further analysis is needed to support this statement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Modeling of River Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options
Water 2016, 8(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040154
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous
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Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energy- and carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability and sensitivity were evaluated, the carbon intensity of the local electricity grid and the efficiency of electricity production by the co-digestion with the energy recovery process were the most important for determining the relative global warming potential results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity
Water 2016, 8(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040157
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development
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Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC), which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size) of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III) will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104) in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104) in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC) in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transforming European Water Governance? Participation and River Basin Management under the EU Water Framework Directive in 13 Member States
Water 2016, 8(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040156
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of
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The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of the European Commission is that stakeholder participation, and institutional adaptation and procedural innovation to facilitate it, are essential to the effectiveness of river basin planning and, ultimately, the environmental impact of the Directive. We analyzed official documents and the WFD literature to compare implementation of the Directive in EU member states in the initial WFD planning phase (2000–2009). Examining the development of participatory approaches to river basin management planning, we consider the extent of transformation in EU water governance over the period. Employing a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach, we map the implementation “trajectories” of 13 member states, and then provide a detailed examination of shifts in river basin planning and participation in four member states (Germany, Sweden, Poland and France) to illustrate the diversity of institutional approaches observed. We identify a general tendency towards increased, yet circumscribed, stakeholder participation in river basin management in the member states examined, alongside clear continuities in terms of their respective pre-WFD institutional and procedural arrangements. Overall, the WFD has driven a highly uneven shift to river basin-level planning among the member states, and instigated a range of efforts to institutionalize stakeholder involvement—often through the establishment of advisory groups to bring organized stakeholders into the planning process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Watershed, Landscape, and Engineering Design Factors that Influence the Biotic Condition of Restored Streams
Water 2016, 8(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040151
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
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Abstract
Restored stream reaches at 79 sites across North Carolina were sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates using a rapid bioassessment protocol. Morphological design parameters and geographic factors, including watershed and landscape parameters (e.g., valley slope, substrate), were also compiled for these streams. Principal component regression
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Restored stream reaches at 79 sites across North Carolina were sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates using a rapid bioassessment protocol. Morphological design parameters and geographic factors, including watershed and landscape parameters (e.g., valley slope, substrate), were also compiled for these streams. Principal component regression analyses revealed correlations between design and landscape variables with macroinvertebrate metrics. The correlations were strengthened by adding watershed variables. Ridge regression was used to find the best-fit model for predicting dominant taxa from the “pollution sensitive” orders of Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), and Trichoptera (caddisflies), or EPT taxa, resulting in coefficient weights that were most interpretable relative to site selection and design parameters. Results indicate that larger (wider) streams located in the mountains and foothills where there are steeper valleys, larger substrate, and undeveloped watersheds are expected to have higher numbers of dominant EPT taxa. In addition, EPT taxa numbers are positively correlated with accessible floodplain width and negatively correlated with width-to-depth ratio and sinuosity. This study indicates that both site selection and design should be carefully considered in order to maximize the resulting biotic condition and associated potential ecological uplift of the stream. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Modeling of River Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Examining the Relationships between Watershed Urban Land Use and Stream Water Quality Using Linear and Generalized Additive Models
Water 2016, 8(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040155
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although close relationships between the water quality of streams and the types of land use within their watersheds have been well-documented in previous studies, many aspects of these relationships remain unclear. We examined the relationships between urban land use and water quality using
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Although close relationships between the water quality of streams and the types of land use within their watersheds have been well-documented in previous studies, many aspects of these relationships remain unclear. We examined the relationships between urban land use and water quality using data collected from 527 sample points in five major rivers in Korea—the Han, Geum, Nakdong, Younsan, and Seomjin Rivers. Water quality data were derived from samples collected and analyzed under the guidelines of the Korean National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program, and land use was quantified using products provided by the Korean Ministry of the Environment, which were used to create a Geographic Information System. Linear models (LMs) and generalized additive models were developed to describe the relationships between urban land use and stream water quality, including biological oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP). A comparison between LMs and non-linear models (in terms of R2 and Akaike’s information criterion values) indicated that the general additive models had a better fit and suggested a non-linear relationship between urban land use and water quality. Non-linear models for BOD, TN, and TP showed that each parameter had a similar relationship with urban land use, which had two breakpoints. The non-linear models suggested that the relationships between urban land use and water quality could be categorized into three regions, based on the proportion of urban land use. In moderate urban land use conditions, negative impacts of urban land use on water quality were observed, which confirmed the findings of previous studies. However, the relationships were different in very low urbanization or very high urbanization conditions. Our results could be used to develop strategies for more efficient stream restoration and management, which would enhance water quality based on the degree of urbanization in watersheds. In particular, land use management for enhancing stream water quality might be more effective when urban land use is in the range of 1.1%–31.5% of a watershed. If urban land use exceeds 31.5% in a watershed, a more comprehensive approach would be required because water quality would not respond as rapidly as expected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Watershed-Scale Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment Model with the Asymptotic Curve Number Regression Equation
Water 2016, 8(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040153
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
In this study, 52 asymptotic Curve Number (CN) regression equations were developed for combinations of representative land covers and hydrologic soil groups. In addition, to overcome the limitations of the original Long-term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model when it is applied to larger
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In this study, 52 asymptotic Curve Number (CN) regression equations were developed for combinations of representative land covers and hydrologic soil groups. In addition, to overcome the limitations of the original Long-term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model when it is applied to larger watersheds, a watershed-scale L-THIA Asymptotic CN (ACN) regression equation model (watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model) was developed by integrating the asymptotic CN regressions and various modules for direct runoff/baseflow/channel routing. The watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model was applied to four watersheds in South Korea to evaluate the accuracy of its streamflow prediction. The coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) values for observed versus simulated streamflows over intervals of eight days were greater than 0.6 for all four of the watersheds. The watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model, including the asymptotic CN regression equation method, can simulate long-term streamflow sufficiently well with the ten parameters that have been added for the characterization of streamflow. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Persistence to Avoid Underestimation of Collective Flood Risk
Water 2016, 8(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040152
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
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Abstract
The assessment of collective risk for flood risk management requires a better understanding of the space-time characteristics of flood magnitude and occurrence. In particular, classic formulation of collective risk implies hypotheses concerning the independence of intensity and number of events over fixed time
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The assessment of collective risk for flood risk management requires a better understanding of the space-time characteristics of flood magnitude and occurrence. In particular, classic formulation of collective risk implies hypotheses concerning the independence of intensity and number of events over fixed time windows that are unlikely to be tenable in real-world hydroclimatic processes exhibiting persistence. In this study, we investigate the links between the serial correlation properties of 473 daily stream flow time series across the major river basins in Europe, and the characteristics of over-threshold events which are used as proxies for the estimation of collective risk. The aim is to understand if some key features of the daily stream flow data can be used to infer properties of extreme events making a more efficient and effective use of the available data. Using benchmark theoretical processes such as Hurst-Kolmogorov (HK), generalized HK (gHK), autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) models, and Fourier surrogate data preserving second order linear moments, our findings confirm and expand some results previously reported in the literature, namely: (1) the interplay between short range dependence (SRD) and long range dependence (LRD) can explain the majority of the serial dependence structure of deseasonalized data, but losing information on nonlinear dynamics; (2) the standardized return intervals between over-threshold values exhibit a sub-exponential Weibull-like distribution, implying a higher frequency of return intervals longer than expected under independence, and expected return intervals depending on the previous return intervals; this results in a tendency to observe short (long) inter-arrival times after short (long) inter-arrival times; (3) as the average intensity and the number of events over one-year time windows are not independent, years with larger events are also the more active in terms of number of events; and (4) persistence influences the distribution of the collective risk producing a spike of probability at zero, which describes the probability of years with no events, and a heavier upper tail, suggesting a probability of more extreme annual losses higher than expected under independence. These results provide new insights into the clustering of stream flow extremes, paving the way for more reliable simulation procedures of flood event sets to be used in flood risk management strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study of Advanced NOM-Reduction by Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration at a Swedish Surface Water Treatment Plant
Water 2016, 8(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040150
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
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Abstract
Membrane technology, i.e., ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, is growing in popularity, as it is a space efficient alternative for surface water treatment. Two types of hollow fiber membranes were tested in a fully equipped and automated pilot at a Swedish water treatment plant. Raw
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Membrane technology, i.e., ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, is growing in popularity, as it is a space efficient alternative for surface water treatment. Two types of hollow fiber membranes were tested in a fully equipped and automated pilot at a Swedish water treatment plant. Raw water was treated by a nanofilter and by coagulation before an ultrafilter. Operation parameters recorded during these trials have been the basis for cost estimations and assessments of environmental impact, comparing the two membrane modules to the existing conventional treatment. The membranes required lower chemical consumption, but led to increased costs from membrane modules and a higher energy demand. Compared to the existing treatment (0.33 €/m3), the operational costs were estimated to increase 6% for ultrafiltration and 30% for nanofiltration. Considering the low emissions from Nordic energy production, the membrane processes would lower the environmental impact, including factors such as climate and ecosystem health. Greenhouse gas emissions would decrease from 161 g CO2-eq/m3 of the existing process, to 127 g CO2-eq/m3 or 83 g CO2-eq/m3 for ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, respectively. Lower chemical consumption and less pollution from the sludge leaving the water treatment plant lead to lower impacts on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Consumption)
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Open AccessReview Economic Analysis and Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Urban and Peri-Urban Environments: A Review of the Global Situation with a Special Focus on Australia and Kenya
Water 2016, 8(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040149
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) plays an important role in increasing water security for individuals and governments. The demand for tools to enable technical and economic analysis of RWH systems has led to a substantial body of research in the recent past. This paper focuses
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Rainwater harvesting (RWH) plays an important role in increasing water security for individuals and governments. The demand for tools to enable technical and economic analysis of RWH systems has led to a substantial body of research in the recent past. This paper focuses on the economic aspects of domestic RWH in urban and peri-urban environments. In this regard, key issues are identified and discussed including quality and quantity of harvested water, the water demand profile, the scale of installation, interest rates, the period of analysis, real estate value, and the water-energy-food nexus. Kenya and Australia are used as reference points having different economies and opposing RWH policies. It has been found that the previous studies on financial aspects of RWH systems often had conflicting results. Most of the economic analyses have ignored the full benefits that a RWH system can offer. In view of the varying and conflicting results, there is a need to standardize the methods of economic analysis of RWH systems. Full article
Open AccessReview Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy): A Review of a Regional Experience
Water 2016, 8(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040148
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of
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The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Statistical Uncertainty in the Hydraulic Boundary Conditions on the Probabilistically Computed High Water Level Frequency Curve in the Rhine Delta
Water 2016, 8(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040147
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
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Abstract
The hydrodynamic characteristics of a delta or estuary are mainly governed by discharges of rivers and water level at the sea (or lake) boundaries. A joint probability approach is widely applied to quantify the high water level frequency in deltas. In the approach
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The hydrodynamic characteristics of a delta or estuary are mainly governed by discharges of rivers and water level at the sea (or lake) boundaries. A joint probability approach is widely applied to quantify the high water level frequency in deltas. In the approach the relevant hydrodynamic loading variables, namely the astronomical tides, the wind induced storm surge and the river flows, are jointly investigated. The joint probability distribution is used to generate a large number of scenarios of boundary conditions which can drive a deterministic model to derive the water levels at locations of interest. The resulting water levels as well as their associated joint probabilities can be inverted to the high water level frequency curve. However, in the joint probability distribution, marginal distributions may contain large statistical uncertainties due to their relevant parameters being estimated from a limited length of data. In the case of the Rhine Delta, a nonparametric bootstrap method is applied to quantify the statistical uncertainties in three critical marginal distributions: wind induced storm surge peak level, wind induced storm surge duration and River Rhine discharge. The uncertainties are incorporated into the marginal distributions with a Monte Carlo integration method. Further the uncertainty-incorporated marginal distributions are used for the high water level frequency assessment. Compared to previous studies, water levels for given return periods are much higher. The uncertainty differs in each marginal distribution and its impact on the high water level frequency curve also varies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Can Rapid Assessments Predict the Biotic Condition of Restored Streams?
Water 2016, 8(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040143
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five rapid visual stream assessment methods were applied to 65 restored streams in North Carolina, and the results were correlated with measured macroinvertebrate community metrics to evaluate predictive ability. The USEPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP), USDA Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), Peterson’s Riparian
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Five rapid visual stream assessment methods were applied to 65 restored streams in North Carolina, and the results were correlated with measured macroinvertebrate community metrics to evaluate predictive ability. The USEPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP), USDA Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), Peterson’s Riparian Channel and Environmental Inventory (RCE), NCSU Eco-Geomorphological Assessment (EGA), and NCSU Stream Performance Assessment (SPA) were applied by teams with expertise in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and aquatic ecology. Predictions of most macroinvertebrate metrics were improved by re-weighting assessment variables using principal component analysis (PCA) and including watershed factors (e.g., size, slope, land use). The correlations of EGA, RCE, SPA and SVAP assessment results to macroinvertebrate metrics were most improved by variable re-weighting using PCA, while the correlations of RBP were most improved by adding watershed parameters. Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) indicates that PCA re-weighting including watershed parameters improves the predictor model for the total number of dominant EPT taxa more than using the sum total raw points for all five assessment methods. To demonstrate the application of the study results, a single-value index was generated for the RBP method using principal component regression (PCR) based on the EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) taxa metric. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Factors Structuring Fish Communities in Floodplain Lakes of the Undisturbed System of the Biebrza River
Water 2016, 8(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040146
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
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Abstract
We evaluated the influence of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance of functional fish groups in 10 floodplain lakes in the Biebrza River, northeastern Poland. Fish were sampled by electrofishing, and 15 physico-chemical parameters were recorded at three
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We evaluated the influence of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance of functional fish groups in 10 floodplain lakes in the Biebrza River, northeastern Poland. Fish were sampled by electrofishing, and 15 physico-chemical parameters were recorded at three sampling sites at each lake in the period of 2011–2013. A total of 18,399 specimens, belonging to 23 species and six families, were captured. The relationships between environmental factors and fish communities were explored with the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Sampling sites were grouped based on fish communities using a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Along a lateral connectivity gradient from lotic to lentic habitats (parapotamic–plesiopotamic–paleopotamic), the proportions of rheophilic species were determined as 10:5:1, whereas the proportion of limnophilic species was determined as 1:2:5. The predominant species were the roach (Rutilus rutilus), and pike (Esox lucius) in parapotamic lakes, rudd (Scardinius erythropthalmus) and pike in plesiopotamic lakes, and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineates) and Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in paleopotamic lakes. The findings indicated that the composition and abundance of fish communities are determined by lake isolation gradient, physico-chemical parameters and water stage. Although intact riverine ecosystems may promote fish biodiversity, our findings suggest that lateral connectivity between the main channel and floodplain lakes is of utmost importance. Thus, the conservation of fish biodiversity requires the preservation of this connectivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Best Management Practices Implementation on Water Quality Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool
Water 2016, 8(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040145
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
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Abstract
The formation of hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico can be traced to agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States that are artificially drained in order to make the land suitable for agriculture. A number of best management practices (BMPs) have been
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The formation of hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico can be traced to agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States that are artificially drained in order to make the land suitable for agriculture. A number of best management practices (BMPs) have been introduced to improve the water quality in the region but their relative effectivenss of these BMPs in reducing nutrient load has not been properly quantified. In order to determine the BMPs useful for reducing nutrient discharge from a tile drained watershed, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was calibrated and validated for water flow and nitrate load using experimental data from the Little Vermillion River (LVR) watershed in east-central Illinois. Then, the performance of four common BMPs (reduced tillage, cover crop, filter strip and wetlands) were evaluated. For BMPs, the usage of rye as cover crop performed the best in reducing nitrate discharge from the watershed as a single BMP, with an average annual nitrate load reduction of 54.5%. Combining no tillage and rye cover crops had varying results over the period simulated, but the average nitrate reduction was better than using rye cover crops with conventional tillage, with the average annual nitrate discharge decreased by 60.5% (an improvement of 13% over rye only). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance)
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Open AccessReview Role of Hydrological Studies for the Development of the TDPS System
Water 2016, 8(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040144
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The South American Altiplano in the Andes is, aside from Tibet, the most extensive high plateau on Earth. This semiarid area represents important water resources storages, including the Lakes Titicaca and Poopó located in the northern and central Altiplano, respectively. The two lake
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The South American Altiplano in the Andes is, aside from Tibet, the most extensive high plateau on Earth. This semiarid area represents important water resources storages, including the Lakes Titicaca and Poopó located in the northern and central Altiplano, respectively. The two lake basins and the southern saltpans constitute a large watershed, called the Lake Titicaca, Desaguadero River, Lake Poopó, and Coipasa Salt Flat System (TDPS hydrologic system). The Altiplano climate, topography, and location determine the TDPS hydrologic functioning. Scarce data and high spatial variability represent challenges to correctly simulate the TDPS water budget. Consequently, there is an important need to improve the understanding of the water resources in current and future climate over the area. The paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art regarding current knowledge of the TDPS hydro-socioeconomic system and summarizes the data needs to improve the current hydrological understanding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System
Water 2016, 8(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040142
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
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Abstract
Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs) can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been
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Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs) can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs). Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Managing Water and Soils to Achieve Adaptation and Reduce Methane Emissions and Arsenic Contamination in Asian Rice Production
Water 2016, 8(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040141
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rice production is susceptible to damage from the changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, and in the frequency of major storm events that will accompany climate change. Deltaic areas, in which millions of farmers cultivate from one to three crops of rice per
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Rice production is susceptible to damage from the changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, and in the frequency of major storm events that will accompany climate change. Deltaic areas, in which millions of farmers cultivate from one to three crops of rice per year, are susceptible also to the impacts of a rising sea level, submergence during major storm events, and saline intrusion into groundwater and surface water resources. In this paper, I review the current state of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on rice production and I describe adaptation measures that involve soil and water management. In many areas, farmers will need to modify crop choices, crop calendars, and soil and water management practices as they adapt to climate change. Adaptation measures at the local, regional, and international levels also will be helpful in moderating the potential impacts of climate change on aggregate rice production and on household food security in many countries. Some of the changes in soil and water management and other production practices that will be implemented in response to climate change also will reduce methane generation and release from rice fields. Some of the measures also will reduce the uptake of arsenic in rice plants, thus addressing an important public health issue in portions of South and Southeast Asia. Where feasible, replacing continuously flooded rice production with some form of aerobic rice production, will contribute to achieving adaptation objectives, while also reducing global warming potential and minimizing the risk of negative health impacts due to consumption of arsenic contaminated rice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing Marginalized Communities in Mexico for Implementation of Rainwater Catchment Systems
Water 2016, 8(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040140
Received: 19 September 2015 / Revised: 14 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 8 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mexico contains a high percentage of marginalized communities, as well as geographic areas with high annual precipitation (approximately 2000 mm). This study uses regional water access and precipitation data to determine municipalities that would most benefit from the installation of Domestic Rain Water
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Mexico contains a high percentage of marginalized communities, as well as geographic areas with high annual precipitation (approximately 2000 mm). This study uses regional water access and precipitation data to determine municipalities that would most benefit from the installation of Domestic Rain Water Harvesting Systems (DRWHS). The main objective was to find a relationship between local conditions (marginalization, expected level of service, and precipitation) and the physical components of DRWHS. First, monthly precipitation and the number of inhabitants per household were determined for each municipality. Catchment area and tank size were then calculated for a single dwelling by municipality using water demand, run-off coefficient, monthly precipitation, and number of inhabitants per household. In general, municipalities with very low access to municipal water and very high precipitation were found in the southern area of the country. A curve that estimates catchment area based on annual precipitation was developed using the selected municipalities, which produced an average catchment area of 113.3 m2 for a water demand of 100 L/capita/day. While any DRWHS must be designed specific to local conditions, this study has determined that a regional approximation can be used to select ideal communities for these systems, which can in turn facilitate national implementation. Full article
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