Special Issue "Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Robert Puls
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Robert Puls Environmental Consulting, LLC, recently retired as Director, Oklahoma Water Survey, University of Oklahoma, USA
Interests: baseline water quality for oil and gas operations; passive in situ groundwater remediation; groundwater sampling; wastewater reuse; managed aquifer recharge
Mr. Robert Powell
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1 Powell & Associates Science Services P.O. Box 210-145 Auburn Hills, MI 48321-0145 USA
2 Part-Time Faculty at Washtenaw Community College, 4800 E. Huron River Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-4800, USA
3 Adjunct Faculty at MIAT College of Technology, 2955 S. Haggerty Road, Canton, Michigan 48188, USA
Interests: exploratory data analysis and visualization of environmental issues; maximizing data value; assessing land surface contamination impacts on surface water (including benthos health) and groundwater, coal and coal ash impacts; error reduction in groundwater sampling; novel groundwater assessment tools; in situ groundwater remediation; risk reduction; educational outreach.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Numerous papers have been written over the last 25 years regarding how best to sample ground water for different environmental program objectives. Ground water sampling is used to determine the extent of potential groundwater impacts from both point and non-point sources of contamination, as well as to assess the presence of naturally-occurring contaminants (e.g., arsenic, chromium). The actual activity of sampling, however, can impact the ‘natural state’ or pseudo-equilibrium of the ground water system under assessment, depending on the sampling method, sampling device, and construction of the monitoring point itself. This makes it important to clarify the objectives of the monitoring program before sampling, preferably before installing either permanent or temporary monitoring access points. These objectives can include everything from simple compliance/noncompliance monitoring through the detailed needs of lawyers and expert witnesses in court cases.

Monitoring wells has sometimes been referred to ‘holes in the ground that lie.’ Many practitioners have stressed the need to understand the flow dynamics of the monitoring system in the context of the nature of the sampling platform, but it is also necessary to understand the dynamics of the local groundwater flow regime that you are trying to characterize or assess.  We have seen an evolution, from sampling methods that used a rapidly pumped or bailed casing volume approach for purging wells, to low-flow purging and sampling with the stabilization of indicator parameters, and, eventually, fully passive sampling approaches that can include downhole sensors to avoid water collection entirely. Coinciding with the evolution of sampling methods, we have also seen a movement away from large diameter long-screened wells to small diameter short-screened monitoring points for many subsurface characterization programs. All the above continue to be used for different sampling objectives or due almost entirely to inertia at some sites, but the choice of approach is confusing for some practitioners, even though we now have substantial data and modeling to help with such choices. Guidance for monitoring approaches best suited for specific objectives remains somewhat lacking in the literature.

This Special Issue will address the current state of practice in groundwater sampling for the spectrum of objectives, including characterization of ground water resources, plume delineation, pumping impacts on surface water resources, establishment of baseline water quality for local and regional flow systems to assess impacts from anthropogenic activities that may impact groundwater quality (e.g., oil and gas activities, mining, waste disposal facilities, and other point and nonpoint source inputs) and for litigation support.

Dr. Robert Puls
Mr. Robert Powell
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ground Water
  • Surface Water
  • Monitoring Objectives
  • Compliance
  • Contamination
  • Predictions
  • Assessment
  • Pumping Impacts
  • Low-flow
  • Passive
  • Purging and Sampling
  • Statistics
  • Water Quality
  • Baseline
  • Background
  • Local Flow
  • Regional Flow
  • Remediation
  • In Situ Treatment
  • In Situ Monitoring

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of ANN and SVM Models Combined with Wavelet Preprocess for Groundwater Depth Prediction
Water 2017, 9(10), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100781 - 12 Oct 2017
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Reliable prediction of groundwater depth fluctuations has been an important component in sustainable water resources management. In this study, a data-driven prediction model combining discrete wavelet transform (DWT) preprocess and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed for groundwater depth forecasting. Regular artificial neural [...] Read more.
Reliable prediction of groundwater depth fluctuations has been an important component in sustainable water resources management. In this study, a data-driven prediction model combining discrete wavelet transform (DWT) preprocess and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed for groundwater depth forecasting. Regular artificial neural networks (ANN), regular SVM, and wavelet preprocessed artificial neural networks (WANN) models were also developed for comparison. These methods were applied to the monthly groundwater depth records over a period of 37 years from ten wells in the Mengcheng County, China. Relative absolute error (RAE), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error (RMSE), and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were adopted for model evaluation. The results indicate that wavelet preprocess extremely improved the training and test performance of ANN and SVM models. The WSVM model provided the most precise and reliable groundwater depth prediction compared with ANN, SVM, and WSVM models. The criterion of RAE, r, RMSE, and NSE values for proposed WSVM model are 0.20, 0.97, 0.18 and 0.94, respectively. Comprehensive comparisons and discussion revealed that wavelet preprocess extremely improves the prediction precision and reliability for both SVM and ANN models. The prediction result of SVM model is superior to ANN model in generalization ability and precision. Nevertheless, the performance of WANN is superior to SVM model, which further validates the power of data preprocess in data-driven prediction models. Finally, the optimal model, WSVM, is discussed by comparing its subseries performances as well as model performance stability, revealing the efficiency and universality of WSVM model in data driven prediction field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism of Nitrogen Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Natural Scoria
Water 2017, 9(5), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050341 - 11 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
The efficiencies and mechanisms of nitrogen removal from groundwater by scoria were studied. When NH4+-N concentration was 0.5–10 mg/L, the removal was 96–89%. When NO2-N concentration was 0.1–5 mg/L, the removal was 93–85%. When NO3 [...] Read more.
The efficiencies and mechanisms of nitrogen removal from groundwater by scoria were studied. When NH4+-N concentration was 0.5–10 mg/L, the removal was 96–89%. When NO2-N concentration was 0.1–5 mg/L, the removal was 93–85%. When NO3-N concentration was 30–150 mg/L, the removal was 85–70%. Additionally, van der Waals forces had a positive impact on the adsorption, which promoted NH4+-N adsorption. Ion exchange and dissolution did not exist. Functional groups of N-H, C-H, and C-N changed after adsorption. Overall, this study indicates that scoria is an ecologically friendly and safe material that can be utilized for groundwater purification to treat nitrogen-contaminated water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation
Water 2017, 9(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010067 - 23 Jan 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Water Mines (Porto, NW Portugal)
Water 2016, 8(11), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110499 - 03 Nov 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2527
Abstract
A multidisciplinary approach was developed to estimate urban groundwater vulnerability to contamination combining hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, subterranean hydrogeotechnics, groundwater ecotoxicology and isotope tracers. Paranhos and Salgueiros spring waters in Porto City were used as a case study. Historical and current vulnerability scenarios were compared [...] Read more.
A multidisciplinary approach was developed to estimate urban groundwater vulnerability to contamination combining hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, subterranean hydrogeotechnics, groundwater ecotoxicology and isotope tracers. Paranhos and Salgueiros spring waters in Porto City were used as a case study. Historical and current vulnerability scenarios were compared using hydrogeological GIS-based modelling. Potential contamination sources were mapped around the spring galleries. Most of these were point sources and their potential contamination load was moderate. The ecotoxicological assessment indicated a low acute toxicity potential. Groundwater radionuclides appeared to be mainly controlled by geological factors and biomineralisation. Vulnerability maps suggest that most of the area has a moderate to low vulnerability to contamination. However, some surface sources such as sewage systems cause contamination and contribute to increased vulnerability. This integrated approach was demonstrated to be adequate for a better knowledge of urban hydrogeological processes and their dynamics, and highlighted the importance of a vulnerability assessment in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea
Water 2016, 8(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040168 - 21 Apr 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring [...] Read more.
Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN), and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN). The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
New Insights on the Simultaneous Removal by Adsorption on Organoclays of Humic Acid and Phenol
Water 2016, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8010021 - 18 Jan 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
The exploitation of thermal water as a heat source in houses and apartments (during winter) is a widely used alternative to natural gas. However, this type of water may contain organic contaminants, which must be removed before releasing the used water into rivers [...] Read more.
The exploitation of thermal water as a heat source in houses and apartments (during winter) is a widely used alternative to natural gas. However, this type of water may contain organic contaminants, which must be removed before releasing the used water into rivers and lakes. Because of the presence of a wide range of pollutants (including phenolic compounds and humates), efficient, cheap removal processes are needed. In order to demonstrate their capability in thermal water cleaning, clay minerals were applied for the removal of phenol and humic acid via adsorption. To determine the most efficient removal strategy for the aforementioned pollutants, the following parameters were investigated: the type of the clay mineral, the organophilization strategy (in situ or pre-organophilization), and the individual or simultaneous removability of the model pollutants. The current study revealed that the applied low cost, in situ prepared clay mineral adsorbents are applicable in the removal of pollutants from thermal water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy): A Review of a Regional Experience
Water 2016, 8(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040148 - 13 Apr 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of [...] Read more.
The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Other

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Open AccessProject Report
Estimating the Impact of Drought on Groundwater Resources of the Marshall Islands
Water 2017, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010041 - 10 Jan 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
Groundwater resources of small coral islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in climate. A significant short-term threat is El Niño events, which typically induce a severe months-long drought for many atoll nations in the western and central Pacific regions that [...] Read more.
Groundwater resources of small coral islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in climate. A significant short-term threat is El Niño events, which typically induce a severe months-long drought for many atoll nations in the western and central Pacific regions that exhausts rainwater supply and necessitates the use of groundwater. This study quantifies fresh groundwater resources under both average rainfall and drought conditions for the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), a nation composed solely of atolls and which is severely impacted by El Niño droughts. The atoll island algebraic model is used to estimate the thickness of the freshwater lens for 680 inhabited and uninhabited islands of the RMI, with a focus on the severe 1998 drought. The model accounts for precipitation, island width, hydraulic conductivity of the upper Holocene-age sand aquifer, the depth to the contact between the Holocene aquifer and the lower Pleistocene-age limestone aquifer, and the presence of a reef flat plate underlying the ocean side of the island. Model results are tested for islands that have fresh groundwater data. Results highlight the fragility of groundwater resources for the nation. Average lens thickness during typical seasonal rainfall is approximately 4 m, with only 30% of the islands maintaining a lens thicker than 4.5% and 55% of the islands with a lens less than 2.5 m thick. Thicker lenses typically occur for larger islands, islands located on the leeward side of an atoll due to lower hydraulic conductivity, and islands located in the southern region of the RMI due to higher rainfall rates. During drought, groundwater on small islands (<300 m in width) is completely depleted. Over half (54%) of the islands are classified as “Highly Vulnerable” to drought. Results provide valuable information for RMI water resources planners, particularly during the current 2016 El Niño drought, and similar methods can be used to quantify groundwater availability for other atoll island nations, including the Federated State of Micronesia, Republic of Maldives, and Republic of Kiribati. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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