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Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

1,*,†, 2,†, 3,†, 4,† and 5,†
Nutrition and Health Clinic, Moscow 109012, Russia
Nutrition Unit, Department of Prevention, Azienda Sanitaria Locale Brindisi, Brindisi 72021, Italy
Department of Pediatrics, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow 35-350, Poland
Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
Centre of Dietetics and Nutrition, Sapienza University, Rome 00161, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3524-3535;
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
PDF [488 KB, uploaded 13 May 2015]


Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender. Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric; nutrition; micronutrient; deficiency; Europe; diet; supplements; public health pediatric; nutrition; micronutrient; deficiency; Europe; diet; supplements; public health

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Kaganov, B.; Caroli, M.; Mazur, A.; Singhal, A.; Vania, A. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe. Nutrients 2015, 7, 3524-3535.

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