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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100666
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2051 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association of MTHFR, SLC19A1 Genetic Polymorphism, Serum Folate, Vitamin B12 and Hcy Status with Cognitive Functions in Chinese Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100665
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 9 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2031 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background/Aim: Studies have indicated a relationship between either gene polymorphism or in vivo B vitamins’ nutritional status with cognition in the elderly. However, the combined effects of MTHFR and SLC19A1gene polymorphism with serum folate and vitamin B12 levels on cognition in Chinese [...] Read more.
Background/Aim: Studies have indicated a relationship between either gene polymorphism or in vivo B vitamins’ nutritional status with cognition in the elderly. However, the combined effects of MTHFR and SLC19A1gene polymorphism with serum folate and vitamin B12 levels on cognition in Chinese adult population remain unclear. Methods: Demographic information of 426 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 90 were collected by a well designed self-administered questionnaire. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment test was utilized to evaluate the cognition status of the participants. MTHFR and SLC19A1 genotyping was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR- LDR) method. Serum folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) levels were detected by commercial assay kits. Pearson’s correlation was used for data analyses and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Serum Hcylevels demonstrated a negative correlation with serum folate (r = −0.301) and vitamin B12 (r = −0.292) levels. The negative correlation found between serum Hcy levels and attention ability was observed in all 426 studied subjects (r = −0.122). Subjects with MTHFR 677 T/T and 1298 A/A genotypes demonstrated a higher serum Hcy levels (p < 0.05). Carriers of MTHFR (1298 A/C + C/C and 1793 G/A) and SLC19A1 80 G/G genotypes showed lower abstraction and delayed memory ability, respectively (p < 0.05). Subjects with MTHFR 1793 G/A genotype along with low serum folate concentration demonstrated the lowest name and orientation abilities. The effects of MTHFR 1793 G/A genotype on cognitive performance were dependent on the status of serum vitamin B12. Conclusion: Cognition of adults was associated with MTHFR, SLC19A1 gene polymorphism and serum Hcy levels. This study clearly establishes a combined effect of MTHFR gene polymorphism and serum B vitamins levels on cognition in Chinese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100664
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1939 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100662
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2379 | PDF Full-text (2140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in [...] Read more.
Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients (r = −0.33, p < 0.001) and those with lower glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). The non-protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61–15.42, p = 0.012) and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49–37.34, p = 0.006), but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100663
Received: 6 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1823 | PDF Full-text (2682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood [...] Read more.
Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Organ-Specific Gene Expression Changes in the Fetal Liver and Placenta in Response to Maternal Folate Depletion
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100661
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1800 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that the in utero environment can have profound implications for fetal development and later life offspring health. Current theory suggests conditions experienced in utero prepare, or “programme”, the fetus for its anticipated post-natal environment. The mechanisms responsible for [...] Read more.
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that the in utero environment can have profound implications for fetal development and later life offspring health. Current theory suggests conditions experienced in utero prepare, or “programme”, the fetus for its anticipated post-natal environment. The mechanisms responsible for these programming events are poorly understood but are likely to involve gene expression changes. Folate is essential for normal fetal development and inadequate maternal folate supply during pregnancy has long term adverse effects for offspring. We tested the hypothesis that folate depletion during pregnancy alters offspring programming through altered gene expression. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed diets containing 2 mg or 0.4 mg folic acid/kg for 4 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. At 17.5 day gestation, genome-wide gene expression was measured in male fetal livers and placentas. In the fetal liver, 989 genes were expressed differentially (555 up-regulated, 434 down-regulated) in response to maternal folate depletion, with 460 genes expressed differentially (250 up-regulated, 255 down-regulated) in the placenta. Only 25 differentially expressed genes were common between organs. Maternal folate intake during pregnancy influences fetal gene expression in a highly organ specific manner which may reflect organ-specific functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100660
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2707 | PDF Full-text (5313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the [...] Read more.
Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03) to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD). Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group). Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Spray-Dried Plasma Is Mediated by a Reduction in Mucosal Lymphocyte Activation and Infiltration in a Mouse Model of Intestinal Inflammation
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100657
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1506 | PDF Full-text (2917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spray-dried preparations from porcine and bovine plasma can alleviate mucosal inflammation in experimental models and improve symptoms in patients with enteropathy. In rodents, dietary supplementation with porcine spray-dried plasma (SDP) attenuates intestinal inflammation and improves the epithelial barrier function during intestinal inflammation induced [...] Read more.
Spray-dried preparations from porcine and bovine plasma can alleviate mucosal inflammation in experimental models and improve symptoms in patients with enteropathy. In rodents, dietary supplementation with porcine spray-dried plasma (SDP) attenuates intestinal inflammation and improves the epithelial barrier function during intestinal inflammation induced by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). The aim of this study was to discern the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of SDP. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with 8% SDP or control diet (based on milk proteins) for two weeks, from weaning until day 33. On day 32, the mice were given a SEB dose (i.p., 25 µg/mouse) or vehicle. SEB administration increased cell recruitment to mesenteric lymph nodes and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes and SDP prevented these effects). SDP supplementation increased the expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) or transforming growth factor- β (TGF-β) compared to the SEB group. The SEB challenge increased six-fold the expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1); and these effects were attenuated by SDP supplementation. SEB also augmented NF-κB phosphorylation, an effect that was prevented by dietary SDP. Our results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of SDP involve the regulation of transcription factors and adhesion molecules that reduce intestinal cell infiltration and the degree of the inflammatory response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy in a Multi-Ethnic Population-Representative Swedish Cohort
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100655
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
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Abstract
There is currently little information on changes in vitamin D status during pregnancy and its predictors. The aim was to study the determinants of change in vitamin D status during pregnancy and of vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) in early pregnancy. Blood was [...] Read more.
There is currently little information on changes in vitamin D status during pregnancy and its predictors. The aim was to study the determinants of change in vitamin D status during pregnancy and of vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) in early pregnancy. Blood was drawn in the first (T1) and third trimester (T3). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (N = 1985) was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Season-corrected 25(OH)D was calculated by fitting cosine functions to the data. Mean (standard deviation) 25(OH)D was 64.5(24.5) nmol/L at T1 and 74.6(34.4) at T3. Mean age was 31.3(4.9) years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.5(4.2) kg/m2 and 74% of the women were born in Sweden. Vitamin D deficiency was common among women born in Africa (51%) and Asia (46%) and prevalent in 10% of the whole cohort. Determinants of vitamin D deficiency at T1 were of non-North European origin, and had less sun exposure, lower vitamin D intake and lower age. Season-corrected 25(OH)D increased by 11(23) nmol/L from T1 to T3. The determinants of season-corrected change in 25(OH)D were origin, sun-seeking behaviour, clothing style, dietary vitamin D intake, vitamin D supplementation and recent travel <35° N. In conclusion, season-corrected 25(OH)D concentration increased during pregnancy and depended partly on lifestyle factors. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was low but common among women born in Africa and Asia. Among them, the determinants of both vitamin D deficiency and change in season-corrected vitamin D status were fewer, indicating a smaller effect of sun exposure. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100659
Received: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2297 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids, including around 6000 phenolic compounds, are products of the secondary metabolism of plants which can be a part of one’s diet via the consumption of many edible plants.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
Open AccessArticle
Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100658
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1525 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal [...] Read more.
The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Proanthocyanidins Attenuation of Chronic Lead-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage in Kunming Mice via the Nrf2/ARE Pathway
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100656
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2043 | PDF Full-text (4141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lead is harmful for human health and animals. Proanthocyanidins (PCs), a natural antioxidant, possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead-induced liver damage have not been clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect [...] Read more.
Lead is harmful for human health and animals. Proanthocyanidins (PCs), a natural antioxidant, possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead-induced liver damage have not been clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PCs on the hepatotoxicity of male Kunming mice induced by chronic lead exposure. A total of 70 healthy male Kunming mice were averagely divided into four groups: control group, i.e., the group exposed to lead, the group treated with PCs, and the group co-treated with lead and PCs. The mice exposed to lead were given water containing 0.2% lead acetate. Mice treated in the PCs and PCs lead co-treated groups were given PC (100 mg/kg) in 0.9% saline by oral gavage. Lead exposure caused a significant elevation in the liver function parameters, lead level, lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The induction of oxidative stress and histological alterations in the liver were minimized by co-treatment with PCs. Meanwhile, the number of Transferase-Mediated Deoxyuridine Triphosphate-Biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells was significantly reduced in the PCs/lead co-treated group compared to the lead group. In addition, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of Bax, while the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased. Furthermore, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes and protein (GRP78 and CHOP). Co-treated with PCs significantly reversed these expressions in the liver. PCs were, therefore, demonstrated to have protective, antioxidant, and anti-ER stress and anti-apoptotic activities in liver damage caused by chronic lead exposure in the Kunming mouse. This may be due to the ability of PCs to enhance the ability of liver tissue to protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, resulting in decreasing ER stress and apoptosis of liver tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100654
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly [...] Read more.
This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitor Administration and Intake of a Combination of Yogurt and Galactooligosaccharides on Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100653
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), the most potent acid-suppressing drug, administration and intake of a combination of yogurt and galactooligosaccharides (YG) on bone and mineral metabolism in adult rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), the most potent acid-suppressing drug, administration and intake of a combination of yogurt and galactooligosaccharides (YG) on bone and mineral metabolism in adult rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group fed the control diet with vehicle administration, a PPI group fed the control diet with PPI administration and a YG + PPI group fed the YG diet with PPI administration. All of the groups received their respective experimental diets and daily subcutaneous injection of the vehicle or PPI for 12 weeks. The PPI group showed significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and the lumbar vertebrae and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and significantly higher phosphorus absorption and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) than the control group, although PPI did not affect calcium absorption. The PPI + YG group showed significantly higher BMD and serum FGF23 and significantly lower phosphorus absorption and serum 1,25(OH)2D than the PPI group. Furthermore, the PPI + YG group showed higher calcium absorption than the control group. These results suggest that although PPI administration did not affect calcium absorption, it adversely affected BMD and influenced phosphorus metabolism in adult rats. Furthermore, the YG diet beneficially affected BMD and attenuated the effects of PPI administration on phosphorus metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Protein Diets in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients: Are They Feasible and Worth the Effort?
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100649
Received: 7 August 2016 / Revised: 11 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
Low-protein diets (LPDs) are often considered as contraindicated in diabetic patients, and are seldom studied. The aim of this observational study was to provide new data on this issue. It involved 149 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic patients who followed a LPD, with a [...] Read more.
Low-protein diets (LPDs) are often considered as contraindicated in diabetic patients, and are seldom studied. The aim of this observational study was to provide new data on this issue. It involved 149 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic patients who followed a LPD, with a personalized approach aimed at moderate protein restriction (0.6 g/day). Survival analysis was performed according to Kaplan–Meier, and multivariate analysis with Cox model. Diabetic versus non-diabetic patients were of similar age (median 70 years) and creatinine levels at the start of the diet (2.78 mg/dL vs. 2.80 mg/dL). There was higher prevalence of nephrotic proteinuria in diabetic patients (27.52% vs. 13.67%, p = 0.002) as well as comorbidity (median Charlson index 8 vs. 6 p = 0.002). Patient survival was lower in diabetic patients, but differences levelled off considering only cases with Charlson index > 7, the only relevant covariate in Cox analysis. Dialysis-free survival was superimposable in the setting of good compliance (Mitch formula: 0.47 g/kg/day in both groups): about 50% of the cases remained dialysis-free 2 years after the first finding of e-GFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) < 15 mL/min, and 1 year after reaching e-GFR < 10 mL/min. In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher proteinuria was associated with mortality and initiation of dialysis. In conclusion, moderately restricted LPDs allow similar results in diabetic and non non-diabetic patients with similar comorbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100652
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1692 | PDF Full-text (1309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic [...] Read more.
Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100650
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1874 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and [...] Read more.
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100648
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2559 | PDF Full-text (2730 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has [...] Read more.
Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Prevalence of Hyperhomocysteinemia and Its Association with Target Organ Damage in Chinese Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100645
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1708 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of HHcy and its role in association with target organ damage in patients with chronickidney disease (CKD) are not well understood. This cross-sectional study included 1042 CKD patients who [...] Read more.
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of HHcy and its role in association with target organ damage in patients with chronickidney disease (CKD) are not well understood. This cross-sectional study included 1042 CKD patients who were admitted to our hospital. Patients were divided into two groups: hyperhomocysteinemia and normohomocysteinemia. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between plasma homocysteine and renal/cardiovascular parameters. The prevalence of HHcy in patients with CKD was 52.78%, and the prevalence in CKD stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4 and stage 5 patients was 10.73%, 29.22%, 58.71%, 75.23% and 83.75%, respectively. Patients with HHcy had higher incidences of renal damage, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and abnormal carotid intima-media thickness compared with patients with normohomocysteinemia (p < 0.05), while multivariable linear regression analyses showed plasma homocysteine was only associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). eGFR, uric acid, albumin, gender, hemoglobin and calcium×phosphate were associated with levels of plasma homocysteine in these CKD patients. The prevalence of HHcy in Chinese patients with CKD was high, and serum homocysteine levels were associated with impaired renal function in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Is Hypovitaminosis D Associated with Stress Perception in the Elderly? A Nationwide Representative Study in Korea
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100647
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2007 | PDF Full-text (1283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypovitaminosis D and stress are common problems among the elderly. The aim of this cross-sectional nationally representative study was to evaluate the association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception using large-scale nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [...] Read more.
Hypovitaminosis D and stress are common problems among the elderly. The aim of this cross-sectional nationally representative study was to evaluate the association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception using large-scale nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012–2013). In our study, a total of 1393 elders (≥65 years old) were included to evaluate the association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined using radioimmunoassay, and perceived stress status was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. The association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception according to sex was examined using logistic regression analysis. After multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and comorbidities, hypovitaminosis D was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–6.77; p = 0.029) among women; however, this association was not significant among men. Hypovitaminosis D was a risk factor for higher stress perception in older Korean women. Even though the role of vitamin D in stress perception is still unclear, we suggest screening for hypovitaminosis D among the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal Betaine Supplementation throughout Gestation and Lactation Modifies Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolic Genes in Weaning Piglets via AMPK/LXR-Mediated Pathway and Histone Modification
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100646
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1938 | PDF Full-text (1507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density [...] Read more.
Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets. This was associated with the significantly elevated serum betaine and methionine levels and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) content. Concurrently, the hepatic nuclear transcription factor liver X receptor LXR was downregulated along with activated signal protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed lower LXR binding on CYP7a1 gene promoter and more enriched activation histone marker H3K4me3 on LDLR and SR-BI promoters. These results suggest that gestational and lactational betaine supplementation modulates hepatic gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism via an AMPK/LXR pathway and histone modification in the weaning offspring. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Properties of Gluten Intolerance: Gluten Structure, Evolution, Pathogenicity and Detoxification Capabilities
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100644
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 7411 | PDF Full-text (2531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can [...] Read more.
Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can be subdivided into three major groups: S-rich, S-poor and high molecular weight proteins. Prolamins within the groups possess similar structures and properties. All gluten proteins are evolutionarily connected and share the same ancestral origin. Gluten proteins are highly resistant to hydrolysis mediated by proteases of the human gastrointestinal tract. It results in emergence of pathogenic peptides, which cause CD and allergy in genetically predisposed people. There is a hierarchy of peptide toxicity and peptide recognition by T cells. Nowadays, there are several ways to detoxify gluten peptides: the most common is gluten-free diet (GFD), which has proved its effectiveness; prevention programs, enzymatic therapy, correction of gluten pathogenicity pathways and genetically modified grains with reduced immunotoxicity. A deep understanding of gluten intolerance underlying mechanisms and detailed knowledge of gluten properties may lead to the emergence of novel effective approaches for treatment of gluten-related disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Vegan Protein-Based Diets on Metabolic Parameters, Expressions of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100643
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2395 | PDF Full-text (1466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using [...] Read more.
Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet), soy protein (SOY), and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM). Changes in metabolic parameters as well as the expressions of adiponectin and its receptors were identified. Compared to CAS diet, both SOY and GSM diets led to decreases in blood total cholesterol and triglycerides, but only GSM diet led to an increase in HDL-cholesterol; no marked difference was observed in blood glucose in all three groups; HOMA-IR was found lower only in SOY group. Among groups, the order of serum adiponectin level was found as GSM > SOY > CAS. Similar order pattern was also observed in expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue and AdipoR1 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Our results suggested for the first time that, besides SOY diet, GSM diet could also be a possible substitute of animal protein to prevent MetS. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100641
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 15 October 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2464 | PDF Full-text (695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and [...] Read more.
Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100642
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus [...] Read more.
Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium (B.) breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic–placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Metabolic Homeostasis in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Determined via RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiles
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100640
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3182 | PDF Full-text (4388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Green tea (GT) has various health effects, including anti-obesity properties. However, the multiple molecular mechanisms of the effects have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of GT via the analysis of its metabolic and [...] Read more.
Green tea (GT) has various health effects, including anti-obesity properties. However, the multiple molecular mechanisms of the effects have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of GT via the analysis of its metabolic and transcriptional responses based on RNA-seq profiles. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal, high-fat (60% energy as fat), or high-fat + 0.25% (w/w) GT diet for 12 weeks. The GT extract ameliorated obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. GT supplementation resulted in body weight gain reduction than mice fed high-fat through enhanced energy expenditure, and reduced adiposity. The transcriptome profiles of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) suggested that GT augments transcriptional responses to the degradation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, which suggests enhanced energy homeostasis. Our findings provide some significant insights into the effects of GT for the prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. We demonstrated that the GT extract contributed to the regulation of systemic metabolic homeostasis via transcriptional responses to not only lipid and glucose metabolism, but also amino acid metabolism via BCAA degradation in the adipose tissue of DIO mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100639
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1) were divided into tertiles [...] Read more.
This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as ‘trained’ (n = 7) and ‘untrained’ (n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT). The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening) and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo). Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, ‘very likely’) and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, ‘likely’). Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, ‘likely’; 1.0% ± 1.7%, ‘likely’, respectively), but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, ‘likely’). Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100638
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 5 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2716 | PDF Full-text (487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there [...] Read more.
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia). Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ), with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg) (median = 3.8) and contributing to 50% total energy (TE) (range 14%–79%). Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7) to 10–138 g (median = 67 g), and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48%) and 24% TE (range 8%–44%), respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15) in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
The Identification of Biochanin A as a Potent and Selective β-Site App-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (Bace1) Inhibitor
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100637
Received: 23 July 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2006 | PDF Full-text (1280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the enzyme involved in the abnormal production of the amyloidogenic peptide Aβ, one of the major causes of histological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, BACE1 represents a key target protein in the development [...] Read more.
Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the enzyme involved in the abnormal production of the amyloidogenic peptide Aβ, one of the major causes of histological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, BACE1 represents a key target protein in the development of new potential target for the prevention and treatment of AD. In this study, in vitro anti-AD activity of biochanin A, a dietary isoflavone found in legumes and most notably red clover, were evaluated via human recombinant BACE1 inhibition assay, as well as enzyme kinetic and molecular docking predictions. Enzyme-based assays revealed that biochanin A exhibited a non-competitive inhibitory effect on BACE1 with an IC50 value of 28 μM and a Ki of 43 μM. In addition, docking simulation results demonstrated that ASN37, SER35, SER36, TRP76, and ARG128 residues of BACE1 interacted with biochanin A. Moreover, the binding energy of biochanin A was negative (−8.4 kcal/mol), indicating that it might potentiate a strong binding between the compound and the allosteric site of BACE1, resulting in further effective BACE1 inhibition. The present novel findings raise the possibility that biochanin A may be used as a preventative, developed into a therapeutic agent for AD, or both. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Diet Quality—The Greeks Had It Right!
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100636
Received: 26 June 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2815 | PDF Full-text (630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver. In the liver, the phenolics undergo additional biotransformation prior to release into the circulation and transport to specific tissues where bioactive effects take place before removal in the urine. Recent epidemiologic studies using improved assessment techniques support that high versus low dietary polyphenol intake predicts reduced risk for neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity, and early death from all causes. Emerging science reveals that many of these health-related benefits can be traced to the biotransformed, gut-derived phenolics. In conclusion, the high consumption of unprocessed plant foods by inhabitants of countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea has been linked to multiple health and disease prevention benefits that are in large part due to a varied intake of polyphenols. Full article
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