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Micromachines, Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 198 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Investigating cells along narrow blood vessel regions for their transiting speeds and the corresponding roles of physical properties can deepen our understanding of cancer cell metastasis. Studies for cells transiting in diseased blood vessels (e.g., atherosclerosis) are of great research significance but seldomly reported. This work developed a theoretical model to bridge cell speeds and physical properties in microchannels with a high height–width ratio (mimicking atherosclerosis site). The reported model can be applied as a more general way to evaluate cancer cell metastasis ability with microfluidics. View this paper
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Article
Research on Compound PID Control Strategy Based on Input Feedforward and Dynamic Compensation Applied in Noncircular Turning
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020341 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 479
Abstract
The fast tool servo (FTS) control strategy is the control core of high-speed noncircular turning. This method should ensure high-speed and precision positioning and have the corresponding anti-interference ability in the micro-stroke motion with dynamic changes of tool feed and load. Most of [...] Read more.
The fast tool servo (FTS) control strategy is the control core of high-speed noncircular turning. This method should ensure high-speed and precision positioning and have the corresponding anti-interference ability in the micro-stroke motion with dynamic changes of tool feed and load. Most of the previous FTS control studies used the repetitive control and speed feedforward control strategy, which achieved promising results under ideal machining conditions. However, this strategy showed some defects in the real-world complex and changeable working conditions such as time-varying cutting force, intermittent cutting and fluctuating machine spindle speed. This paper proposed and implemented a compound proportional integral derivative control strategy based on input feedforward and dynamic compensation in noncircular turning. This technique successfully met the motion requirements of the high responsiveness of micro-stroke in noncircular turning and overcame disturbances from complex time variations of the cutting force, intermittent cutting case of the product and fluctuations of machine spindle speed. According to the findings, the machining tracking error was less than ±2 µm. Experimental results demonstrated the excellent tracking performance and machining effect of this control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Manufacturing Technology)
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Article
Processing and Profile Control of Microhole Array for PDMS Mask with Femtosecond Laser
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020340 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is hailed as one of the foundational materials that have been applied to different products in various fields because of its chemical resistance, low cost, excellent flexibility, and high molding capability. With the aim to achieve surface texture with high efficiency [...] Read more.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is hailed as one of the foundational materials that have been applied to different products in various fields because of its chemical resistance, low cost, excellent flexibility, and high molding capability. With the aim to achieve surface texture with high efficiency by means of electrochemical micromachining with PDMS mask, a femtosecond laser is utilized to process a precision array of micro-through-holes on PDMS films as the molds. The ablation process of PDMS with a femtosecond laser was investigated via numerical simulation verified with experiments indicating a laser energy density of 4.865 mJ/mm2 as the ablation threshold of PDMS with the melting temperature of 930 K. The spiral scanning path with optimized radial offset was developed to ablate materials from the PDMS film to form the laminated profiles, and a tapered through hole was then formed with multilayer scanning. The profile dimension and accuracy were examined as control targets in terms of laser pulse energy and scanning speed, showing that a 12 μJ femtosecond laser pulse energy and 1000 mm/s scanning speed could bring about a nearly circular laminating profile with expected smaller exit diameter than the entry diameter. All the cross-section diameters of the microcone decreased with the increase of laser scanning speed, while the taper increased gradually and then saturated around a laser scanning speed of 800 mm/s due to the energy absorption resulting in smaller ablation in diameter and depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D:Materials and Processing)
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Article
A Thermocycler Using a Chip Resistor Heater and a Glass Microchip for a Portable and Rapid Microchip-Based PCR Device
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020339 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
This study proposes a rapid and inexpensive thermocycler that enables rapid heating of samples using a thin glass chip and a cheap chip resistor to overcome the on-site diagnostic limitations of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microchip PCR devices have emerged to miniaturize conventional [...] Read more.
This study proposes a rapid and inexpensive thermocycler that enables rapid heating of samples using a thin glass chip and a cheap chip resistor to overcome the on-site diagnostic limitations of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microchip PCR devices have emerged to miniaturize conventional PCR systems and reduce operation time and cost. In general, PCR microchips require a thin-film heater fabricated through a semiconductor process, which is a complicated process, resulting in high costs. Therefore, this investigation substituted a general chip resistor for a thin-film heater. The proposed thermocycler consists of a compact glass microchip of 12.5 mm × 12.5 mm × 2 mm that could hold a 2 μL PCR sample and a surface-mounted chip resistor of 6432 size (6.4 mm × 3.2 mm). Improving heat transfer from the chip resistor heater to the PCR reaction chamber in the microchip was accomplished via the design and fabrication of a three-dimensional chip structure using selective laser-induced etching, a rapid prototyping technique that allowed to be embedded. The fabricated PCR microchip was combined with a thermistor temperature sensor, a blower fan, and a microcontroller. The assembled thermocycler could heat the sample at a maximum rate of 28.8 °C/s per second. When compared with a commercially available PCR apparatus running the same PCR protocol, the total PCR operating time with a DNA sample was reduced by about 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic System for Biochemical Application)
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Article
A Numerical Investigation of the Mixing Performance in a Y-Junction Microchannel Induced by Acoustic Streaming
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020338 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
In this study, the mixing performance in a Y-junction microchannel with acoustic streaming was investigated through numerical simulation. The acoustic streaming is created by inducing triangular structures at the junction and sidewalls regions. The numerical model utilizes Navier–Stokes equations in conjunction with the [...] Read more.
In this study, the mixing performance in a Y-junction microchannel with acoustic streaming was investigated through numerical simulation. The acoustic streaming is created by inducing triangular structures at the junction and sidewalls regions. The numerical model utilizes Navier–Stokes equations in conjunction with the convection–diffusion equations. The parameters investigated were inlet velocities ranging from 4.46 to 55.6 µm/s, triangular structure’s vertex angles ranging from 22° to 90° oscillation amplitude ranging from 3 to 6 µm, and an oscillation frequency set to 13 kHz. The results show that at the junction region, a pair of counter-rotating streaming vortices were formed, and unsymmetrical or one-sided vortices were formed when additional triangles were added along the sidewalls. These streaming flows significantly increase the vorticity compared with the case without the acoustic stream. Mixing performances were found to have improved with the generation of the acoustic stream. The mixing performance was evaluated at various inlet velocities, the vertex angles of the triangular structure, and oscillation amplitudes. The numerical results show that adding the triangular structure at the junction region considerably improved the mixing efficiency due to the generation of acoustic streaming, and further improvements can be achieved at lower inlet velocity, sharper vertex angle, and higher oscillation amplitude. Integrating with more triangular structures at the sidewall regions also improves the mixing performance within the laminar flow regime in the Y-microchannel. At Y = 2.30 mm, oscillation amplitude of 6 µm, and flow inlet velocity of 55.6 µm/s, with all three triangles integrated and the triangles’ vertex angles fixed to 30°, the mixing index can achieve the best results of 0.9981, which is better than 0.8355 in the case of using only the triangle at the junction, and 0.6642 in the case without acoustic streaming. This is equal to an improvement of 50.27% in the case of using both the junction and the two sidewall triangles, and 25.79% in the case of simply using a junction triangle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis, Design and Fabrication of Micromixers, Volume II)
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Article
Vision-Based Automated Control of Magnetic Microrobots
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020337 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Magnetic microrobots are vital tools for targeted therapy, drug delivery, and micromanipulation on cells in the biomedical field. In this paper, we report an automated control and path planning method of magnetic microrobots based on computer vision. Spherical microrobots can be driven in [...] Read more.
Magnetic microrobots are vital tools for targeted therapy, drug delivery, and micromanipulation on cells in the biomedical field. In this paper, we report an automated control and path planning method of magnetic microrobots based on computer vision. Spherical microrobots can be driven in the rotating magnetic field generated by electromagnetic coils. Under microscopic visual navigation, robust target tracking is achieved using PID–based closed–loop control combined with the Kalman filter, and intelligent obstacle avoidance control can be achieved based on the dynamic window algorithm (DWA) implementation strategy. To improve the performance of magnetic microrobots in trajectory tracking and movement in complicated environments, the magnetic microrobot motion in the flow field at different velocities and different distribution obstacles was investigated. The experimental results showed that the vision-based controller had an excellent performance in a complex environment and that magnetic microrobots could be controlled to move to the target position smoothly and accurately. We envision that the proposed method is a promising opportunity for targeted drug delivery in biological research. Full article
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Article
Semi-Automated Microfluidic Device Combined with a MiniPCR-Duplex Lateral Flow Dipstick for Screening and Visual Species Identification of Lymphatic Filariae
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020336 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide that has been listed as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Significant progress made by the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) has led to a substantial decline [...] Read more.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide that has been listed as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Significant progress made by the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) has led to a substantial decline in the population of the worm that causes LF infection. Diagnostic assays capable of detecting low levels of parasite presence are needed to diagnose LF. There is also a need for new tools that can be used in areas where multiple filarial species are coendemic and for mass screening or for use in a point-of-care setting. In the present study, we applied our previously developed semi-automated microfluidic device in combination with our recently developed mini polymerase chain reaction (miniPCR) with a duplex lateral flow dipstick (DLFD) (miniPCR-DLFD) for rapid mass screening and visual species identification of lymphatic filariae in human blood. The study samples comprised 20 Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) positive human blood samples, 14 Wuchereria bancrofti mf positive human blood samples and 100 mf negative human blood samples. Microfilariae detection and visual species identification was performed using the microfluidic device. To identify the species of the mf trapped in the microfluidic chips, DNA of the trapped mf was extracted for miniPCR amplification of W. bancrofti and B. malayi DNA followed by DLFD. Thick blood smear staining for microfilariae detection was used as the gold standard technique. Microfilariae screening and visual species identification using our microfluidic device plus miniPCR-DLFD platform yielded results concordant with those of the gold standard thick blood smear technique. The microfluidic device, the miniPCR and the DLFD are all portable and do not require additional equipment. Use of this screening and visual species identification platform will facilitate reliable, cost-effective, and rapid surveillance for the presence of LF infection in resource-poor settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Smart Devices and Systems)
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Article
Fabrication of High Surface Area Microporous ZnO from ZnO/Carbon Sacrificial Composite Monolith Template
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020335 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Fabrication of porous materials from the standard sacrificial template method allows metal oxide nanostructures to be produced and have several applications in energy, filtration and constructing sensing devices. However, the low surface area of these nanostructures is a significant drawback for most applications. [...] Read more.
Fabrication of porous materials from the standard sacrificial template method allows metal oxide nanostructures to be produced and have several applications in energy, filtration and constructing sensing devices. However, the low surface area of these nanostructures is a significant drawback for most applications. Here, we report the synthesis of ZnO/carbon composite monoliths in which carbon is used as a sacrificial template to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) porous nanostructures with a high specific surface area. The synthesized porous oxides of ZnO with a specific surface area of 78 m2/g are at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the ZnO nanotubes reported in the literature. The crucial point to achieving this remarkable result was the usage of a novel ZnO/carbon template where the carbon template was removed by simple heating in the air. As a high surface area porous nanostructured ZnO, these synthesized materials can be useful in various applications including catalysis, photocatalysis, separation, sensing, solar energy harvest and Zn-ion battery and as supercapacitors for energy storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C-MEMS: Microstructure, Shapes, and Applications in Carbon)
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Article
Efficient Multi-Material Structured Thin Film Transfer to Elastomers for Stretchable Electronic Devices
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020334 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Stretchable electronic devices must conform to curved surfaces and display highly reproducible and predictable performance over a range of mechanical deformations. Mechanical resilience in stretchable devices arises from the inherent robustness and stretchability of each component, as well as from good adhesive contact [...] Read more.
Stretchable electronic devices must conform to curved surfaces and display highly reproducible and predictable performance over a range of mechanical deformations. Mechanical resilience in stretchable devices arises from the inherent robustness and stretchability of each component, as well as from good adhesive contact between functional and structural components. In this work, we combine bench-top thin film structuring with solvent assisted lift-off transfer to produce flexible and stretchable multi-material thin film devices. Patterned wrinkled thin films made of gold (Au), silicon dioxide (SiO2), or indium tin oxide (ITO) were produced through thermal shrinking of pre-stressed polystyrene (PS) substrates. The wrinkled films were then transferred from the PS to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates through covalent bonding and solvent-assisted dissolution of the PS. Using this approach, different materials and hybrid structures could be lifted off simultaneously from the PS, simplifying the fabrication of multi-material stretchable thin film devices. As proof-of-concept, we used this structuring and transfer method to fabricate flexible and stretchable thin film heaters. Their characterization at a variety of applied voltages and under cyclic tensile strain showed highly reproducible heating performance. We anticipate this fabrication method can aid in the development of flexible and stretchable electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Thin Film Electronic Devices)
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Article
A Portable Sign Language Collection and Translation Platform with Smart Watches Using a BLSTM-Based Multi-Feature Framework
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020333 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Continuous sign language recognition (CSLR) using different types of sensors to precisely recognize sign language in real time is a very challenging but important research direction in sensor technology. Many previous methods are vision-based, with computationally intensive algorithms to process a large number [...] Read more.
Continuous sign language recognition (CSLR) using different types of sensors to precisely recognize sign language in real time is a very challenging but important research direction in sensor technology. Many previous methods are vision-based, with computationally intensive algorithms to process a large number of image/video frames possibly contaminated with noises, which can result in a large translation delay. On the other hand, gesture-based CSLR relying on hand movement data captured on wearable devices may require less computation resources and translation time. Thus, it is more efficient to provide instant translation during real-world communication. However, the insufficient amount of information provided by the wearable sensors often affect the overall performance of this system. To tackle this issue, we propose a bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM)-based multi-feature framework for conducting gesture-based CSLR precisely with two smart watches. In this framework, multiple sets of input features are extracted from the collected gesture data to provide a diverse spectrum of valuable information to the underlying BLSTM model for CSLR. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, we test it on an extremely challenging and radically new dataset of Hong Kong sign language (HKSL), in which hand movement data are collected from 6 individual signers for 50 different sentences. The experimental results reveal that the proposed framework attains a much lower word error rate compared with other existing machine learning or deep learning approaches for gesture-based CSLR. Based on this framework, we further propose a portable sign language collection and translation platform, which can simplify the procedure of collecting gesture-based sign language dataset and recognize sign language through smart watch data in real time, in order to break the communication barrier for the sign language users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics for Physiological Signal Monitoring)
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Article
Spectrum Analysis Enabled Periodic Feature Reconstruction Based Automatic Defect Detection System for Electroluminescence Images of Photovoltaic Modules
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020332 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Electroluminescence (EL) imaging is a widely adopted method in quality assurance of the photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing industry. With the growing demand for high-quality PV products, automatic inspection methods based on machine vision have become an emerging area concern to replace manual inspectors. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Electroluminescence (EL) imaging is a widely adopted method in quality assurance of the photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing industry. With the growing demand for high-quality PV products, automatic inspection methods based on machine vision have become an emerging area concern to replace manual inspectors. Therefore, this paper presents an automatic defect-inspection method for multi-cell monocrystalline PV modules with EL images. A processing routine is designed to extract the defect features of the PV module, eliminating the influence of the intrinsic structural features. Spectrum domain analysis is applied to effectively reconstruct an improved PV layout from a defective one by spectrum filtering in a certain direction. The reconstructed image is used to segment the PV module into cells and slices. Based on the segmentation, defect detection is carried out on individual cells or slices to detect cracks, breaks, and speckles. Robust performance has been achieved from experiments on many samples with varying illumination conditions and defect shapes/sizes, which shows the proposed method can efficiently distinguish intrinsic structural features from the defect features, enabling precise and speedy defect detections on multi-cell PV modules. Full article
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Article
Densification, Tailored Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melted Ti–6Al–4V Alloy via Annealing Heat Treatment
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020331 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
This work investigated the influence of process parameters on the densification, microstructure, and mechanical properties of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy printed by selective laser melting (SLM), followed by annealing heat treatment. In particular, the evolution mechanisms of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the [...] Read more.
This work investigated the influence of process parameters on the densification, microstructure, and mechanical properties of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy printed by selective laser melting (SLM), followed by annealing heat treatment. In particular, the evolution mechanisms of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the printed alloy with respect to the annealing temperature near the β phase transition temperature were investigated. The process parameter optimization of SLM can lead to the densification of the printed Ti–6Al–4V alloy with a relative density of 99.51%, accompanied by an ultimate tensile strength of 1204 MPa and elongation of 7.8%. The results show that the microstructure can be tailored by altering the scanning speed and annealing temperature. The SLM-printed Ti–6Al–4V alloy contains epitaxial growth β columnar grains and internal acicular martensitic α′ grains, and the width of the β columnar grain decreases with an increase in the scanning speed. Comparatively, the printed alloy after annealing in the range of 750–1050 °C obtains the microstructure consisting of α + β dual phases. In particular, network and Widmanstätten structures are formed at the annealing temperatures of 850 °C and 1050 °C, respectively. The maximum elongation of 14% can be achieved at the annealing temperature of 950 °C, which was 79% higher than that of as-printed samples. Meanwhile, an ultimate tensile strength larger than 1000 MPa can be maintained, which still meets the application requirements of the forged Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Full article
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Article
SPICE Implementation of the Dynamic Memdiode Model for Bipolar Resistive Switching Devices
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020330 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
This paper reports the fundamentals and the SPICE implementation of the Dynamic Memdiode Model (DMM) for the conduction characteristics of bipolar-type resistive switching (RS) devices. Following Prof. Chua’s memristive devices theory, the memdiode model comprises two equations, one for the electron transport based [...] Read more.
This paper reports the fundamentals and the SPICE implementation of the Dynamic Memdiode Model (DMM) for the conduction characteristics of bipolar-type resistive switching (RS) devices. Following Prof. Chua’s memristive devices theory, the memdiode model comprises two equations, one for the electron transport based on a heuristic extension of the quantum point-contact model for filamentary conduction in thin dielectrics and a second equation for the internal memory state related to the reversible displacement of atomic species within the oxide film. The DMM represents a breakthrough with respect to the previous Quasi-static Memdiode Model (QMM) since it describes the memory state of the device as a balance equation incorporating both the snapback and snapforward effects, features of utmost importance for the accurate and realistic simulation of the RS phenomenon. The DMM allows simple setting of the initial memory condition as well as decoupled modeling of the set and reset transitions. The model equations are implemented in the LTSpice simulator using an equivalent circuital approach with behavioral components and sources. The practical details of the model implementation and its modes of use are also discussed. Full article
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Article
High-Performance Piezoelectric-Type MEMS Vibration Sensor Based on LiNbO3 Single-Crystal Cantilever Beams
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020329 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
It is a great challenge to detect in-situ high-frequency vibration signals for extreme environment applications. A highly sensitive and robust vibration sensor is desired. Among the many piezoelectric materials, single-crystal lithium niobate (LiNbO3) could be a good candidate to meet the [...] Read more.
It is a great challenge to detect in-situ high-frequency vibration signals for extreme environment applications. A highly sensitive and robust vibration sensor is desired. Among the many piezoelectric materials, single-crystal lithium niobate (LiNbO3) could be a good candidate to meet the demand. In this work, a novel type of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) vibration sensor based on a single crystalline LiNbO3 thin film is demonstrated. Firstly, the four-cantilever-beam MEMS vibration sensor was designed and optimized with the parametric method. The structural dependence on the intrinsic frequency and maximum stress was obtained. Then, the vibration sensor was fabricated using standard MEMS processes. The practical intrinsic frequency of the as-presented vibration sensor was 5.175 kHz, which was close to the calculated and simulated frequency. The dynamic performance of the vibration sensor was tested on a vibration platform after the packaging of the printed circuit board. The effect of acceleration was investigated, and it was observed that the output charge was proportional to the amplitude of the acceleration. As the loading acceleration amplitude is 10 g and the frequency is in the range of 20 to 2400 Hz, the output charge amplitude basically remains stable for the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1400 Hz, but there is a dramatic decrease around 1400 to 2200 Hz, and then it increases significantly. This should be attributed to the significant variation of the damping coefficient near 1800 Hz. Meanwhile, the effect of the temperature on the output was studied. The results show the nearly linear dependence of the output charge on the temperature. The presented MEMS vibration sensors were endowed with a high output performance, linear dependence and stable sensitivity, and could find potential applications for the detection of wide-band high-frequency vibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Fabrication of Micro/Nano Sensors and Actuators)
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Review
Microscopic Imaging Methods for Organ-on-a-Chip Platforms
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020328 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Microscopic imaging is essential and the most popular method for in situ monitoring and evaluating the outcome of various organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms, including the number and morphology of mammalian cells, gene expression, protein secretions, etc. This review presents an overview of how various [...] Read more.
Microscopic imaging is essential and the most popular method for in situ monitoring and evaluating the outcome of various organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms, including the number and morphology of mammalian cells, gene expression, protein secretions, etc. This review presents an overview of how various imaging methods can be used to image organ-on-a-chip platforms, including transillumination imaging (including brightfield, phase-contrast, and holographic optofluidic imaging), fluorescence imaging (including confocal fluorescence and light-sheet fluorescence imaging), and smartphone-based imaging (including microscope attachment-based, quantitative phase, and lens-free imaging). While various microscopic imaging methods have been demonstrated for conventional microfluidic devices, a relatively small number of microscopic imaging methods have been demonstrated for OOC platforms. Some methods have rarely been used to image OOCs. Specific requirements for imaging OOCs will be discussed in comparison to the conventional microfluidic devices and future directions will be introduced in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Tools for Advancing Cancer Research)
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Article
Design and Fabrication of a Magnetic Actuator for Torque and Force Control Estimated by the ANN/SA Algorithm
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020327 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
Magnetic manipulation has the potential to recast the medical field both from an operational and drug delivery point of view as it can provide wireless controlled navigation over surgical devices and drug containers inside a human body. The presented system in this research [...] Read more.
Magnetic manipulation has the potential to recast the medical field both from an operational and drug delivery point of view as it can provide wireless controlled navigation over surgical devices and drug containers inside a human body. The presented system in this research implements a unique eight-coil configuration, where each coil is designed based on the characterization of the working space, generated force on a milliscale robot, and Fabry factor. A cylindrical iron-core coil with inner and outer diameters and length of 20.5, 66, and 124 mm is the optimized coil. Traditionally, FEM results are adopted from simulation and implemented into the motion logic; however, simulated values are associated with errors; 17% in this study. Instead of regularizing FEM results, for the first time, artificial intelligence has been used to approximate the actual values for manipulation purposes. Regression models for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a hybrid method called Artificial Neural Network with Simulated Annealing (ANN/SA) have been created. ANN/SA has shown outstanding performance with an average R2, and a root mean square error of 0.9871 and 0.0153, respectively. Implementation of the regression model into the manipulation logic has provided a motion with 13 μm of accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Micromanipulators and Micromanipulation)
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Review
The Biofabrication of Diseased Artery In Vitro Models
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020326 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
As the leading causes of global death, cardiovascular diseases are generally initiated by artery-related disorders such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. Although clinical treatments have been developed to rescue patients suffering from artery-related disorders, the underlying pathologies of these arterial abnormalities are not [...] Read more.
As the leading causes of global death, cardiovascular diseases are generally initiated by artery-related disorders such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. Although clinical treatments have been developed to rescue patients suffering from artery-related disorders, the underlying pathologies of these arterial abnormalities are not fully understood. Biofabrication techniques pave the way to constructing diseased artery in vitro models using human vascular cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules, which are capable of recapitulating arterial pathophysiology with superior performance compared with conventional planar cell culture and experimental animal models. This review discusses the critical elements in the arterial microenvironment which are important considerations for recreating biomimetic human arteries with the desired disorders in vitro. Afterward, conventionally biofabricated platforms for the investigation of arterial diseases are summarized, along with their merits and shortcomings, followed by a comprehensive review of advanced biofabrication techniques and the progress of their applications in establishing diseased artery models. Full article
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Article
MEMS-Casting Fabricated Chip-Style 3D Metal Solenoidal Transformers towards Integrated Power Supply
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020325 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 572
Abstract
A silicon-chip-based 3D metal solenoidal transformer is proposed and developed to achieve AC-DC conversion for integrated power supply applications. With wafer-level micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technique to form the metal casting mold and the following micro-casting technique to rapidly (within 6 min) [...] Read more.
A silicon-chip-based 3D metal solenoidal transformer is proposed and developed to achieve AC-DC conversion for integrated power supply applications. With wafer-level micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technique to form the metal casting mold and the following micro-casting technique to rapidly (within 6 min) fill molten ZnAl alloy into the pre-micromachined silicon mold, 45-turns primary solenoid and 7-turns secondary solenoid are fabricated in silicon wafers, where the two intertwining solenoids are located at inner deck and outer deck, respectively. Permalloy soft magnetic core is inserted into a pre-etched channel in the silicon chip, which is surrounded by the solenoids. The size of the chip-style transformer is as small as 8.5 mm × 6.6 mm × 2.5 mm. The internal resistance of the primary solenoid is 1.82 Ω and that of the secondary solenoid is 0.16 Ω. The working frequency of the transformer is 60 kHz. Combined with the testing circuit of the switch mode power supply, the DC voltage of 13.02 V is obtained when the input is 110 V at 50 Hz/60 Hz. Furthermore, the on-chip 3D solenoidal transformer is used for lighting four LEDs, which shows great potential for AC-DC power supply. The wafer-level fabricated chip-style solenoidal AC-DC transformer for integrated power supply is advantageous in uniform fabrication, small size and volume applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A:Physics)
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Article
Optical Coupling Efficiency of a Coupler with Double-Combined Collimating Lenses and Thermally Expanded Core Fibers
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020324 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Improving the coupling efficiency of two optical signals is a hot issue, where the efficiency of optical coupling has a significant effect on the signal transmission over the fiber link. To this end, the Large-Beam Fiber Coupler (LBFC) with a Double-combined Collimating Lens [...] Read more.
Improving the coupling efficiency of two optical signals is a hot issue, where the efficiency of optical coupling has a significant effect on the signal transmission over the fiber link. To this end, the Large-Beam Fiber Coupler (LBFC) with a Double-combined Collimating Lens (DCL) and a single-mode TEC fiber structure are proposed in this study. Based on the propagation principle of Gaussian beams and the coupling requirements, the coupling mechanism of the fiber coupler and the coupling mismatch between the coupler is analytically modeled. The model and the optical path are optimized, then the ray tracing is used to calculate the coupling efficiency of inter-coupler signals for different SMF. The coupling efficiency is evaluated through experiments in terms of coupling efficiency and the radial, axial, and angular mismatches between the couplers. The results showed that with a large Mode Field Diameter (MFD), better coupling efficiency can be obtained, i.e., a large MFD of 28 μm is tested with its maximal efficiency of 95.16%. Moreover, the angular mismatch has the most significant impact on the coupling efficiency, while the axial mismatch has the least. The use of large MFD can alleviate the angular mismatch and thus improve the optical coupling efficiency. Full article
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Review
Research Status and Prospect of Laser Scribing Process and Equipment for Chemical Milling Parts in Aviation and Aerospace
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020323 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Laser scribing in chemical milling is an important process which can effectively improve the precision and efficiency of chemical milling, and is of great significance to improve the thrust–weight ratio and manufacturing efficiency of aviation and aerospace parts. According to the scribing requirements [...] Read more.
Laser scribing in chemical milling is an important process which can effectively improve the precision and efficiency of chemical milling, and is of great significance to improve the thrust–weight ratio and manufacturing efficiency of aviation and aerospace parts. According to the scribing requirements in chemical milling for aviation and aerospace parts, the process and mechanism of laser scribing were studied and the influence of different process parameters for the quality of laser scribing was analyzed. Based on the review of related research literature, the laser scribing process, the ablation mechanism and technology of different materials and the selective laser removal process for “laser–coating–substrate” are summarized and discussed. Based on the requirements of high-precision laser scribing on complex surfaces, the current situation of laser scribing equipment is summarized. Finally, the practical challenges and key technical problems for the laser scribing process are summarized, and the application and development of laser scribing in aerospace manufacturing are prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section E:Engineering and Technology)
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Article
The Impact of Vapor Blockage on the Outflow Rate of Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Devices
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020322 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
The outflow rate of screen channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) is a key indicator of the liquid acquisition capacity, but would be decreased when a portion of its screen is blocked by the vapor. So far, the quantitative research about the consequent loss [...] Read more.
The outflow rate of screen channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) is a key indicator of the liquid acquisition capacity, but would be decreased when a portion of its screen is blocked by the vapor. So far, the quantitative research about the consequent loss of outflow rate seems not enough, though it is important and inevitable. In this paper, a modified model by introducing an “available rate” to describe the blocked degree is established to analyze and compare the cases with and without vapor blockage. We found that the loss of outflow rate is mainly decided by the total area of the blocked screen, while the distribution of blockage position barely has any effects. Besides, a “characteristic curve” is proposed to describe the robustness of LAD against blockage (i.e., loss rate of outflow velocity versus total area of the blocked screen). Higher driving pressure, coarser mesh of screen, and higher ratio of length to height of the channel would bring about greater robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section E:Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Hysteresis Characteristics and MPI Compensation of Two-Dimensional Piezoelectric Positioning Stage
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020321 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Piezoelectric positioning stage is the core component of precision positioning system and advanced instrument. Its hysteresis characteristics, especially rate-dependent characteristics, are the main factors affecting the positioning or control accuracy. The multi-slope Prandtl–Ishlinskii (MPI) based hysteresis modeling and compensation experiments of two-dimensional piezoelectric [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric positioning stage is the core component of precision positioning system and advanced instrument. Its hysteresis characteristics, especially rate-dependent characteristics, are the main factors affecting the positioning or control accuracy. The multi-slope Prandtl–Ishlinskii (MPI) based hysteresis modeling and compensation experiments of two-dimensional piezoelectric positioning stage are discussed. The impact of the driving voltage amplitude and frequency on the hysteresis characteristics of uniaxial piezoelectric actuator in the piezoelectric positioning stage are studied, especially the influence of variable-frequency voltages on the output displacement of a piezoelectric actuator. The MPI compensation control of two-dimensional piezoelectric positioning stage is carried out, and the fitting coefficient R2 is proposed to evaluate the hysteresis compensation accuracy of MPI model. Under the full range driving voltage of 20~120 V, the fitting coefficient reaches more than 99.6%. The experiments of feedforward compensation and feedback compensation are implemented. Having applied the composite triangular-wave signal, the average absolute displacement error of the piezoelectric actuator is 0.1192 μm, as well as the mean square error 0.2949 μm. It demonstrates that the MPI model is effective against hysteresis for two-dimensional piezoelectric positioning stage. Full article
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Article
Novel Quick Cell Patterning Using Light-Responsive Gas-Generating Polymer and Fluorescence Microscope
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020320 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Conventional cell patterning methods are mainly based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic differences or chemical coating for cell adhesion/non-adhesion with wavering strength as it varies with the substrate surface conditions, including the cell type and the extracellular matrix components (ECMs) coating; thus, the versatility and stability [...] Read more.
Conventional cell patterning methods are mainly based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic differences or chemical coating for cell adhesion/non-adhesion with wavering strength as it varies with the substrate surface conditions, including the cell type and the extracellular matrix components (ECMs) coating; thus, the versatility and stability of cell patterning methods must be improved. In this study, we propose a new cell patterning method using a light-responsive gas-generating polymer (LGP) and a conventional fluorescence microscope. Herein, cells and cellular tissues are easily released from the substrate surface by the nitrogen gas bubbles generated from LGP by the excitation light for fluorescence observation without harming the cells. The LGP-implanted chip was fabricated by packing LGP into a polystyrene (PS) microarray chip with a concave pattern. HeLa cells were spread on the LGP-implanted chips coated with three different ECMs (fibronectin, collagen, and poly-D-lysine), and all HeLa cells on the three LGP patterns were released. The pattern error between the LGP pattern and the remaining HeLa cells was 8.81 ± 4.24 μm, less than single-cell size. In addition, the LGP-implanted chip method can be applied to millimeter-scale patterns, with less than 30 s required for cell patterning. Therefore, the proposed method is a simple and rapid cell patterning method with high cell patterning accuracy of less than the cell size error, high scalability, versatility, and stability unaffected by the cell type or the ECM coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication for Life Sciences)
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Article
All-Electrical Control of Compact SOT-MRAM: Toward Highly Efficient and Reliable Non-Volatile In-Memory Computing
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020319 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Two-dimensional van der Waals (2D vdW) ferromagnets possess outstanding scalability, controllable ferromagnetism, and out-of-plane anisotropy, enabling the compact spintronics-based non-volatile in-memory computing (nv-IMC) that promises to tackle the memory wall bottleneck issue. Here, by employing the intriguing room-temperature ferromagnetic characteristics of emerging 2D [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional van der Waals (2D vdW) ferromagnets possess outstanding scalability, controllable ferromagnetism, and out-of-plane anisotropy, enabling the compact spintronics-based non-volatile in-memory computing (nv-IMC) that promises to tackle the memory wall bottleneck issue. Here, by employing the intriguing room-temperature ferromagnetic characteristics of emerging 2D Fe3GeTe2 with the dissimilar electronic structure of the two spin-conducting channels, we report on a new type of non-volatile spin-orbit torque (SOT) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device based on Fe3GeTe2/MgO/Fe3GeTe2 heterostructure, which demonstrates the uni-polar and high-speed field-free magnetization switching by adjusting the ratio of field-like torque to damping-like torque coefficient in the free layer. Compared to the conventional 2T1M structure, the developed 3-transistor-2-MTJ (3T2M) cell is implemented with the complementary data storage feature and the enhanced sensing margin of 201.4% (from 271.7 mV to 547.2 mV) and 276% (from 188.2 mV to 520 mV) for reading “1” and “0”, respectively. Moreover, superior to the traditional CoFeB-based MTJ memory cell counterpart, the 3T2M crossbar array architecture can be executed for AND/NAND, OR/NOR Boolean logic operation with a fast latency of 24 ps and ultra-low power consumption of 2.47 fJ/bit. Such device to architecture design with elaborated micro-magnetic and circuit-level simulation results shows great potential for realizing high-performance 2D material-based compact SOT magnetic random-access memory, facilitating new applications of highly reliable and energy-efficient nv-IMC. Full article
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Article
Application of Flow Field Analysis in Ion Beam Figuring for Ultra-Smooth Machining of Monocrystalline Silicon Mirror
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020318 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 299
Abstract
X-ray free-electron lasers are large modern scientific devices that play an important role in fields such as frontier physics and biomedicine. In this study, a light source is connected to an experimental station through beam lines, which requires numerous ultra-smooth and high-precision X-ray [...] Read more.
X-ray free-electron lasers are large modern scientific devices that play an important role in fields such as frontier physics and biomedicine. In this study, a light source is connected to an experimental station through beam lines, which requires numerous ultra-smooth and high-precision X-ray mirrors. Monocrystalline silicon is an ideal substrate material where ion-beam figuring is required. However, the ultra-smooth surface is damaged after the ion-beam figuring. Through an analysis of the machined surface, it is found that in the process of vacuum pumping, the impurities in the cavity adhere to the machined surface and increase the roughness after processing. Therefore, an optimized vacuum-pumping scheme is proposed. The experiment demonstrates that the original value of the processed surface roughness remains unchanged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Manufacturing Technology)
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Article
Enhancing the Recognition Task Performance of MEMS Resonator-Based Reservoir Computing System via Nonlinearity Tuning
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020317 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Reservoir computing (RC) is a potential neuromorphic paradigm for physically realizing artificial intelligence systems in the Internet of Things society, owing to its well-known low training cost and compatibility with nonlinear devices. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonators exhibiting rich nonlinear dynamics and fading behaviors [...] Read more.
Reservoir computing (RC) is a potential neuromorphic paradigm for physically realizing artificial intelligence systems in the Internet of Things society, owing to its well-known low training cost and compatibility with nonlinear devices. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonators exhibiting rich nonlinear dynamics and fading behaviors are promising candidates for high-performance hardware RC. Previously, we presented a non-delay-based RC using one single micromechanical resonator with hybrid nonlinear dynamics. Here, we innovatively introduce a nonlinear tuning strategy to analyze the computing properties (the processing speed and recognition accuracy) of the presented RC. Meanwhile, we numerically and experimentally analyze the influence of the hybrid nonlinear dynamics using the image classification task. Specifically, we study the transient nonlinear saturation phenomenon by fitting quality factors under different vacuums, as well as searching the optimal operating point (the edge of chaos) by the static bifurcation analysis and dynamic vibration numerical models of the Duffing nonlinearity. Our results in the optimal operation conditions experimentally achieved a high classification accuracy of (93 ± 1)% and several times faster than previous work on the handwritten digits recognition benchmark, profit from the perfect high signal-to-noise ratios (quality factor) and the nonlinearity of the dynamical variables. Full article
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Article
Determination of the Dielectrophoretic Force Induced by the Photovoltaic Effect on Lithium Niobate
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020316 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The actuation of droplets on a surface is extremely relevant for microfluidic applications. In recent years, various methodologies have been used. A promising solution relies on iron-doped lithium niobate crystals that, when illuminated, generate an evanescent electric field in the surrounding space due [...] Read more.
The actuation of droplets on a surface is extremely relevant for microfluidic applications. In recent years, various methodologies have been used. A promising solution relies on iron-doped lithium niobate crystals that, when illuminated, generate an evanescent electric field in the surrounding space due to the photovoltaic effect. This field can be successfully exploited to control the motion of water droplets. Here, we present an experimental method to determine the attractive force exerted by the evanescent field. It consists of the analysis of the elongation of a pendant droplet and its detachment from the suspending syringe needle, caused by the illumination of an iron-doped lithium niobate crystal. We show that this interaction resembles that obtained by applying a voltage between the needle and a metallic substrate, and a quantitative investigation of these two types of actuation yields similar results. Pendant droplet tensiometry is then demonstrated to offer a simple solution for quickly mapping out the force at different distances from the crystal, generated by the photovoltaic effect and its temporal evolution, providing important quantitative data for the design and characterization of optofluidic devices based on lithium niobate crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Physics 2022)
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Review
Therapeutic Applications of Programmable DNA Nanostructures
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020315 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanotechnology, a frontier in biomedical engineering, is an emerging field that has enabled the engineering of molecular-scale DNA materials with applications in biomedicine such as bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery over the past decades. The programmability of DNA nanostructures allows [...] Read more.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanotechnology, a frontier in biomedical engineering, is an emerging field that has enabled the engineering of molecular-scale DNA materials with applications in biomedicine such as bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery over the past decades. The programmability of DNA nanostructures allows the precise engineering of DNA nanocarriers with controllable shapes, sizes, surface chemistries, and functions to deliver therapeutic and functional payloads to target cells with higher efficiency and enhanced specificity. Programmability and control over design also allow the creation of dynamic devices, such as DNA nanorobots, that can react to external stimuli and execute programmed tasks. This review focuses on the current findings and progress in the field, mainly on the employment of DNA nanostructures such as DNA origami nanorobots, DNA nanotubes, DNA tetrahedra, DNA boxes, and DNA nanoflowers in the biomedical field for therapeutic purposes. We will also discuss the fate of DNA nanostructures in living cells, the major obstacles to overcome, that is, the stability of DNA nanostructures in biomedical applications, and the opportunities for DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery in the future. Full article
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Article
Prediction of Surface Roughness as a Function of Temperature for SiO2 Thin-Film in PECVD Process
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020314 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
An analytical model to predict the surface roughness for the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process over a large range of temperature values is still nonexistent. By using an existing prediction model, the surface roughness can directly be calculated instead of repeating the [...] Read more.
An analytical model to predict the surface roughness for the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process over a large range of temperature values is still nonexistent. By using an existing prediction model, the surface roughness can directly be calculated instead of repeating the experimental processes, which can largely save time and resources. This research work focuses on the investigation and analytical modeling of surface roughness of SiO2 deposition using the PECVD process for almost the whole range of operating temperatures, i.e., 80 to 450 °C. The proposed model is based on experimental data of surface roughness against different temperature conditions in the PECVD process measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quality of these SiO2 layers was studied against an isolation layer in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) for light steering applications. The analytical model employs different mathematical approaches such as linear and cubic regressions over the measured values to develop a prediction model for the whole operating temperature range of the PECVD process. The proposed prediction model is validated by calculating the percent match of the analytical model with experimental data for different temperature ranges, counting the correlations and error bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications)
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Article
Power Performance Comparison of SiC-IGBT and Si-IGBT Switches in a Three-Phase Inverter for Aircraft Applications
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020313 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The converters used to integrate the ground power station of planes with the utility grid are generally created with silicon-insulated gate bipolar transistor (Si-IGBT)-based semiconductor technologies. The Si-IGBT switch-based converters are inefficient, oversized, and have trouble achieving pure sine wave voltages requirements. The [...] Read more.
The converters used to integrate the ground power station of planes with the utility grid are generally created with silicon-insulated gate bipolar transistor (Si-IGBT)-based semiconductor technologies. The Si-IGBT switch-based converters are inefficient, oversized, and have trouble achieving pure sine wave voltages requirements. The efficiency of the aircraft ground power units (AGPU) can be increased by replacing existing Si-IGBT transistors with silicon carbide (SiC) IGBTs because of the physical constraints of Si-IGBT switches. The primary purpose of this research was to prove that the efficiency increase could be obtained in the case of using SiC-IGBTs in conventional AGPU systems with the realized experimental studies. In this study, three different experimental systems were discussed for this purpose. The first system was the traditional APGU system. The other two systems were single-phase test (SPT) and three-phase inverter systems, respectively. The SPT system and three-phase inverter systems were designed and implemented to compare and make analyses of Si-IGBTs and SiC-IGBTs performance. The efficiency and detailed hard switching behavior comparison were performed between the 1200-V SiC-IGBT- and 1200-V Si-IGBT-based experimental systems. The APGU system and Si-IGBT modules were examined, the switching characteristic and efficiency of the system were obtained in the first experimental study. The second experimental study was carried out on the SPT system. The single-pulse test system was created using Si-IGBTs and SiC-IGBTs switches in the second experimental system. The third experiment included a three-phase-inverter-based test system. The system was created with Si-IGBTs and SiC-IGBTs to compare the two different switch-based inverters under RL loads. The turning off and turning on processes of the IGBT switches were examined and the results were presented. The Si-IGBT efficiency was 77% experimentally in the SPT experimental system. The efficiency of the third experimental system was increased up to 95% by replacing the old Si transistor with a SiC. The efficiency of the three-phase Si-IGBT-based system was 86% for the six-switch case. The efficiencies of the SiC-IGBT-based system were increased to around 92% in the three-phase inverter system experimentally. The findings of the experimental results demonstrated that the SiC-IGBT had a faster switching speed and a smaller loss than the classical Si-IGBT. As a result of the experimental studies, the efficiency increase that could be obtained in the case of using SiC-IGBTs in conventional AGPU systems was revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SiC-Based Microsystems)
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Article
A W-Band Communication and Sensing Convergence System Enabled by Single OFDM Waveform
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020312 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Convergence of communication and sensing is highly desirable for future wireless systems. This paper presents a converged millimeter-wave system using a single orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform and proposes a novel method, based on the zero-delay shift for the received echoes, to [...] Read more.
Convergence of communication and sensing is highly desirable for future wireless systems. This paper presents a converged millimeter-wave system using a single orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform and proposes a novel method, based on the zero-delay shift for the received echoes, to extend the sensing range beyond the cyclic prefix interval (CPI). Both simulation and proof-of-concept experiments evaluate the performance of the proposed system at 97 GHz. The experiment uses a W-band heterodyne structure to transmit/receive an OFDM waveform featuring 3.9 GHz bandwidth with quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM). The proposed approach successfully achieves a range resolution of 0.042 m and a speed resolution of 0.79 m/s with an extended range, which agree well with the simulation. Meanwhile, based on the same OFDM waveform, it also achieves a bit-error-rate (BER) 102, below the forward error-correction threshold. Our proposed system is expected to be a significant step forward for future wireless convergence applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Terahertz Devices and Communication Technologies)
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