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Cancers, Volume 13, Issue 17 (September-1 2021) – 250 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Immunotherapeutic agents are an attractive treatment option for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), yet none of these agents have been approved for pediatric nor adult AML. Koedijk et al. provide an overview of the immune composition of the bone marrow and peripheral blood in pediatric AML. The authors advocate extensive immune profiling efforts during conventional therapy as well as in immunotherapy trials to define suitable timepoints for immunotherapy intervention and to identify children most likely to benefit from these agents. Furthermore, separate pediatric studies are needed since differences in pathophysiology and maturation of the immune system and the substantially higher incidence of fusion gene drivers in pediatric AML may affect immune profiles. Implementation of optimized immunotherapeutic interventions may substantially improve patient care and outcome. View this paper.
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Article
Development of Multi-Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography for Examination of Nanocomposite-Treated Biological Samples
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4497; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174497 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 958
Abstract
Research in cancer nanotechnology is entering its third decade, and the need to study interactions between nanomaterials and cells remains urgent. Heterogeneity of nanoparticle uptake by different cells and subcellular compartments represent the greatest obstacles to a full understanding of the entire spectrum [...] Read more.
Research in cancer nanotechnology is entering its third decade, and the need to study interactions between nanomaterials and cells remains urgent. Heterogeneity of nanoparticle uptake by different cells and subcellular compartments represent the greatest obstacles to a full understanding of the entire spectrum of nanomaterials’ effects. In this work, we used flow cytometry to evaluate changes in cell cycle associated with non-targeted nanocomposite uptake by individual cells and cell populations. Analogous single cell and cell population changes in nanocomposite uptake were explored by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Very few nanoparticles are visible by optical imaging without labeling, but labeling increases nanoparticle complexity and the risk of modified cellular uptake. XFM can be used to evaluate heterogeneity of nanocomposite uptake by directly imaging the metal atoms present in the metal-oxide nanocomposites under investigation. While XFM mapping has been performed iteratively in 2D with the same sample at different resolutions, this study is the first example of serial tomographic imaging at two different resolutions. A cluster of cells exposed to non-targeted nanocomposites was imaged with a micron-sized beam in 3D. Next, the sample was sectioned for immunohistochemistry as well as a high resolution “zoomed in” X-ray fluorescence (XRF) tomography with 80 nm beam spot size. Multiscale XRF tomography will revolutionize our ability to explore cell-to-cell differences in nanomaterial uptake. Full article
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Review
Hybrid Formation and Fusion of Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4496; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174496 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
The generation of cancer hybrid cells by intra-tumoral cell fusion opens new avenues for tumor plasticity to develop cancer stem cells with altered properties, to escape from immune surveillance, to change metastatic behavior, and to broaden drug responsiveness/resistance. Genomic instability and chromosomal rearrangements [...] Read more.
The generation of cancer hybrid cells by intra-tumoral cell fusion opens new avenues for tumor plasticity to develop cancer stem cells with altered properties, to escape from immune surveillance, to change metastatic behavior, and to broaden drug responsiveness/resistance. Genomic instability and chromosomal rearrangements in bi- or multinucleated aneuploid cancer hybrid cells contribute to these new functions. However, the significance of cell fusion in tumorigenesis is controversial with respect to the low frequency of cancer cell fusion events and a clonal advantage of surviving cancer hybrid cells following a post-hybrid selection process. This review highlights alternative processes of cancer hybrid cell development such as entosis, emperipolesis, cannibalism, therapy-induced polyploidization/endoreduplication, horizontal or lateral gene transfer, and focusses on the predominant mechanisms of cell fusion. Based upon new properties of cancer hybrid cells the arising clinical consequences of the subsequent tumor heterogeneity after cancer cell fusion represent a major therapeutic challenge. Full article
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Review
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) in Cancer Invasion, Evasion and Metastasis
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174495 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
The present review highlights the complex interactions between cancer and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils constitute the first line of defense against foreign invaders using major effector mechanisms: phagocytosis, degranulation, and NETs formation. NETs are composed from decondensed nuclear or mitochondrial DNA decorated [...] Read more.
The present review highlights the complex interactions between cancer and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils constitute the first line of defense against foreign invaders using major effector mechanisms: phagocytosis, degranulation, and NETs formation. NETs are composed from decondensed nuclear or mitochondrial DNA decorated with proteases and various inflammatory mediators. Although NETs play a crucial role in defense against systemic infections, they also participate in non-infectious conditions, such as inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Cancer cells recruit neutrophils (tumor-associated neutrophils, TANs), releasing NETs to the tumor microenvironment. NETs were found in various samples of human and animal tumors, such as pancreatic, breast, liver, and gastric cancers and around metastatic tumors. The role of the NETs in tumor development increasingly includes cancer immunoediting and interactions between the immune system and cancer cells. According to the accumulated evidence, NETs awake dormant cancer cells, causing tumor relapse, as well as its unconstrained growth and spread. NETs play a key regulatory role in the tumor microenvironment, such as the development of distant metastases through the secretion of proteases, i.e., matrix metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines. NETs, furthermore, directly exacerbate tumor aggressiveness by enhancing cancer migration and invasion capacity. The collected evidence also states that through the induction of the high-mobility group box 1, NETs induce the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in tumor cells and, thereby, potentiate their invasiveness. NET proteinases can also degrade the extracellular matrix, promoting cancer cell extravasation. Moreover, NETs can entrap circulating cancer cells and, in that way, facilitate metastasis. NETs directly trigger tumor cell proliferation through their proteases or activating signals. This review focused on the pro-tumorigenic action of NETs, in spite of its potential to also exhibit an antitumor effect. NET components, such as myeloperoxidase or histones, have been shown to directly kill cancer cells. A better understanding of the crosstalk between cancer and NETs can help to devise novel approaches to the therapeutic interventions that block cancer evasion mechanisms and prevent metastatic spread. This review sought to provide the most recent knowledge on the crosstalk between NETs and cancer, and bring more profound ideas for future scientists exploring this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Immune Evasion)
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Article
A Comprehensive Evaluation and Benchmarking of Convolutional Neural Networks for Melanoma Diagnosis
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4494; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174494 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Melanoma is the most invasive skin cancer with the highest risk of death. While it is a serious skin cancer, it is highly curable if detected early. Melanoma diagnosis is difficult, even for experienced dermatologists, due to the wide range of morphologies in [...] Read more.
Melanoma is the most invasive skin cancer with the highest risk of death. While it is a serious skin cancer, it is highly curable if detected early. Melanoma diagnosis is difficult, even for experienced dermatologists, due to the wide range of morphologies in skin lesions. Given the rapid development of deep learning algorithms for melanoma diagnosis, it is crucial to validate and benchmark these models, which is the main challenge of this work. This research presents a new benchmarking and selection approach based on the multi-criteria analysis method (MCDM), which integrates entropy and the preference ranking organization method for enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE) methods. The experimental study is carried out in four phases. Firstly, 19 convolution neural networks (CNNs) are trained and evaluated on a public dataset of 991 dermoscopic images. Secondly, to obtain the decision matrix, 10 criteria, including accuracy, classification error, precision, sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), and the number of parameters are established. Third, entropy and PROMETHEE methods are integrated to determine the weights of criteria and rank the models. Fourth, the proposed benchmarking framework is validated using the VIKOR method. The obtained results reveal that the ResNet101 model is selected as the optimal diagnosis model for melanoma in our case study data. Thus, the presented benchmarking framework is proven to be useful at exposing the optimal melanoma diagnosis model targeting to ease the selection process of the proper convolutional neural network architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Artificial Intelligence in Oncology)
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Article
Intracranial Treatment in Melanoma Patients with Brain Metastasis Is Associated with Improved Survival in the Era of Immunotherapy and Anti-BRAF Therapy
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4493; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174493 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Metastatic melanoma patients are at high risk of brain metastases (BM). Although intracranial control is a prognostic factor for survival, impact of local (intracranial) treatment (LT), surgery and/or radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) in the era of novel therapies remains unknown. We evaluated [...] Read more.
Metastatic melanoma patients are at high risk of brain metastases (BM). Although intracranial control is a prognostic factor for survival, impact of local (intracranial) treatment (LT), surgery and/or radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) in the era of novel therapies remains unknown. We evaluated BM incidence in melanoma patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) or anti-BRAF therapy and identified prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Clinical data and treatment patterns were retrospectively collected from all patients treated for newly diagnosed locally advanced or metastatic melanoma between May 2014 and December 2017 with available BRAF mutation status and receiving systemic therapy. Prognostic factors for OS were analyzed with univariable and multivariable survival analyses. BMs occurred in 106 of 250 eligible patients (42.4%), 64 of whom received LT. Median OS in patients with BM was 7.8 months (95% CI [5.4–10.4]). In multivariable analyses, LT was significantly correlated with improved OS (HR 0.21, p < 0.01). Median OS was 17.3 months (95% CI [8.3–22.3]) versus 3.6 months (95% CI [1.4–4.8]) in patients with or without LT. LT correlates with improved OS in melanoma patients with BM in the era of ICI and anti-BRAF therapy. The use of LT should be addressed at diagnosis of BM while introducing systemic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy in Cancer Metastasis)
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Review
Role of Metastasis-Related microRNAs in Prostate Cancer Progression and Treatment
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4492; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174492 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent cancer types in males and the consequences of its distant metastatic deposits are the leading cause of PCa mortality. Therefore, identifying the causes and molecular mechanisms of hematogenous metastasis formation is of considerable clinical [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent cancer types in males and the consequences of its distant metastatic deposits are the leading cause of PCa mortality. Therefore, identifying the causes and molecular mechanisms of hematogenous metastasis formation is of considerable clinical importance for the future development of improved therapeutic approaches. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting messenger RNAs. Numerous studies have identified miRNAs as promotors or inhibitors of metastasis and revealed, in part, their targeting pathways in PCa. Because miRNAs are remarkably stable and can be detected in both tissue and body fluid, its potential as specific biomarkers for metastasis and therapeutic response is also currently under preclinical evaluation. In the present review, we focus on miRNAs that are supposed to initiate or suppress metastasis by targeting several key mRNAs in PCa. Metastasis-suppressing miRNAs include miR-33a-5p, miR-34, miR-132 and miR-212, miR-145, the miR-200 family (incl. miR-141-3p), miR-204-5p, miR-532-3p, miR-335, miR-543, miR-505-3p, miR 19a 3p, miR-802, miR-940, and miR-3622a. Metastasis-promoting RNAs, such as miR-9, miR-181a, miR-210-3, miR-454, miR-671-5p, have been shown to increase the metastatic potential of PCa cells. Other metastasis-related miRNAs with conflicting reports in the literature are also discussed (miR-21 and miR-186). Finally, we summarize the recent developments of miRNA-based therapeutic approaches, as well as current limitations in PCa. Taken together, the metastasis-controlling miRNAs provide the potential to be integrated in the strategy of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of metastatic PCa. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of consistency between certain miRNA signatures and reproducibility, which impedes clinical implementation. Full article
Article
The Expression Profiles and Deregulation of UDP-Glycosyltransferase (UGT) Genes in Human Cancers and Their Association with Clinical Outcomes
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4491; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174491 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
The human UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGTs) superfamily has 22 functional enzymes that play a critical role in the metabolism of small lipophilic compounds, including carcinogens, drugs, steroids, lipids, fatty acids, and bile acids. The expression profiles of UGT genes in human cancers and their impact [...] Read more.
The human UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGTs) superfamily has 22 functional enzymes that play a critical role in the metabolism of small lipophilic compounds, including carcinogens, drugs, steroids, lipids, fatty acids, and bile acids. The expression profiles of UGT genes in human cancers and their impact on cancer patient survival remains to be systematically investigated. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the RNAseq and clinical datasets of 9514 patients from 33 different TCGA (the Genome Cancer Atlas) cancers demonstrated cancer-specific UGT expression profiles with high interindividual variability among and within individual cancers. Notably, cancers derived from drug metabolizing tissues (liver, kidney, gut, pancreas) expressed the largest number of UGT genes (COAD, KIRC, KIRP, LIHC, PAAD); six UGT genes (1A6, 1A9, 1A10, 2A3, 2B7, UGT8) showed high expression in five or more different cancers. Kaplan–Meier plots and logrank tests revealed that six UGT genes were significantly associated with increased overall survival (OS) rates [UGT1A1 (LUSC), UGT1A6 (ACC), UGT1A7 (ACC), UGT2A3 (KIRC), UGT2B15 (BLCA, SKCM)] or decreased OS rates [UGT2B15 (LGG), UGT8 (UVM)] in specific cancers. Finally, differential expression analysis of 611 patients from 12 TCGA cancers identified 16 UGT genes (1A1, 1A3, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10, 2A1, 2A3, 2B4, 2B7, 2B11, 2B15, 3A1, 3A2, UGT8) that were up/downregulated in at least one cancer relative to normal tissues. In conclusion, our data show widespread expression of UGT genes in cancers, highlighting the capacity for intratumoural drug metabolism through the UGT conjugation pathway. The data also suggests the potentials for specific UGT genes to serve as prognostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets in cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biomarkers)
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Editorial
Targeting Bone Metastasis in Cancers
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4490; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174490 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 765
Abstract
This Special Issue of Cancers covers different aspects of bone physiopathology in oncology that combine the microenvironment and the factors involved in bone metastasis dormancy and progression [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Bone Metastasis in Cancers)
Article
Oncofetal Chondroitin Sulfate Is a Highly Expressed Therapeutic Target in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4489; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174489 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Broad-spectrum therapeutics in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are in demand. Most human solid tumors express proteoglycans modified with distinct oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains that can be detected and targeted with recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2) proteins and rVAR2-derived therapeutics. Here, we investigated expression [...] Read more.
Broad-spectrum therapeutics in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are in demand. Most human solid tumors express proteoglycans modified with distinct oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains that can be detected and targeted with recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2) proteins and rVAR2-derived therapeutics. Here, we investigated expression and targetability of oncofetal CS expression in human NSCLC. High oncofetal CS expression is associated with shorter disease-free survival and poor overall survival of clinically annotated stage I and II NSCLC patients (n = 493). Oncofetal CS qualifies as an independent prognosticator of NSCLC in males and smokers, and high oncofetal CS levels are more prevalent in EGFR/KRAS wild-type cases, as compared to mutation cases. NSCLC cell lines express oncofetal CS-modified proteoglycans that can be specifically detected and targeted by rVAR2 proteins in a CSA-dependent manner. Importantly, a novel VAR2-drug conjugate (VDC-MMAE) efficiently eliminates NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, oncofetal CS is a prognostic biomarker and an actionable glycosaminoglycan target in NSCLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biomarkers)
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Article
Subpopulations of Circulating Cells with Morphological Features of Malignancy Are Preoperatively Detected and Have Differential Prognostic Significance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4488; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174488 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) frequently presents when surgical intervention is no longer feasible. Despite local treatment with curative intent, patients might experience disease recurrence. In this context, accurate non-invasive biomarkers are urgently needed. We report the results of a pilot study [...] Read more.
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) frequently presents when surgical intervention is no longer feasible. Despite local treatment with curative intent, patients might experience disease recurrence. In this context, accurate non-invasive biomarkers are urgently needed. We report the results of a pilot study on the diagnostic and prognostic role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in operable NSCLC. Methods: Blood samples collected from healthy volunteers (n = 10), nodule-negative high-risk individuals enrolled in a screening program (n = 7), and NSCLC patients (n = 74) before surgery were analyzed (4 mL) for the presence of cells with morphological features of malignancy enriched through the ISET® technology. Results: CTC detection was 60% in patients, while no target cells were found in lung cancer-free donors. We identified single CTCs (sCTC, 46%) and clusters of CTCs and leukocytes (heterotypic clusters, hetCLU, 31%). The prevalence of sCTC (sCTC/4 mL ≥ 2) or the presence of hetCLU predicted the risk of disease recurrence within the cohort of early-stage (I–II, n = 52) or advanced stage cases (III–IVA, n = 22), respectively, while other tumor-related factors did not inform prognosis. Conclusions: Cancer cell hematogenous dissemination occurs frequently in patients with NSCLC without clinical evidence of distant metastases, laying the foundation for the application of cell-based tests in screening programs. CTC subpopulations are fine prognostic classifiers whose clinical validity should be further investigated in larger studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarkers in Body Fluids)
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Review
Organ-Chip Models: Opportunities for Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4487; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174487 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an expeditiously fatal malignancy with a five-year survival rate of 6–8%. Conventional chemotherapeutics fail in many cases due to inadequate primary response and rapidly developing resistance. This treatment failure is particularly challenging in pancreatic cancer because of the [...] Read more.
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an expeditiously fatal malignancy with a five-year survival rate of 6–8%. Conventional chemotherapeutics fail in many cases due to inadequate primary response and rapidly developing resistance. This treatment failure is particularly challenging in pancreatic cancer because of the high molecular heterogeneity across tumors. Additionally, a rich fibro-inflammatory component within the tumor microenvironment (TME) limits the delivery and effectiveness of anticancer drugs, further contributing to the lack of response or developing resistance to conventional approaches in this cancer. As a result, there is an urgent need to model pancreatic cancer ex vivo to discover effective drug regimens, including those targeting the components of the TME on an individualized basis. Patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) organoid technology has provided a unique opportunity to study patient-specific cancerous epithelium. Patient-derived organoids cultured with the TME components can more accurately reflect the in vivo tumor environment. Here we present the advances in organoid technology and multicellular platforms that could allow for the development of “organ-on-a-chip” approaches to recapitulate the complex cellular interactions in PDAC tumors. We highlight the current advances of the organ-on-a-chip-based cancer models and discuss their potential for the preclinical selection of individualized treatment in PDAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Cancer in Microfluidic Chips)
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Review
Targeting CD82/KAI1 for Precision Therapeutics in Surmounting Metastatic Potential in Breast Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4486; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174486 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. There is an unmet need to develop therapies that can impede metastatic spread. Precision oncology has shown great promise for the treatment of cancers, as the therapeutic approach is tailored to a [...] Read more.
Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. There is an unmet need to develop therapies that can impede metastatic spread. Precision oncology has shown great promise for the treatment of cancers, as the therapeutic approach is tailored to a specific group of patients who are likely to benefit from the treatment, rather than the traditional approach of “one size fits all”. CD82, also known as KAI1, a glycoprotein belonging to the tetraspanin family and an established metastasis suppressor, could potentially be exploited to hinder metastases in breast cancer. This review explores the prospect of targeting CD82 as an innovative therapeutic approach in precision medicine for breast cancer patients, with the goal of preventing cancer progression and metastasis. Such an approach would entail the selection of a subset of breast cancer patients with low levels of CD82, and instituting an appropriate treatment scheme tailored towards restoring the levels of CD82 in this group of patients. Proposed precision treatment regimens include current modalities of treating breast cancer, in combination with either clinically approved drugs that could restore the levels of CD82, CD82 peptide mimics or non-coding RNA-based therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Temozolomide Effect in Human Glioblastoma by Non-Invasive Application of Cold Atmospheric Plasma
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4485; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174485 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive forms of adult brain cancers and is highly resistant to treatment, with a median survival of 12–18 months after diagnosis. The poor survival is due to its infiltrative pattern of invasion into the normal brain [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive forms of adult brain cancers and is highly resistant to treatment, with a median survival of 12–18 months after diagnosis. The poor survival is due to its infiltrative pattern of invasion into the normal brain parenchyma, the diffuse nature of its growth, and its ability to quickly grow, spread, and relapse. Temozolomide is a well-known FDA-approved alkylating chemotherapy agent used for the treatment of high-grade malignant gliomas, and it has been shown to improve overall survival. However, in most cases, the tumor relapses. In recent years, CAP has been used as an emerging technology for cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to implement a combination therapy of CAP and TMZ to enhance the effect of TMZ and apparently sensitize GBMs. In vitro evaluations in TMZ-sensitive and resistant GBM cell lines established a CAP chemotherapy enhancement and potential sensitization effect across various ranges of CAP jet application. This was further supported with in vivo findings demonstrating that a single CAP jet applied non-invasively through the skull potentially sensitizes GBM to subsequent treatment with TMZ. Gene functional enrichment analysis further demonstrated that co-treatment with CAP and TMZ resulted in a downregulation of cell cycle pathway genes. These observations indicate that CAP can be potentially useful in sensitizing GBM to chemotherapy and for the treatment of glioblastoma as a non-invasive translational therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Oncology toward Clinical Translation)
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Review
MYC Rules: Leading Glutamine Metabolism toward a Distinct Cancer Cell Phenotype
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4484; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174484 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Metabolic reprogramming and deregulated cellular energetics are hallmarks of cancer. The aberrant metabolism of cancer cells is thought to be the product of differential oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation. MYC is one of the most important oncogenic drivers, its activation being [...] Read more.
Metabolic reprogramming and deregulated cellular energetics are hallmarks of cancer. The aberrant metabolism of cancer cells is thought to be the product of differential oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation. MYC is one of the most important oncogenic drivers, its activation being reported in a variety of cancer types and sub-types, among which are the most prevalent and aggressive of all malignancies. This review aims to offer a comprehensive overview and highlight the importance of the c-Myc transcription factor on the regulation of metabolic pathways, in particular that of glutamine and glutaminolysis. Glutamine can be extensively metabolized into a variety of substrates and be integrated in a complex metabolic network inside the cell, from energy metabolism to nucleotide and non-essential amino acid synthesis. Together, understanding metabolic reprogramming and its underlying genetic makeup, such as MYC activation, allows for a better understanding of the cancer cell phenotype and thus of the potential vulnerabilities of cancers from a metabolic standpoint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Pathophysiology)
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Article
Prognostic and Therapeutic Potential of the OIP5 Network in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4483; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174483 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is an aggressive but minor type of RCC. The current understanding and management of pRCC remain poor. We report here OIP5 being a novel oncogenic factor and possessing robust prognostic values and therapeutic potential. OIP5 upregulation is observed [...] Read more.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is an aggressive but minor type of RCC. The current understanding and management of pRCC remain poor. We report here OIP5 being a novel oncogenic factor and possessing robust prognostic values and therapeutic potential. OIP5 upregulation is observed in pRCC. The upregulation is associated with pRCC adverse features (T1P < T2P < CIMP, Stage1 + 2 < Stage 3 < Stage 4, and N0 < N1) and effectively stratifies the fatality risk. OIP5 promotes ACHN pRCC cell proliferation and xenograft formation; the latter is correlated with network alterations related to immune regulation, metabolism, and hypoxia. A set of differentially expressed genes (DEFs) was derived from ACHN OIP5 xenografts and primary pRCCs (n = 282) contingent to OIP5 upregulation; both DEG sets share 66 overlap genes. Overlap66 effectively predicts overall survival (p < 2 × 10−16) and relapse (p < 2 × 10−16) possibilities. High-risk tumors stratified by Overlap66 risk score possess an immune suppressive environment, evident by elevations in Treg cells and PD1 in CD8 T cells. Upregulation of PLK1 occurs in both xenografts and primary pRCC tumors with OIP5 elevations. PLK1 displays a synthetic lethality relationship with OIP5. PLK1 inhibitor BI2356 inhibits the growth of xenografts formed by ACHN OIP5 cells. Collectively, the OIP5 network can be explored for personalized therapies in management of pRCC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urological Cancer 2021)
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Review
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis: Review of Published Cases
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4482; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174482 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF) is a very rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). It is essentially a dual tumor with a component of classical PTC with malignant epithelial proliferation (BRAF-mutated) and another component of mesenchymal proliferation (CTNNB1-mutated). We conducted [...] Read more.
Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF) is a very rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). It is essentially a dual tumor with a component of classical PTC with malignant epithelial proliferation (BRAF-mutated) and another component of mesenchymal proliferation (CTNNB1-mutated). We conducted a literature review on PTC-DTF. In total, 31 articles were identified, that together reported on 54 patients. The mean age was 47 years, with a 2.2:1 female predominance. No ultrasound features were found to be helpful in differentiating PTC-DTF from other PTC variants. Of the 43 cases that reported histological details, 60% had locally infiltrative disease (T3b or T4). Around 48% had cervical lymph node metastases, but none had distant metastases. While PTC-DTF may be locally more aggressive than classic PTC, its overall behavior is similar and can include extrathyroidal extension and lymph node metastases, which may contain a stromal component and show extranodal invasion. The mainstay of treatment for PTC-DTF is surgery, and the DTF component is not expected to be sensitive to radioactive iodine. External radiotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and chemotherapy have also been used in selected cases. Due to the rarity of these tumors and the lack of specific treatment guidelines, management should be discussed in a multidisciplinary team. Full article
Article
Colorectal Cancer Screening Outcomes of 2412 Prostate Cancer Patients Considered for Carbon Ion Radiotherapy
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4481; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174481 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is effective for detecting cancer in average-risk adults. For prostate cancer (PCa) patients considered for carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT), pre-treatment CRC screening is performed empirically to avoid post-treatment colonoscopic manipulation. However, the outcomes of screening this population remain unclear. [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is effective for detecting cancer in average-risk adults. For prostate cancer (PCa) patients considered for carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT), pre-treatment CRC screening is performed empirically to avoid post-treatment colonoscopic manipulation. However, the outcomes of screening this population remain unclear. Here, we compared the outcomes of routine pre-CIRT CRC screening of 2412 PCa patients at average risk for CRC with data from two published datasets: the Japan National Cancer Registry (JNCR) and a series of 17 large-scale screening studies analyzing average-risk adults. The estimated prevalence rate was calculated using the pooled sensitivity elucidated by a previous meta-analysis. Consequently, 28 patients (1.16%) were diagnosed with CRC. CRC morbidity was significantly associated with high pre-treatment levels of prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.023). The screening positivity rate in this study cohort exceeded the annual incidence reported in the JNCR for most age brackets. Furthermore, the estimated prevalence rate in this study cohort (1.46%) exceeded that reported in all 17 large-scale studies, making the result an outlier (p = 0.005). These data indicate the possibility that the prevalence of CRC in PCa patients is greater than that in general average-risk adults, warranting further research in a prospective setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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Article
Poor Neutralizing Antibody Responses in 132 Patients with CLL, NHL and HL after Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2: A Prospective Study
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4480; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174480 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Emerging data suggest suboptimal antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. We evaluated the humoral response following the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL). An FDA-approved, ELISA-based methodology was implemented [...] Read more.
Emerging data suggest suboptimal antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. We evaluated the humoral response following the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL). An FDA-approved, ELISA-based methodology was implemented to evaluate the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 on day 1 of the first vaccine, and afterwards on day 22 and 50. One hundred and thirty-two patients with CLL/lymphomas and 214 healthy matched controls vaccinated during the same period, at the same center were enrolled in the study (NCT04743388). Vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine led to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with CLL/lymphomas compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Disease-related immune dysregulation and therapy-related immunosuppression are involved in the low humoral response. Importantly, active treatment with Rituximab, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or chemotherapy was an independent prognostic factor for suboptimal antibody response. Patients with HL showed superior humoral responses to the NHL/CLL subgroups. In conclusion, patients with CLL/lymphomas have low humoral response following COVID-19 vaccination, underlining the need for timely vaccination ideally during a treatment-free period and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures. Full article
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Review
Review of Myeloma Therapies and Their Potential for Oral and Maxillofacial Side Effects
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4479; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174479 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Myeloma is a common haematological malignancy in which adverse skeletal related events are frequently seen. Over recent years, treatment for myeloma has evolved leading to improved survival. Antiresorptive therapy is an important adjunct therapy to reduce the risk of bone fractures and to [...] Read more.
Myeloma is a common haematological malignancy in which adverse skeletal related events are frequently seen. Over recent years, treatment for myeloma has evolved leading to improved survival. Antiresorptive therapy is an important adjunct therapy to reduce the risk of bone fractures and to improve the quality of life for myeloma patients; however, this has the potential for unwanted side effects in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. Osteonecrosis of the jaw related to antiresorptive medications and other myeloma therapies is not uncommon. This review serves to highlight the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw for myeloma patients, with some suggestions for prevention and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Myeloma: Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy)
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Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of the Safety, Feasibility and Benefits of Exercise for Patients with Advanced Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4478; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174478 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Exercise therapy is a common supportive strategy in curative cancer treatment with strong evidence regarding its positive effects on, for example, cancer-related fatigue, health- related quality of life, and physical function. In the field of advanced cancer patients, knowledge about exercise as a [...] Read more.
Exercise therapy is a common supportive strategy in curative cancer treatment with strong evidence regarding its positive effects on, for example, cancer-related fatigue, health- related quality of life, and physical function. In the field of advanced cancer patients, knowledge about exercise as a useful supportive strategy is missing. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of exercise interventions as well as its effects on lowering the symptom burden. We included randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials with advanced cancer patients receiving any type of exercise intervention. After an extensive literature search (in accordance to PRIMSA guidelines) in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus, 14 studies including 940 participants with different cancer entities were eligible. The results indicated the safety of exercise. In total, 493 participants received exercise interventions, with nine adverse events and no severe adverse events. The median recruitment rate was 68.33%, and adherence to exercise intervention was 86%. Further research with a high-quality and larger sample size is needed to clarify the potential of exercise with advanced cancer patients. Different advanced cancer entities have distinguished symptoms, and future research should construct entities-specific trial populations to figure out the best supportive exercise interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research)
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Systematic Review
Farming, Pesticides, and Brain Cancer: A 20-Year Updated Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4477; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174477 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Twenty additional years of epidemiologic literature have become available since the publication of two meta-analyses on farming and brain cancer in 1998. The current systematic literature review and meta-analysis extends previous research and harmonizes findings. A random effects model was used to calculate [...] Read more.
Twenty additional years of epidemiologic literature have become available since the publication of two meta-analyses on farming and brain cancer in 1998. The current systematic literature review and meta-analysis extends previous research and harmonizes findings. A random effects model was used to calculate meta-effect estimates from 52 studies (51 articles or reports), including 11 additional studies since 1998. Forty of the 52 studies reported positive associations between farming and brain cancer with effect estimates ranging from 1.03 to 6.53. The overall meta-risk estimate was 1.13 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.21), suggesting that farming is associated with a 13% increase in risk of brain cancer morbidity or mortality. Farming among white populations was associated with a higher risk of brain cancer than among non-white populations. Livestock farming (meta-RR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.18, 1.53) was associated with a greater risk compared with crop farming (meta-RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.97, 1.30). Farmers with documented exposure to pesticides had greater than a 20% elevated risk of brain cancer. Despite heterogeneity among studies, we conclude that the synthesis of evidence from 40 years of epidemiologic literature supports an association between brain cancer and farming with its potential for exposure to chemical pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Carcinogens and Cancer Risk)
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Article
Combining APR-246 and HDAC-Inhibitors: A Novel Targeted Treatment Option for Neuroblastoma
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4476; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174476 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
APR-246 (Eprenetapopt/PRIMA-1Met) is a very potent anti-cancer drug in clinical trials and was initially developed as a p53 refolding agent. As an alternative mode of action, the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proposed. Through an in silico analysis, [...] Read more.
APR-246 (Eprenetapopt/PRIMA-1Met) is a very potent anti-cancer drug in clinical trials and was initially developed as a p53 refolding agent. As an alternative mode of action, the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proposed. Through an in silico analysis, we investigated the responses of approximately 800 cancer cell lines (50 entities; Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal, CTRP) to APR-246 treatment. In particular, neuroblastoma, lymphoma and acute lymphocytic leukemia cells were highly responsive. With gene expression data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE; n = 883) and patient samples (n = 1643) from the INFORM registry study, we confirmed that these entities express low levels of SLC7A11, a previously described predictive biomarker for APR-246 responsiveness. Combining the CTRP drug response data with the respective CCLE gene expression profiles, we defined a novel gene signature, predicting the effectiveness of APR-246 treatment with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 94%. We confirmed the predicted APR-246 sensitivity in 8/10 cell lines and in ex vivo cultures of patient samples. Moreover, the combination of ROS detoxification-impeding APR-246 with approved HDAC-inhibitors, known to elevate ROS, substantially increased APR-246 sensitivity in cell cultures and in vivo in two zebrafish neuroblastoma xenograft models. These data provide evidence that APR-246, in combination with HDAC-inhibitors, displays a novel potent targeted treatment option for neuroblastoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Therapies for Pediatric Solid Tumors)
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Article
The Hidden Treasures of Preoperative Blood Assessment in Oral Cancer: A Potential Source of Biomarkers
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4475; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174475 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
(1) Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy, and the impact of immune and inflammatory mechanisms in its development and progression are of major interest. The aim of our study is to assess the prognostic potential of circulating immune and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy, and the impact of immune and inflammatory mechanisms in its development and progression are of major interest. The aim of our study is to assess the prognostic potential of circulating immune and inflammatory elements determined preoperatively in patients with OSCC, as well as the development of a new compound parameter with predictive value. (2) Methods: We assessed preoperative fibrinogen (Fib) and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in 111 OSCC patients. Using a mathematic algorithm, we determined a composite parameter with cumulative information from Fib and PLR, named Fibrinogen-PLR Algorithm (FiPLA). Survival analysis, followed by bivariate and multivariate analyses, was subsequently conducted. (3) Results: Increased preoperative Fib and PLR levels were associated with poor outcome in OSCC (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0015, respectively). Preoperative FiPLA values were also associated with poor patient survival (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent prognostic role for FiPLA only (CI95% 1.232–67.770, p = 0.03), showing the superior predictive value of FiPLA compared to its individual components. (4) Conclusions: Preoperative assessments of circulating immune and inflammatory elements can provide high-quality prognostic information, and they represent valuable tools in clinical practice, facilitating the early risk stratification of patients with OSCC. Full article
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Article
Targeting S1PR1 May Result in Enhanced Migration of Cancer Cells in Bladder Carcinoma
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4474; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174474 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Clinical bladder tumor histological analysis shows that high expression of S1PR1 is associated with poor patient prognosis. However, there are no studies that describe the underlying mechanism. To investigate the relative distribution and actual function of S1PR1 in bladder tumors, we analyzed multiple [...] Read more.
Clinical bladder tumor histological analysis shows that high expression of S1PR1 is associated with poor patient prognosis. However, there are no studies that describe the underlying mechanism. To investigate the relative distribution and actual function of S1PR1 in bladder tumors, we analyzed multiple clinical databases in combination with tumor purity and immune cell infiltration simulations, as well as databases of well-defined histological phenotypes of bladder cancer, and single-cell sequencing of adjacent normal tissues and bladder tumors, and further compared them with bladder cancer cell lines. The results showed that S1PR1 expression was generally higher in normal tissues than in bladder cancer tissues, and its distribution was mainly in endothelial cells or immune cells. The association between high S1PR1 expression and poor prognosis may be due to tumor invasion of adjacent normal tissues, where highly expressed S1PR1 may affect prognostic interpretation. The effect of S1PR1 itself on cancer cells was associated with cell adhesion, and in bladder cancer cells, S1PR1 expression was negatively correlated with cell motility. Moreover, the use of FTY-720 will cause an increased metastatic ability of bladder cancer cells. In conclusion, we suggest that the use of S1PR1-specific inhibition as a synergistic treatment requires more observation and consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urological Cancer 2021)
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Article
Necroptosis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Independent Prognostic Factor and Its Correlation with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4473; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174473 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Necroptosis is a pivotal process in cancer biology; however, the clinical significance of necroptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to verify the potential involvement of necroptosis in the clinical outcome, chemotherapeutic resistance, and [...] Read more.
Necroptosis is a pivotal process in cancer biology; however, the clinical significance of necroptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to verify the potential involvement of necroptosis in the clinical outcome, chemotherapeutic resistance, and tumor microenvironment of ESCC. Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and phosphorylated MLKL (pMLKL) were immunohistochemically examined in 88 surgically resected specimens following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and 53 pre-therapeutic biopsy specimens, respectively. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were also evaluated by immunolocalizing CD3, CD8, and forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) in the residual tumors after NAC. High pMLKL status in the post-NAC resected specimens was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in ESCC patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a high pMLKL status was an independent prognostic factor. In pre-NAC biopsy specimens, a high pMLKL status was significantly associated with a lower therapeutic efficacy. CD8+ TILs were significantly lower in the high-pMLKL group. FOXP3+ TILs were significantly higher in both high-MLKL and high-pMLKL groups. We first demonstrated pMLKL status as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC patients. Our study revealed the possible involvement of necroptosis in the immunosuppressive microenvironment, resulting in the attenuated therapeutic efficacy of NAC and eventual adverse clinical outcomes in ESCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cancer)
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Article
Variable Molecular Weight Polymer Nanoparticles for Detection and Hyperthermia-Induced Chemotherapy of Colorectal Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4472; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174472 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Oxaliplatin plays a significant role as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, oxaliplatin-resistant phenotypes make further treatment challenging. Here, we have demonstrated that rapid (60 s) hyperthermia (42 °C), generated by the near-infrared stimulation of variable molecular weight [...] Read more.
Oxaliplatin plays a significant role as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, oxaliplatin-resistant phenotypes make further treatment challenging. Here, we have demonstrated that rapid (60 s) hyperthermia (42 °C), generated by the near-infrared stimulation of variable molecular weight nanoparticles (VMWNPs), increases the effectiveness of oxaliplatin in the oxaliplatin-resistant CRC cells. VMWNP-induced hyperthermia resulted in a higher cell death in comparison to cells exposed to chemotherapy at 42 °C for 2 h. Fluorescence from VMWNPs was observed inside cells, which allows for the detection of CRC. The work further demonstrates that the intracellular thermal dose can be determined using cell luminescence and correlated with the cell viability and response to VMWNP-induced chemotherapy. Mild heating makes oxaliplatin-resistant cancer cells responsive to chemotherapy, and the VMWNPs-induced hyperthermia can induce cell death in a few minutes, compared to classical bulk heating. The results presented here lay the foundation for photothermal polymer nanoparticles to be used for cell ablation and augmenting chemotherapy in drug-resistant colorectal cancer cells. Full article
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Review
Blood Vessels and Peripheral Nerves as Key Players in Cancer Progression and Therapy Resistance
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4471; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174471 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Cancer cells continuously interact with the tumor microenvironment (TME), a heterogeneous milieu that surrounds the tumor mass and impinges on its phenotype. Among the components of the TME, blood vessels and peripheral nerves have been extensively studied in recent years for their prominent [...] Read more.
Cancer cells continuously interact with the tumor microenvironment (TME), a heterogeneous milieu that surrounds the tumor mass and impinges on its phenotype. Among the components of the TME, blood vessels and peripheral nerves have been extensively studied in recent years for their prominent role in tumor development from tumor initiation. Cancer cells were shown to actively promote their own vascularization and innervation through the processes of angiogenesis and axonogenesis. Indeed, sprouting vessels and axons deliver several factors needed by cancer cells to survive and proliferate, including nutrients, oxygen, and growth signals, to the expanding tumor mass. Nerves and vessels are also fundamental for the process of metastatic spreading, as they provide both the pro-metastatic signals to the tumor and the scaffold through which cancer cells can reach distant organs. Not surprisingly, continuously growing attention is devoted to the development of therapies specifically targeting these structures, with promising initial results. In this review, we summarize the latest evidence that supports the importance of blood vessels and peripheral nerves in cancer pathogenesis, therapy resistance, and innovative treatments. Full article
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Review
Treatment Strategies for High-Risk Localized and Locally Advanced and Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4470; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174470 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Despite the significant advances in the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer, patients with very high-risk features such as being locally advanced (clinical stage T3–4 or minimal nodal involvement), having a high Gleason pattern, or with oligometastasis may still have a poor prognosis despite [...] Read more.
Despite the significant advances in the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer, patients with very high-risk features such as being locally advanced (clinical stage T3–4 or minimal nodal involvement), having a high Gleason pattern, or with oligometastasis may still have a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. Multidisciplinary treatment with both local and systemic therapies is thought to be effective, however, unfortunately, there is still no standard treatment. However, in recent years, local definitive therapy using a combination of radiotherapy and androgen deprivation is being supported by several randomized clinical trials. This study reviews the current literature with a focus on the definition of very high-risk prostate cancer, the role of modern imaging, and its treatment options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Risk Localized and Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer)
Review
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy: The Light of Day for Osteosarcoma
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4469; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174469 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor, arising mainly in children and adolescents. With the introduction of multiagent chemotherapy, the treatments of OS have remarkably improved, but the prognosis for patients with metastases is still poor, with a five-year survival rate [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor, arising mainly in children and adolescents. With the introduction of multiagent chemotherapy, the treatments of OS have remarkably improved, but the prognosis for patients with metastases is still poor, with a five-year survival rate of 20%. In addition, adverse effects brought by traditional treatments, including radical surgery and systemic chemotherapy, may seriously affect the survival quality of patients. Therefore, new treatments for OS await exploitation. As a novel immunotherapy, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has achieved encouraging results in treating cancer in recent years, especially in leukemia and lymphoma. Furthermore, researchers have recently focused on CAR-T therapy in solid tumors, including OS. In this review, we summarize the safety, specificity, and clinical transformation of the targets in treating OS and point out the direction for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mechanism of Immunotherapy in Cancers)
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Article
Tumor Nonimmune-Microenvironment-Related Gene Expression Signature Predicts Brain Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients after Surgery: A Machine Learning Approach Using Gene Expression Profiling
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4468; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174468 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Using a machine learning approach with a gene expression profile, we discovered a tumor nonimmune-microenvironment-related gene expression signature, including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and angiogenesis, that could predict brain metastasis (BM) after the surgical resection of 64 lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD). [...] Read more.
Using a machine learning approach with a gene expression profile, we discovered a tumor nonimmune-microenvironment-related gene expression signature, including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and angiogenesis, that could predict brain metastasis (BM) after the surgical resection of 64 lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD). Gene expression profiling identified a tumor nonimmune-microenvironment-related 17-gene expression signature that significantly correlated with BM. Of the 17 genes, 11 were ECM-remodeling-related genes. The 17-gene expression signature showed high BM predictive power in four machine learning classifiers (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.845 for naïve Bayes, 0.849 for support vector machine, 0.858 for random forest, and 0.839 for neural network). Subgroup analysis revealed that the BM predictive power of the 17-gene signature was higher in the early-stage LUAD than in the late-stage LUAD. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the upregulated differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in the ECM–receptor interaction pathway. The immunohistochemical expression of the top three genes of the 17-gene expression signature yielded similar results to NanoString tests. The tumor nonimmune-microenvironment-related gene expression signatures found in this study are important biological markers that can predict BM and provide patient-specific treatment options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Microenvironment)
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