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Special Issue "Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Zoran Vojinovic

UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands
University of Exeter, UK
University of Belgrade, Serbia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: urban water systems; hydroinformatics; flood resilience and adaptation; optimal rehabilitation of drainage networks
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Michael B. Abbott

Founder of Computational Hydraulics and later Hydroinformatics, Knowledge Engineering BVBA, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydroinformatics; stakeholder participation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydroinformatics integrates knowledge from social and technical domains to help understand how technical interventions have social consequences and how these in turn generate new technical developments. The application of hydroinformatics to urban water systems (also known as urban hydroinformatics) has emerged as an important concept following a growing need to manage urban water systems in a holistic manner by attending to those social and technical processes that cannot be separated from each other. The topics consist of, but are not limited to, the modelling of institutional behaviour, stakeholder participation through serious gaming and collaborative modelling, quantitative and qualitative flood risk assessment, numerical modelling of water processes, system performance evaluation, leakage control in water distribution networks, optimal rehabilitation of sewerage networks, real-time control, analysis of treatment works operation, and minimising the impact of sewerage overflows on receiving waters. Social science perspectives, such as economics, environmental and social justice, psychology and behavioural science, institutional and policy analysis are integral to urban hydroinformatics, and therefore interdisciplinary and even trans-disciplinary analyses to urban water problems are within scope. The journal, Water, is inviting manuscripts for a Special Issue addressing Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems.

Prof. Dr. Zoran Vojinovic
Prof. Dr. Michael B. Abbott
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Computational modelling
  • System optimization and control
  • Disaster risk mitigation and emergency management
  • Multifunctional urban planning
  • Stakeholder participation
  • Institutional and policy analysis

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Twenty-Five Years of Hydroinformatics
Water 2017, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010059
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydroinformatics emerged in 1991 when numerical modelling of water expanded its range from one that was restricted to the modelling of flows to a much wider ranging sociotechnical discipline that supports stakeholders in addressing their water-related problems. However, despite numerous advances in hydroinformatics,
[...] Read more.
Hydroinformatics emerged in 1991 when numerical modelling of water expanded its range from one that was restricted to the modelling of flows to a much wider ranging sociotechnical discipline that supports stakeholders in addressing their water-related problems. However, despite numerous advances in hydroinformatics, the current practical and research effort is still very much technocratic (or techno-centric) which in turn may restrict the potential of hydroinformatics in its scope and its reach. This Special Issue, through the compilation of thirteen papers, illustrates some of the developments and applications in the field of hydroinformatics and marks the twenty-five years of its existence. We hope that this will help to further raise the awareness of the subject and its developments and applications. In the Editorial of this Special Issue, we briefly discuss the origin of hydroinformatics and we introduce the papers that are featuring in this Special Issue. We also give a way forward for future research and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Developing Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) Curves under Climate Change Uncertainty: The Case of Bangkok, Thailand
Water 2017, 9(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020145
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The magnitude and frequency of hydrological events are expected to increase in coming years due to climate change in megacities of Asia. Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves represent essential means to study effects on the performance of drainage systems. Therefore, the need for updating IDF
[...] Read more.
The magnitude and frequency of hydrological events are expected to increase in coming years due to climate change in megacities of Asia. Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves represent essential means to study effects on the performance of drainage systems. Therefore, the need for updating IDF curves comes from the necessity to gain better understanding of climate change effects. The present paper explores an approach based on spatial downscaling-temporal disaggregation method (DDM) to develop future IDFs using stochastic weather generator, Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and the rainfall disaggregation tool, Hyetos. The work was carried out for the case of Bangkok, Thailand. The application of LARS-WG to project extreme rainfalls showed promising results and nine global climate models (GCMs) were used to estimate changes in IDF characteristics for future time periods of 2011–2030 and 2046–2065 under climate change scenarios. The IDFs derived from this approach were corrected using higher order equation to mitigate biases. IDFs from all GCMs showed increasing intensities in the future for all return periods. The work presented demonstrates the potential of this approach in projecting future climate scenarios for urban catchment where long term hourly rainfall data are not readily available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Integrating Local Scale Drainage Measures in Meso Scale Catchment Modelling
Water 2017, 9(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020071
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 25 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (21752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This article presents a methodology to optimize the integration of local scale drainage measures in catchment modelling. The methodology enables to zoom into the processes (physically, spatially and temporally) where detailed physical based computation is required and to zoom out where lumped conceptualized
[...] Read more.
This article presents a methodology to optimize the integration of local scale drainage measures in catchment modelling. The methodology enables to zoom into the processes (physically, spatially and temporally) where detailed physical based computation is required and to zoom out where lumped conceptualized approaches are applied. It allows the definition of parameters and computation procedures on different spatial and temporal scales. Three methods are developed to integrate features of local scale drainage measures in catchment modelling: (1) different types of local drainage measures are spatially integrated in catchment modelling by a data mapping; (2) interlinked drainage features between data objects are enabled on the meso, local and micro scale; (3) a method for modelling multiple interlinked layers on the micro scale is developed. For the computation of flow routing on the meso scale, the results of the local scale measures are aggregated according to their contributing inlet in the network structure. The implementation of the methods is realized in a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model. The implemented micro scale approach is validated with a laboratory physical model to confirm the credibility of the model. A study of a river catchment of 88 km2 illustrated the applicability of the model on the regional scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Reducing Convective Acceleration Terms in Modelling Supercritical and Transcritical Flow Conditions
Water 2016, 8(12), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120562
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modelling floods and flood-related disasters has become priority for many researchers and practitioners. Currently, there are several options that can be used for modelling floods in urban areas and the present work attempts to investigate effectiveness of different model formulations in modelling supercritical
[...] Read more.
Modelling floods and flood-related disasters has become priority for many researchers and practitioners. Currently, there are several options that can be used for modelling floods in urban areas and the present work attempts to investigate effectiveness of different model formulations in modelling supercritical and transcritical flow conditions. In our work, we use the following three methods for modelling one-dimensional (1D) flows: the MIKE 11 flow model, Kutija’s method, and the Roe scheme. We use two methods for modelling two-dimensional (2D) flows: the MIKE21 flow model and a non-inertia 2D model. Apart from the MIKE11 and MIKE21 models, the code for all other models was developed and used for the purposes of the present work. The performance of the models was evaluated using hypothetical case studies with the intention of representing some configurations that can be found in urban floodplains. The present work does not go into the assessment of these models in modelling various topographical features that may be found on urban floodplains, but rather focuses on how they perform in simulating supercritical and transcritical flows. The overall findings are that the simplified models which ignore convective acceleration terms (CATs) in the momentum equations may be effectively used to model urban flood plains without a significant loss of accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a New Generation of Flood Inundation Maps—A Case Study of the Coastal City of Tainan, Taiwan
Water 2016, 8(11), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110521
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (16272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flood risk management has become a growing priority for city managers and disaster risk prevention agencies worldwide. Correspondingly, large investments are made towards data collection, archiving and analysis and technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing play important role in
[...] Read more.
Flood risk management has become a growing priority for city managers and disaster risk prevention agencies worldwide. Correspondingly, large investments are made towards data collection, archiving and analysis and technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing play important role in this regard. GIS technologies offer valuable means for delineation of flood plains, zoning of areas that need protection from floods and identification of plans for development and scoping of various kinds of flood protection measures. Flood inundation maps (FIMs) are particularly useful in planning flood disaster risk responses. The purpose of the present paper is to describe efforts in developing new generation of FIMs at the city scale and to demonstrate effectiveness of such maps in the case of the coastal city of Tainan, Taiwan. In the present work, besides pluvial floods, the storm surge influence is also considered. The 1D/2D coupled model SOBEK was used for flood simulations. Different indicators such as Probability of Detection (POD) and Scale of Accuracy (SA) were applied in the calibration and validation stages of the work and their corresponding values were found to be up to 88.1% and 68.0%, respectively. From the overall analysis, it came up that land elevation, tidal phase, and storm surge are the three dominant factors that influence flooding in Tainan. A large number of model simulations were carried out in order to produce FIMs which were then effectively applied in the stakeholder engagement process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Serious Gaming for Water Systems Planning and Management
Water 2016, 8(10), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100456
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water systems planning and management share the same roots with gaming, as they rely on concepts in systems analysis, operations research and decision sciences. This paper focuses on Serious Games (those used for purposes other than mere entertainment), with applications in the area
[...] Read more.
Water systems planning and management share the same roots with gaming, as they rely on concepts in systems analysis, operations research and decision sciences. This paper focuses on Serious Games (those used for purposes other than mere entertainment), with applications in the area of water systems planning and management. A survey of published work on gaming is carried out with particular attention given to applications of Serious Gaming to water systems planning and management. The survey is also used to identify the principal criteria for the classification of Serious Gaming for water related applications, including application areas, goals, number and type of players, user interface, type of simulation model used, realism of the game, performance feedback, progress monitoring and game portability. The review shows that game applications in the water sector can be a valuable tool for making various stakeholders aware of the socio-techno-economic issues related to managing complex water systems. However, the critical review also indicates a gap that exists in the Serious Game application area with the lack of water distribution system games. A conceptually simple, but computationally elaborate new game for water distribution system analysis, design and evaluation (SeGWADE) is presented in this paper. It has a main goal of finding a least-cost design for a well-known benchmark problem, for which the game environment takes the computational and visualisation burden away from the simulation tool and the player. The game has been evaluated in a classroom environment in which a high degree of player engagement with the game was observed, due to its basic game ingredients and activities, i.e., challenge, play and fun. In addition, a clear improvement in learning has been observed in how players attempted to identify solutions that satisfy the pressure criterion with players readily identifying the proximity of the better solutions to the starting, infeasible configuration. Through applications of Serious Gaming such as this, decision makers can learn about the complexity of the water distribution system design problem, experiment safely using a computer model of a real system, understand conflicting objectives (i.e., minimization of cost and satisfaction of minimum pressure) and develop strategies for coping with complexity without being burdened by the limitations of the ICT technology at their disposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Coupling GIS with Stormwater Modelling for the Location Prioritization and Hydrological Simulation of Permeable Pavements in Urban Catchments
Water 2016, 8(10), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100451
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) are an alternative to conventional paving systems that allow water to filter through their layers instead of running off them. They are structural source control Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS), which can contribute to reducing increased flood risk due to
[...] Read more.
Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) are an alternative to conventional paving systems that allow water to filter through their layers instead of running off them. They are structural source control Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS), which can contribute to reducing increased flood risk due to the combination of two of the greatest challenges with which cities will have to deal in the future: urbanization and Climate Change. Hence, this research consisted of the design of a site selection methodology for the location prioritization of PPS in urban catchments, in order to simulate their potential to attenuate flooding caused by severe rainfall events. This was achieved through the coupling of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and stormwater models, whose combination provided a framework for both locating and characterizing PPS. The usefulness of the methodology was tested through a real case study consisting of an urban catchment located in Espoo (southern Finland), which demonstrated that PPS can make a significant difference in the amount of runoff generated in an urban catchment due to intense storms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Evolutionary and Holistic Assessment of Green-Grey Infrastructure for CSO Reduction
Water 2016, 8(9), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090402
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent research suggests future alterations in rainfall patterns due to climate variability, affecting public safety and health in urban areas. Urban growth, one of the main drivers of change in the current century, will also affect these conditions. Traditional drainage approaches using grey
[...] Read more.
Recent research suggests future alterations in rainfall patterns due to climate variability, affecting public safety and health in urban areas. Urban growth, one of the main drivers of change in the current century, will also affect these conditions. Traditional drainage approaches using grey infrastructure offer low adaptation to an uncertain future. New methodologies of stormwater management focus on decentralized approaches in a long-term planning framework, including the use of Green Infrastructure (GI). This work presents a novel methodology to select, evaluate, and place different green-grey practices (or measures) for retrofitting urban drainage systems. The methodology uses a hydrodynamic model and multi-objective optimization to design solutions at a watershed level. The method proposed in this study was applied in a highly urbanized watershed to evaluate the effect of these measures on Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) quantity. This approach produced promising results and may become a useful tool for planning and decision making of drainage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base
Water 2016, 8(9), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090392
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (12503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary
[...] Read more.
While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL) intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB) of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based) lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI) tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Maximum a Posteriori Estimation as Data Assimilation Method for Forecasting Infiltration-Inflow Affected Urban Runoff with Radar Rainfall Input
Water 2016, 8(9), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090381
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 20 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper presents a way
[...] Read more.
High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper presents a way of updating conceptual rainfall-runoff models using Maximum a Posteriori estimation to determine the most likely parameter constellation at the current point in time. This is done by combining information from prior parameter distributions and the model goodness of fit over a predefined period of time that precedes the forecast. The method is illustrated for an urban catchment, where flow forecasts of 0–4 h are generated by applying a lumped linear reservoir model with three cascading reservoirs. Radar rainfall observations are used as input to the model. The effects of different prior standard deviations and lengths of the auto-calibration period on the resulting flow forecast performance are evaluated. We were able to demonstrate that, if properly tuned, the method leads to a significant increase in forecasting performance compared to a model without continuous auto-calibration. Delayed responses and erratic behaviour in the parameter variations are, however, observed and the choice of prior distributions and length of auto-calibration period is not straightforward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle ResilSIM—A Decision Support Tool for Estimating Resilience of Urban Systems
Water 2016, 8(9), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090377
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Damages to urban systems as a result of water-related natural disasters have escalated in recent years. The observed trend is expected to increase in the future as the impacts of population growth, rapid urbanization and climate change persist. To alleviate the damages associated
[...] Read more.
Damages to urban systems as a result of water-related natural disasters have escalated in recent years. The observed trend is expected to increase in the future as the impacts of population growth, rapid urbanization and climate change persist. To alleviate the damages associated with these impacts, it is recommended to integrate disaster management methods into planning, design and operational policies under all levels of government. This manuscript proposes the concept of ResilSIM: A decision support tool that rapidly estimates the resilience (a modern disaster management measure that is dynamic in time and space) of an urban system to the consequences of natural disasters. The web-based tool (with mobile access) operates in near real-time. It is designed to assist decision makers in selecting the best options for integrating adaptive capacity into their communities to protect against the negative impacts of a hazard. ResilSIM is developed for application in Toronto and London, Ontario, Canada; however, it is only demonstrated for use in the city of London, which is susceptible to riverine flooding. It is observed how the incorporation of different combinations of adaptation options maintain or strengthen London’s basic structures and functions in the event of a flood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for Multi-Period Water Distribution Network Design Optimization
Water 2016, 8(8), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8080359
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Water distribution networks consist of different components, such as reservoirs and pipes, and exist to provide users (households, agriculture, industry) with high-quality water at adequate pressure and flow. Water distribution network design optimization aims to find optimal diameters for every pipe, chosen from
[...] Read more.
Water distribution networks consist of different components, such as reservoirs and pipes, and exist to provide users (households, agriculture, industry) with high-quality water at adequate pressure and flow. Water distribution network design optimization aims to find optimal diameters for every pipe, chosen from a limited set of commercially available diameters. This combinatorial optimization problem has received a lot of attention over the past forty years. In this paper, the well-studied single-period problem is extended to a multi-period setting in which time varying demand patterns occur. Moreover, an additional constraint—which sets a maximum water velocity—is imposed. A metaheuristic technique called iterated local search is applied to tackle this challenging optimization problem. A full-factorial experiment is conducted to validate the added value of the algorithm components and to configure optimal parameter settings. The algorithm is tested on a broad range of 150 different (freely available) test networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Upstream Detention Reservoir Facilities for Downstream Flood Mitigation in Urban Areas
Water 2016, 8(7), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070290
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A detention reservoir is one of the most effective engineered solutions for flood damage mitigation in urban areas. Detention facilities are constructed to temporarily store storm water and then slowly drain when the peak period has passed. This delayed drainage may coincide with
[...] Read more.
A detention reservoir is one of the most effective engineered solutions for flood damage mitigation in urban areas. Detention facilities are constructed to temporarily store storm water and then slowly drain when the peak period has passed. This delayed drainage may coincide with upstream floods and aggravate the flood risk downstream. Optimal operation and design are needed to improve the performance of detention reservoirs for flood reduction. This study couples hydrologic simulation software (EPA-SWMM) with an evolutional optimizer (extraordinary particle swarm optimization, EPSO) to minimize flood damage downstream while considering the inundation risk at the detention reservoir. The optimum design and operation are applied to an urban case study in Seoul, Korea, for historical severe flooding events and designed rainfall scenarios. The optimal facilities outperform the present facilities in terms of flood damage reduction both downstream and in the detention reservoir area. Specifically, the peak water level at the detention pond under optimal conditions is significantly smaller than that of the current conditions. The comparison of the total flooded volume in the whole watershed shows a dramatic reduction of 79% in a severe flooding event in 2010 and around 20% in 2011 and in 180 min designed rainfall scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Water Supply Network Sectorization Methodology Based on a Complete Economic Analysis, Including Uncertainties
Water 2016, 8(5), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8050179
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The core idea behind sectorization of Water Supply Networks (WSNs) is to establish areas partially isolated from the rest of the network to improve operational control. Besides the benefits associated with sectorization, some drawbacks must be taken into consideration by water operators: the
[...] Read more.
The core idea behind sectorization of Water Supply Networks (WSNs) is to establish areas partially isolated from the rest of the network to improve operational control. Besides the benefits associated with sectorization, some drawbacks must be taken into consideration by water operators: the economic investment associated with both boundary valves and flowmeters and the reduction of both pressure and system resilience. The target of sectorization is to properly balance these negative and positive aspects. Sectorization methodologies addressing the economic aspects mainly consider costs of valves and flowmeters and of energy, and the benefits in terms of water saving linked to pressure reduction. However, sectorization entails other benefits, such as the reduction of domestic consumption, the reduction of burst frequency and the enhanced capacity to detect and intervene over future leakage events. We implement a development proposed by the International Water Association (IWA) to estimate the aforementioned benefits. Such a development is integrated in a novel sectorization methodology based on a social network community detection algorithm, combined with a genetic algorithm optimization method and Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology is implemented over a fraction of the WSN of Managua city, capital of Nicaragua, generating a net benefit of 25,572 $/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System
Water 2016, 8(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040142
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs) can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been
[...] Read more.
Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs) can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs). Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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