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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
High Risk of Metabolic and Adipose Tissue Dysfunctions in Adult Male Progeny, Due to Prenatal and Adulthood Malnutrition Induced by Fructose Rich Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030178
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2351 | PDF Full-text (2221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to determine the effect of a fructose rich diet (FRD) consumed by the pregnant mother on the endocrine-metabolic and in vivo and in vitro adipose tissue (AT) functions of the male offspring in adulthood. At 60 days [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to determine the effect of a fructose rich diet (FRD) consumed by the pregnant mother on the endocrine-metabolic and in vivo and in vitro adipose tissue (AT) functions of the male offspring in adulthood. At 60 days of age, rats born to FRD-fed mothers (F) showed impaired glucose tolerance after glucose overload and high circulating levels of leptin (LEP). Despite the diminished mass of retroperitoneal AT, this tissue was characterized by enhanced LEP gene expression, and hypertrophic adipocytes secreting in vitro larger amounts of LEP. Analyses of stromal vascular fraction composition by flow cytometry revealed a reduced number of adipocyte precursor cells. Additionally, 60 day-old control (C) and F male rats were subjected to control diet (CC and FC animals) or FRD (CF and FF rats) for three weeks. FF animals were heavier and consumed more calories. Their metabolic-endocrine parameters were aggravated; they developed severe hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and augmented AT mass with hypertrophic adipocytes. Our study highlights that manipulation of maternal diet induced an offspring phenotype mainly imprinted with a severely unhealthy adipogenic process with undesirable endocrine-metabolic consequences, putting them at high risk for developing a diabetic state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030177
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4382 | PDF Full-text (1356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). [...] Read more.
Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Gender Differences in Response to Prolonged Every-Other-Day Feeding on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030176
Received: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 19 March 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2000 | PDF Full-text (1451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intermittent fasting decreases glucose and insulin levels and increases insulin sensitivity and lifespan. Decreased food intake influences the liver. Previous studies have shown gender differences in response to various types of caloric restriction, including every-other-day (EOD) feeding, in humans and rodents. Our goal [...] Read more.
Intermittent fasting decreases glucose and insulin levels and increases insulin sensitivity and lifespan. Decreased food intake influences the liver. Previous studies have shown gender differences in response to various types of caloric restriction, including every-other-day (EOD) feeding, in humans and rodents. Our goal was to show the influence of prolonged EOD feeding on the morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of livers from male and female mice. After nine months of an EOD diet, the livers from male and female mice were collected. We examined their morphology on histological slides using the Hematoxilin and Eosine (H_E) method and Hoechst staining of cell nuclei to evaluate the nuclear area of hepatocytes. We also evaluated the expression of mRNA for proto-oncogens, pro-survival proteins and apoptotic markers using Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We noted increased lipid content in the livers of EOD fed female mice. EOD feeding lead to a decrease of proliferation and apoptosis in the livers of female and male mice, which suggest that tissue maintenance occurred during EOD feeding. Our experiment revealed sex-specific expression of mRNA for proto-oncogenes and pro-survival and pro-apoptotic genes in mice as well as sex-specific responses to the EOD treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030175
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 8 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 19 March 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2305 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) [...] Read more.
DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F2-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F2-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030173
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 6109 | PDF Full-text (1012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four [...] Read more.
Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030171
Received: 1 January 2016 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2007 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis [...] Read more.
Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the odds of dyslipidemia including elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratio are associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a population perspective. Data of 2495 US adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012 were used in this study. Two subgroups (i.e., UIC below vs. above the 10th percentile) were compared of dyslipidemia as defined based on NCEP ATP III guidelines. The differences between the groups were tested statistically by chi-square test, simple linear regressions, and multiple logistic regressions. Serum lipid concentrations differed significantly between two iodine status groups when sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates were controlled (all, p < 0.05). Those with the lowest decile of UIC were more likely to be at risk for elevated total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–2.23) and elevated LDL cholesterol (>130 mg/dL) (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11–2.23) and lowered HDL/LDL ratio (<0.4) (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18–2.33), compared to those with UIC above the 10th percentile. In US adults, low UIC was associated with increased odds for dyslipidemia. Findings of the present cross-sectional study with spot urine samples highlight the significant association between UIC and serum lipids at population level, but do not substantiate a causal relationship. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship among iodine intakes, iodine status, and serum lipid profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030170
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5277 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
Open AccessArticle
Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030169
Received: 14 January 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2074 | PDF Full-text (1024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults [...] Read more.
Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of the Traditional Mediterranean-Style Diet on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030168
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3154 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Mediterranean-style diet (MedSD) has gained attention for its positive effects on health outcomes, including metabolic risk factors. However, it is unknown as to which components of MedSD interventions are most beneficial in reducing risk. The objective of this meta-analysis was to obtain [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean-style diet (MedSD) has gained attention for its positive effects on health outcomes, including metabolic risk factors. However, it is unknown as to which components of MedSD interventions are most beneficial in reducing risk. The objective of this meta-analysis was to obtain effect sizes for metabolic risk factors and explain the variability across the current literature based on study design, sample, and diet characteristics. Six electronic databases were searched from inception until 9 February 2016. Data from 29 studies (N = 4133) were included. There were significant effects in favor of the MedSD for waist circumference, triglycerides, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (d+ = −0.54; d+ = −0.46; d+ = −0.50; d+ = −0.72; d+ = −0.94, respectively). The MedSD was significantly beneficial when the intervention was longer in duration, was conducted in Europe, used a behavioral technique, and was conducted using small groups. The traditional MedSD had significant beneficial effects on five of the six metabolic risk factors. Results from this study provide support for population specific dietary guideline for metabolic risk reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030167
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 104 | Viewed by 5657 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on [...] Read more.
In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Comparison of the ISU, NCI, MSM, and SPADE Methods for Estimating Usual Intake: A Simulation Study of Nutrients Consumed Daily
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030166
Received: 5 December 2015 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2334 | PDF Full-text (2626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) [...] Read more.
Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n = 150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030165
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2326 | PDF Full-text (4175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05). Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05). Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05), at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030164
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2168 | PDF Full-text (1374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous [...] Read more.
Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview
Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030163
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 12 March 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3991 | PDF Full-text (1144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, [...] Read more.
Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030162
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2765 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship [...] Read more.
Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and 30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Serum iron concentration (ng/dL) was significantly higher in normal weight women compared to overweight women (86.2 ± 5.0 vs. 68.9 ± 3.0, p < 0.05). An inverse association was found between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Poor diet quality as measured by HEI-2010 was shown among overweight and obese women. Nutrition education and interventions need to be targeted to those women entering pregnancy as overweight and obese. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Anti-Diabetic Activities of Gastrodia elata Blume Water Extracts Are Mediated Mainly by Potentiating Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Increasing β-Cell Mass in Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Animals
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030161
Received: 14 January 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2345 | PDF Full-text (1336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The brain is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, and is known to respond Gastrodia elata Blume water extract (GEB). Therefore, we examined whether long-term administration of GEB has hypoglycemic activity, and its action mechanism was explored in partially-pancreatectomized rats that exhibit similar [...] Read more.
The brain is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, and is known to respond Gastrodia elata Blume water extract (GEB). Therefore, we examined whether long-term administration of GEB has hypoglycemic activity, and its action mechanism was explored in partially-pancreatectomized rats that exhibit similar characteristics as Asian type 2 diabetes, non-obese insulin-insufficient diabetes. The rats were provided high-fat diets supplemented with either of (1) 0.5% GEB (GEB-L), (2) 2% GEB (GEB-H), (3) 2% dextrin (control), or (4) 2% dextrin with rosiglitazone (20 mg/kg body weight; positive-control) for eight weeks. GEB dose-dependently improved hypothalamic insulin signaling, enhanced whole-body insulin sensitivity during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and reduced hepatic glucose output in a hyperinsulinemic state. GEB dose-dependently increased the area under the curve of the serum insulin levels at the first and second phases during hyperglycemic clamp compared to the control, whereas the positive control had no effect. Insulin sensitivity during the hyperglycemic state also improved, dose-dependently, in response to GEB compared with that of the control, but was less than the positive control. GEB-H increased the mass of β-cells by potentiating proliferation and decreasing apoptosis. In conclusion, GEB could be a therapeutic agent for treating Asian type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Revised Australian Dietary Guideline Index and Its Association with Key Sociodemographic Factors, Health Behaviors and Body Mass Index in Peri-Retirement Aged Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030160
Received: 11 January 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
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Abstract
The Dietary Guideline Index, a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. This paper describes the revision of the index (DGI-2013) and examines its use in older adults. The DGI-2013 consists of 13 components reflecting food-based daily [...] Read more.
The Dietary Guideline Index, a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. This paper describes the revision of the index (DGI-2013) and examines its use in older adults. The DGI-2013 consists of 13 components reflecting food-based daily intake recommendations of the Australian Dietary Guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, the DGI-2013 score was calculated using dietary data collected via an 111-item food frequency questionnaire and additional food-related behaviour questions. The DGI-2013 score was examined in Australian adults (aged 55–65 years; n = 1667 men; 1801 women) according to sociodemographics, health-related behaviours and BMI. Women scored higher than men on the total DGI-2013 and all components except for dairy. Those who were from a rural area (men only), working full-time (men only), with lower education, smoked, did not meet physical activity guidelines, and who had a higher BMI, scored lower on the DGI-2013, highlighting a group of older adults at risk of poor health. The DGI-2013 is a tool for assessing compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. We demonstrated associations between diet quality and a range of participant characteristics, consistent with previous literature. This suggests that the DGI-2013 continues to demonstrate convergent validity, consistent with the original Dietary Guideline Index. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030121
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2208 | PDF Full-text (1563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a [...] Read more.
Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit Intake and Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Elderly Women: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030159
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2567 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a consistent inverse relationship between fruit intake with CVD events and mortality in cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, but the relationship of fruit intake with measurements of atherosclerosis in humans is [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a consistent inverse relationship between fruit intake with CVD events and mortality in cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, but the relationship of fruit intake with measurements of atherosclerosis in humans is less clear. Nutritional effects on abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a marker for subclinical intimal and medial atherosclerotic vascular disease, have not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship of total and individual fruit (apple, pear, orange and other citrus, and banana) intake with AAC, scored between 0 and 24. The current study assessed baseline data for a cohort of 1052 women over 70 years of age who completed both a food frequency questionnaire assessing fruit intake, and underwent AAC measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. AAC scores were significantly negatively correlated with total fruit and apple intakes (p < 0.05), but not with pear, orange or banana intakes (p > 0.25). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, each standard deviation (SD; 50 g/day) increase in apple intake was associated with a 24% lower odds of having severe AAC (AAC score >5) (odd ratio OR): 0.76 (0.62, 0.93), p = 0.009). Total and other individual fruit intake were not associated with increased odds of having severe AAC. Apple but not total or other fruit intake is independently negatively associated with AAC in older women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030158
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3568 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This [...] Read more.
Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. Full article
Open AccessReview
Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030157
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5739 | PDF Full-text (1567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often [...] Read more.
Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactose Intolerance: Biology, Genetics and Dietary Management)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030156
Received: 11 January 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4837 | PDF Full-text (828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French [...] Read more.
Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus fermentum Suo Attenuates HCl/Ethanol Induced Gastric Injury in Mice through Its Antioxidant Effects
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030155
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo) on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo) on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The studied mice were divided into four groups: healthy, injured, LF-Suo-L and LF-Suo-H group. After the LF-Suo intragastric administration, the gastric injury area was reduced compared to the injured group. The serum MOT (motilin), SP (substance P), ET (endothelin) levels of LF-Suo treated mice were lower, and SS (somatostatin), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) levels were higher than the injured group mice. The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-12 (interleukin 12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) serum levels were decreased after the LF-Suo treatment. The gastric tissues SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), NO (nitric oxide) and activities of LF-Suo treated mice were increased and MDA (malondialdehyde) activity was decreased compared to the injured group mice. By the RT-PCR assay, LF-Suo raised the occludin, EGF (epidermal growth factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), IκB-α (inhibitor kappaB-α), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT (catalase) mRNA or protein expressions and reduced the COX-2, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB), and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) expressions in gastric tissues compared to the gastric injured group mice. A high concentration (1.0 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment showed stronger anti-gastric injury effects compared to a low concentration of (0.5 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment. LF-Suo also showed strong survival in pH 3.0 man-made gastric juice and hydrophobic properties. These results indicate that LF-Suo has potential use as probiotics for its gastric injury treatment effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030154
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3686 | PDF Full-text (2337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate population-level caffeine [...] Read more.
New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011–2012 data (n = 7456). Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011–2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day), and adults aged 51–70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day). The population mean (age ≥ four years) was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day), tea (25 mg/day), and soda (21 mg/day). For the 14–19 years and 20–34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9%) and 5 mg/day (4.5%), respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999–2000) to 142 mg/day (2011–2012), largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day). Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Maintains Muscle Electromyographic Activity and Increases Time to Exhaustion during Moderate but not High-Intensity Cycling Exercise
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030049
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
The aim was to investigate the influence of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) electromyographic activity (EMG) and time to exhaustion (TE) during moderate (MIE) and high-intensity cycling exercise (HIE). Thirteen participants cycled at 80% [...] Read more.
The aim was to investigate the influence of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) electromyographic activity (EMG) and time to exhaustion (TE) during moderate (MIE) and high-intensity cycling exercise (HIE). Thirteen participants cycled at 80% of their respiratory compensation point and at 110% of their peak power output to the point of exhaustion. Before the trials and every 15 min during MIE, participants rinsed with the CHO or Placebo (PLA) solutions. The root mean square was calculated. CHO had no effect on the TE during HIE (CHO: 177.3 ± 42.2 s; PLA: 163.0 ± 26.7 s, p = 0.10), but the TE was increased during MIE (CHO: 76.6 ± 19.7 min; PLA: 65.4 ± 15.2 min; p = 0.01). The EMG activity in the VL was higher than PLA at 30 min (CHO: 10.5% ± 2.6%; PLA: 7.7% ± 3.3%; p = 0.01) and before exhaustion (CHO: 10.3% ± 2.5%; PLA: 8.0% ± 2.9%; p = 0.01) with CHO rinsing. There was no CHO effect on the EMG activity of RF during MIE or for VL and RF during HIE. CHO mouth rinse maintains EMG activity and enhances performance for MIE but not for HIE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health-Care Costs, Glycemic Control and Nutritional Status in Malnourished Older Diabetics Treated with a Hypercaloric Diabetes-Specific Enteral Nutritional Formula
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030153
Received: 14 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2585 | PDF Full-text (821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and [...] Read more.
Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and nutritional status, in 93 type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) malnourished patients. Changes in health-care resources use and health-care costs were collected the year before and during the year of intervention. Glucose status and nutritional laboratory parameters were analyzed at baseline and one-year after the administration of HDSF. The administration of HDSF was significantly associated with a reduced use of health-care resources, fewer hospital admissions (54.7%; p < 0.001), days spent at hospital (64.1%; p < 0.001) and emergency visits (57.7%; p < 0.001). Health-care costs were reduced by 65.6% (p < 0.001) during the intervention. Glycemic control (short- and long-term) and the need of pharmacological treatment did not change, while some nutritional parameters were improved at one year (albumin: +10.6%, p < 0.001; hemoglobin: +6.4%, p = 0.026). In conclusion, using HDSF in malnourished older type-2 diabetic patients may allow increasing energy intake while maintaining glucose control and improving nutritional parameters. The use of health-care resources and costs were significantly reduced during the nutritional intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030152
Received: 22 November 2015 / Revised: 21 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2372 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, [...] Read more.
Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Clinical Evaluation of Effects of Chronic Resveratrol Supplementation on Cerebrovascular Function, Cognition, Mood, Physical Function and General Well-Being in Postmenopausal Women—Rationale and Study Design
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030150
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
Background: This methodological paper presents both a scientific rationale and a methodological approach for investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on mood and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, which may be at [...] Read more.
Background: This methodological paper presents both a scientific rationale and a methodological approach for investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on mood and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, which may be at least partly due to loss of beneficial effects of estrogen on the cerebrovasculature. We hypothesise that resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, may counteract this risk by enhancing cerebrovascular function and improving regional blood flow in response to cognitive demands. A clinical trial was designed to test this hypothesis. Method: Healthy postmenopausal women were recruited to participate in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled (parallel comparison) dietary intervention trial to evaluate the effects of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg twice daily) on cognition, cerebrovascular responsiveness to cognitive tasks and overall well-being. They performed the following tests at baseline and after 14 weeks of supplementation: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Cambridge Semantic Memory Battery, the Double Span and the Trail Making Task. Cerebrovascular function was assessed simultaneously by monitoring blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Conclusion: This trial provides a model approach to demonstrate that, by optimising circulatory function in the brain, resveratrol and other vasoactive nutrients may enhance mood and cognition and ameliorate the risk of developing dementia in postmenopausal women and other at-risk populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Resveratrol Regional Meeting 2015)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030149
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2154 | PDF Full-text (689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B6, [...] Read more.
Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B6, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B6 deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol <9.3 µmol/L). Our results illustrate the importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d’Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030148
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2440 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in [...] Read more.
Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d’Ivoire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
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