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Open AccessArticle

Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

1
K-water Institute, Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-water), Daejeon 34045, Korea
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
3
Department of Energy IT, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zoran Vojinovic
Water 2016, 8(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040142
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs) can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs). Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: burst detection; sampling interval; Kalman filter; adaptive Kalman filter; water distribution system; district meter area; SCADA burst detection; sampling interval; Kalman filter; adaptive Kalman filter; water distribution system; district meter area; SCADA
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Choi, D.Y.; Kim, S.-W.; Choi, M.-A.; Geem, Z.W. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System. Water 2016, 8, 142.

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