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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 322 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A High Protein Calorie Restriction Diet Alters the Gut Microbiome in Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103221 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Background: High protein calorie restriction diets have shown clinical efficacy for obesity, but the mechanisms are not fully known. The intestinal microbiome is a mediator of obesity and preclinical data support an effect of high protein diet (HPD) on the gut microbiome of [...] Read more.
Background: High protein calorie restriction diets have shown clinical efficacy for obesity, but the mechanisms are not fully known. The intestinal microbiome is a mediator of obesity and preclinical data support an effect of high protein diet (HPD) on the gut microbiome of obesity, but there are few studies in humans. Methods: To address this, we conducted a dietary intervention trial of 80 overweight and obese subjects who were randomized to a calorie-restricted high protein diet (HPD) (30% calorie intake) or calorie-restricted normal protein diet (NPD) (15%) for 8 weeks. Baseline dietary intake patterns were assessed by the Diet History Questionnaire III. Longitudinal fecal sampling was performed at baseline, week 1, week 2, week 4, week 6, and week 8, for a total of 365 samples. Intestinal microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: At baseline, microbial composition was associated with fiber and protein intake. Subjects on the HPD showed a significant increase in microbial diversity as measured by the Shannon index compared to those on the NPD. The HPD was also associated with significant differences in microbial composition after treatment compared to the NPD. Both diets induced taxonomic shifts compared to baseline, including enrichment of Akkermansia spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and depletion of Prevotella spp. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that weight loss diets alter the gut microbiome in obesity and suggest differential effects of HPDs compared to NPDs which may influence the clinical response to HPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Gut Microbiota Interactions in Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Exercise Habit on Skeletal Muscle Mass Varies with Protein Intake in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3220; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103220 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Exercise has been reported to be effective in maintaining and recovering muscle; however, the effect of exercise combined with adequate or inadequate protein intake on muscle mass is not clear. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of exercise habit on changes in muscle [...] Read more.
Exercise has been reported to be effective in maintaining and recovering muscle; however, the effect of exercise combined with adequate or inadequate protein intake on muscle mass is not clear. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of exercise habit on changes in muscle mass, with adequate or inadequate protein intake. This retrospective cohort study included 214 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. The rate of skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) change (%) was defined as ((SMI at follow-up minus SMI at baseline)/(follow-up years [kg/m2/year] × SMI at baseline [kg/m2])) × 100. Adequate protein intake was defined as protein intake ≥1.2 g/kg ideal body weight/day. During a mean follow-up duration of 18.0 (7.1) months, the rate of SMI change was −1.14 (4.10)% in the whole sample. The rate of SMI change of non-habitual exercisers with inadequate protein intake, habitual exercisers with inadequate protein intake, non-habitual exercisers with adequate protein intake, and habitual exercisers with adequate protein intake was −1.22 (3.71), −2.31 (3.30), −1.88 (4.62), and 0.36 (4.29)%, respectively. Compared with patients with exercise habit and adequate protein intake, the odds ratio for decreasing SMI was 2.50 (0.90–6.90, p = 0.078) in patients with no exercise habit and inadequate protein intake, 3.58 (1.24–10.4, p = 0.019) in those with exercise habit and inadequate protein intake, and 3.03 (1.27–7.22, p = 0.012) in those with no exercise habit and adequate protein intake, after adjusting for covariates. Therefore, exercise habit without adequate protein intake was associated with an increased risk of decreasing SMI compared with exercise habit with adequate protein intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Older Adults with Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview
Ceruloplasmin and Coronary Heart Disease—A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103219 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Several studies indicate that oxidative stress might play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of cardiovascular diseases. It remains unclear whether ceruloplasmin acts as a passive marker of inflammation or as a causal mediator. To better understand the impact of ceruloplasmin [...] Read more.
Several studies indicate that oxidative stress might play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of cardiovascular diseases. It remains unclear whether ceruloplasmin acts as a passive marker of inflammation or as a causal mediator. To better understand the impact of ceruloplasmin blood levels on the risk of cardiovascular disease, and paying special attention to coronary heart disease, we conducted a search on the two most commonly used electronic databases (Medline via PubMed and EMBASE) to analyze current assessment using observational studies in the general adult population. Each study was quality rated using criteria developed by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Most of 18 eligible studies reviewed support a direct relationship between ceruloplasmin elevated levels and incidence of coronary heart disease. Our results highlight the importance of promoting clinical trials that determine the functions of ceruloplasmin as a mediator in the development of coronary heart disease and evaluate whether the treatment of elevated ceruloplasmin levels has a role in the prognosis or prevention of this condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Eating Competence Associated with Food Consumption and Health Outcomes among Brazilian Adult Population
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103218 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
This study aimed to associate Eating Competence (EC) with food consumption and health outcomes in the Brazilian adult population. Researchers developed a questionnaire to associate EC with sociodemographic information, health outcomes, and food consumption. Data on body weight and height was referred to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to associate Eating Competence (EC) with food consumption and health outcomes in the Brazilian adult population. Researchers developed a questionnaire to associate EC with sociodemographic information, health outcomes, and food consumption. Data on body weight and height was referred to by participants in the questionnaire, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated and classified. A question to evaluate the perception of body size was included. After constructing the questionnaire items, content validation and semantic evaluation were performed following the Delphi method with a group of judges composed of 26 health professionals. The judges evaluated the sociodemographic information, health outcomes, and food consumption items associated with the eating competence instrument (previously validated in Brazilian-Portuguese). The final version of the questionnaire was composed of 33 items. Our results confirmed good reliability, responsiveness, and internal consistency. A total of 1810 Brazilians answered the questionnaire. Most of the participants were female, up to 40 years old, with a high education level and high income. Most of the participants did not report diabetes or hypertension. The EC total score did not differ among males and females. Individuals up to 40 years old presented a lower total score. The increase in educational level and income also increased EC total score. Excess weight individuals showed lower EC compared to the normal weight/underweight. Individuals who consumed fruits and/or vegetables five or more days/week presented the best scores for total EC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population-Based Nutrition Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Diet Quality and Neighborhood Environment in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health Project
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3217; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103217 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 380
Abstract
An understanding of relationships between different constructs of the neighbourhood environment and diet quality is needed to inform public health interventions. This study investigated associations between material deprivation, social deprivation and population density with diet quality in a cohort of 19,973 Canadian adults [...] Read more.
An understanding of relationships between different constructs of the neighbourhood environment and diet quality is needed to inform public health interventions. This study investigated associations between material deprivation, social deprivation and population density with diet quality in a cohort of 19,973 Canadian adults aged 35 to 69 years within the Atlantic PATH cohort study. Diet quality, a metric of how well diet conforms to recommendations was determined from a 24-item food frequency questionnaire. Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Census data. Two deprivation indices were evaluated: material and social deprivation, which reflect access to goods and amenities and social relationships. Multi-level models were used to estimate relationships (mean differences and 95% CI) between neighbourhood environment and diet quality, adjusting for covariates. Mean diet quality was lower in the most socially deprived neighbourhoods compared to the least socially deprived: −0.56, 95% CI (−0.88, −0.25). Relationships between diet quality and population density differed between urban and rural areas (p-interaction < 0.0001). In rural areas, diet quality was higher in intermediate-density neighbourhoods: 0.54, 95% CI (0.05, 1.03). In urban areas, diet quality was lower in intermediate-density and the most-dense neighbourhoods: −0.84, 95% CI (−1.28, −0.40) and −0.72, 95% CI (−1.20, −0.25). Our findings suggest socially deprived and high-density neighbourhoods are associated with lower diet quality and possible urban-rural differences in neighbourhood environment-diet quality relationships. Additional studies are needed to determine the temporal nature of relationships and whether differences in diet quality are meaningful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Fat-Rich Diet on the Spontaneous Release of Acetylcholine in the Neuromuscular Junction of Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3216; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103216 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Western societies are facing a clear increase in the rate of obesity and overweight which are responsible for musculoskeletal pain. Some of the substances described in the environment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are the same as those found in the skeletal muscle [...] Read more.
Western societies are facing a clear increase in the rate of obesity and overweight which are responsible for musculoskeletal pain. Some of the substances described in the environment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are the same as those found in the skeletal muscle of obese people, such as cytokines. Furthermore, elevated neuromuscular neurotransmission has been associated with MTrPs. The main objective of this study is to assess whether obesity or overweight may be a facilitator of myofascial pain. The experiments were performed on male Swiss mice. One experimental group was given a typical “cafeteria” diet and another group a commercial high-fat diet for six weeks. Intramuscular adipocytes were assessed with Sudan III. The functional study was performed with electromyographic recording to determine the plaque noise and intracellular recording of miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs). The intake of a cafeteria diet showed the presence of more adipocytes in muscle tissue, but not with the fat-supplemented diet. Both experimental groups showed an increase in the plaque noise and an increase in the frequency of MEPPs that lasted several weeks after interrupting diets. In summary, the supply of a hypercaloric diet for six weeks in mice increases spontaneous neurotransmission, thus facilitating the development of MTrPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers and Nutrients in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Studying the Relationship of Intermittent Fasting and β-Amyloid in Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3215; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103215 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 364
Abstract
We examined the evidence for intermittent fasting (IF) as a preventative tool to influence β-amyloid in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A Scopus, Ovid, PubMed, and Web of Science (WoS), search yielded 29 results using the keywords “amyloid beta”, “intermittent fasting”, “intermittent [...] Read more.
We examined the evidence for intermittent fasting (IF) as a preventative tool to influence β-amyloid in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A Scopus, Ovid, PubMed, and Web of Science (WoS), search yielded 29 results using the keywords “amyloid beta”, “intermittent fasting”, “intermittent caloric restriction”, “alternate day fasting”, “modified alternate-day fasting”, “time-restricted feeding”, “Ramadan fast”, “intermittent calori* restriction”, “intermittent restrictive diet”, and “Alzheimer*”. Five research articles addressed directly the effects of intermittent fasting on β-amyloid levels in animal models of AD: alternate day fasting (ADF) and time-restricted feeding (TRF) methods were incorporated in these studies. The study designs were found to be heterogeneous. Variations in the levels of β-amyloid peptides or plaque in either the hippocampus, cortical areas, or both in animals following dietary intervention were observed as compared to the ad libitum group. Non-significant changes were observed in three studies, while two studies interestingly demonstrated amelioration and reduction in β-amyloid levels. Given the conflicting results obtained from this study, significant care has to be taken into consideration before the protocol can be applied as a preventative approach to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Longitudinal research is warranted to fully grasp how dietary habits can help alleviate the disease either through upstream or downstream of AD pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Implication of Intermittent Fasting on Health and Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Hepatoprotection by Traditional Essence of Ginseng against Carbon Tetrachloride—Induced Liver Damage
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3214; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103214 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The peroxide produced in the lipid metabolic process attacks liver cells and causes liver injury. Ginsenosides have been shown to have anti-oxidation abilities and to mend myocardial damage. This study evaluated the effect of traditional ginseng essence (TEG) in preventing chemical liver damage [...] Read more.
The peroxide produced in the lipid metabolic process attacks liver cells and causes liver injury. Ginsenosides have been shown to have anti-oxidation abilities and to mend myocardial damage. This study evaluated the effect of traditional ginseng essence (TEG) in preventing chemical liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Forty 8-week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups: control, liver injury (CCl4), and TEG by oral gavage at 0.074, 0.149, or 0.298 g/kg/day for nine weeks. Liver injury biochemical indicators, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid contents in liver tissues were evaluated. The liver appearance was observed, and histopathological tests were conducted to estimate whether TEG-antagonized oxidants further ameliorated liver injury. The results show that, after supplementation of TEG for nine consecutive weeks and CCl4—induced liver injury for eight weeks, the levels of liver injury biochemical indicators in animal serum decreased significantly, and, in liver tissue, antioxidant activity was significantly improved and accumulation of lipids was decreased. Pathological sections exhibited reduced liver lipid accumulation and fibrosis. As discussed above, TEG can increase the antioxidant capacity in the liver and the maintenance of hepatocyte function, protecting the liver from chemical injury and improving healthcare. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does the Energy Restriction Intermittent Fasting Diet Alleviate Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers? A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103213 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an energy restriction intermittent fasting diet in metabolic biomarkers and weight management among adults with metabolic syndrome. This randomized controlled study was performed with metabolic syndrome patients, aged 18–65 years, at an [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an energy restriction intermittent fasting diet in metabolic biomarkers and weight management among adults with metabolic syndrome. This randomized controlled study was performed with metabolic syndrome patients, aged 18–65 years, at an academic institution in Istanbul, Turkey (n = 70). All participants were randomized to the Intermittent Energy Restriction (IER) intervention group and Continuous Energy Restriction (CER) control group. Biochemical tests including lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin Type A1c (HbA1c), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, and body composition were evaluated at baseline and at the 12th week in diet interviews. Dietary intake was measured with the 24-h dietary recall method and dietary quality was evaluated with the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Changes in body weight (≈7% weight loss) and composition were similar in both groups. Blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting glucose, and insulin at the 12th week decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in metabolic syndrome biomarkers between the IER and CER groups. The energy-restricted intermittent fasting diet did not cause any deficiencies in macronutrient and fiber intake in the subjects. Healthy Eating Index (HEI) index scores were achieved similarly in both groups, and subjects’ dietary intakes were close to daily reference nutritional intake values. The technique used to achieve energy restriction, whether intermittent or continuous, appears to alleviate the metabolic syndrome biomarkers activated by weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Implication of Intermittent Fasting on Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessCommentary
Do Human Milk Oligosaccharides Protect Against Infant Atopic Disorders and Food Allergy?
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103212 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Atopic disorders (AD), often coexistent with food allergy (FA), start developing in early life and have lifelong health consequences. Breastfeeding is thought to be protective against AD and FA, but the data are controversial, and mechanisms are not well understood. Human milk oligosaccharides [...] Read more.
Atopic disorders (AD), often coexistent with food allergy (FA), start developing in early life and have lifelong health consequences. Breastfeeding is thought to be protective against AD and FA, but the data are controversial, and mechanisms are not well understood. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex carbohydrates that are abundant in human milk. These are thought to contribute to the development of the infant immune system by (i) promoting healthy microbiome, (ii) inhibiting pathogen binding to gut mucosa and (iii) modulating the immune system. Differences in microbiome composition between allergic and healthy infants have been observed, regardless of breastfeeding history. To date, limited studies have examined the preventive effects of HMOs on AD and FA in infants and current data relies on observation studies as trials of varying HMO intake through randomising individuals to breastfeeding are unethical. There is evidence for beneficial effects of breastfeeding on lowering the risks of FA, eczema and asthma but there are inconsistencies amongst studies in the duration of breastfeeding, diagnostic criteria for AD and the age at which the outcome was assessed. Furthermore, current analytical methods primarily used today only allow detection of 16–20 major HMOs while more than 100 types have been identified. More large-scale longitudinal studies are required to investigate the role of HMO composition and the impact of changes over the lactation period in preventing AD and FA later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk, HMO, Lactation and Application in Infant Feeding)
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Open AccessReview
The Impact of Amino Acids on Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Kinetics in Humans: A Quantitative Overview
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103211 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Different amino acids (AAs) may exert distinct effects on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. A quantitative comparison of the effects of AAs on glucose and insulin kinetics in humans is currently lacking. PubMed was queried to identify intervention studies reporting glucose and insulin [...] Read more.
Different amino acids (AAs) may exert distinct effects on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. A quantitative comparison of the effects of AAs on glucose and insulin kinetics in humans is currently lacking. PubMed was queried to identify intervention studies reporting glucose and insulin concentrations after acute ingestion and/or intravenous infusion of AAs in healthy adults and those living with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The systematic literature search identified 55 studies that examined the effects of l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, l-arginine, l-lysine, glycine, l-proline, l-phenylalanine, l-glutamate, branched-chain AAs (i.e., l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and l-valine), and multiple individual l-AAs on glucose and insulin concentrations. Oral ingestion of most individual AAs induced an insulin response, but did not alter glucose concentrations in healthy participants. Specific AAs (i.e., leucine and isoleucine) co-ingested with glucose exerted a synergistic effect on the postprandial insulin response and attenuated the glucose response compared to glucose intake alone in healthy participants. Oral AA ingestion as well as intravenous AA infusion was able to stimulate an insulin response and decrease glucose concentrations in T2DM and obese individuals. The extracted information is publicly available and can serve multiple purposes such as computational modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism Related to Health and Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Tomato Extract Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats, a Model of Osteoporosis
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103210 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Although drug therapies are available for postmenopausal osteoporosis, these drugs are not free of side effects and long-term adherence to them are low. A safe and effective nutritional approach to counter postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important research goal. We fed ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague–Dawley [...] Read more.
Although drug therapies are available for postmenopausal osteoporosis, these drugs are not free of side effects and long-term adherence to them are low. A safe and effective nutritional approach to counter postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important research goal. We fed ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague–Dawley rats a diet supplemented with 1% or 2% green tomato extract (GTE). After 12 weeks, micro-computed tomography scans revealed that GTE supplementation effectively prevented distal femur bone loss. This prevention was due to improved bone formation and suppressed bone resorption as observed by the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activities. GTE supplementation also improved bone formation through Bmp2-Smad 1/5/8-Runx2 signaling, while bone resorption was regulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANKL)/osteoprogeterin (OPG) pathway. These results suggest that GTE supplementation prevents severe postmenopausal bone loss by maintaining the regulation of bone homeostasis in OVX rats. GTE as a diet supplement might be a potential novel alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
The Health Benefits of Dietary Fibre
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103209 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Background: Dietary fibre consists of non-digestible forms of carbohydrate, usually as polysaccharides that originate from plant-based foods. Over recent decades, our diet within Westernised societies has changed radically from that of our hominid ancestors, with implications for our co-evolved gut microbiota. This includes [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary fibre consists of non-digestible forms of carbohydrate, usually as polysaccharides that originate from plant-based foods. Over recent decades, our diet within Westernised societies has changed radically from that of our hominid ancestors, with implications for our co-evolved gut microbiota. This includes increased ingestion of ultra-processed foods that are typically impoverished of dietary fibre, and associated reduction in the intake of fibre-replete plant-based foods. Over recent decades, there has been a transformation in our understanding of the health benefits of dietary fibre. Objective: To explore the current medical literature on the health benefits of dietary fibre, with a focus on overall metabolic health. Data Sources: We performed a narrative review, based on relevant articles written in English from a PubMed search, using the terms ‘dietary fibre and metabolic health’. Results: In the Western world, our diets are impoverished of fibre. Dietary fibre intake associates with overall metabolic health (through key pathways that include insulin sensitivity) and a variety of other pathologies that include cardiovascular disease, colonic health, gut motility and risk for colorectal carcinoma. Dietary fibre intake also correlates with mortality. The gut microflora functions as an important mediator of the beneficial effects of dietary fibre, including the regulation of appetite, metabolic processes and chronic inflammatory pathways. Conclusions: Multiple factors contribute to our fibre-impoverished modern diet. Given the plethora of scientific evidence that corroborate the multiple and varied health benefits of dietary fibre, and the risks associated with a diet that lacks fibre, the optimization of fibre within our diets represents an important public health strategy to improve both metabolic and overall health. If implemented successfully, this strategy would likely result in substantial future health benefits for the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Nutrition in Preventing Abdominal Obesity)
Open AccessArticle
Associating Intake Proportion of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein with All-Cause Mortality in Korean Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103208 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Determining the ideal ratio of macronutrients for increasing life expectancy remains a high priority in nutrition research. We aim to investigate the association between carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake and all-cause mortality in Koreans. This cohort study investigated 42,192 participants from the Korea [...] Read more.
Determining the ideal ratio of macronutrients for increasing life expectancy remains a high priority in nutrition research. We aim to investigate the association between carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake and all-cause mortality in Koreans. This cohort study investigated 42,192 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) linked with causes of death data (2007–2015). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using the multivariable Cox proportional regression model after adjusting for confounders. We documented 2110 deaths during the follow-up period. Time to exceed 1% of the all-cause mortality rate was longest in participants with 50–60% carbohydrate, 30–40% fat, and 20–30% protein intake. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was 1.313 (1.031–1.672, p = 0.0272) for <50% carbohydrate intake, 1.322 (1.116–1.567, p = 0.0013) for ≥60% carbohydrate intake, 1.439 (1.018–2.035, p = 0.0394) for <30% fat intake, and 3.255 (1.767–5.997, p = 0.0002) for ≥40% fat intake. There was no significant association between protein intake proportion and all-cause mortality. We found a U-shaped association between all-cause mortality and carbohydrate intake as well as fat intake, with minimal risk observed at 50–60% carbohydrate and 30–40% fat intake. Our findings suggest current Korean dietary guidelines should be revised to prolong life expectancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Short-Term Fiber Interventions in Arthritis Patients Increase Systemic SCFA Levels and Regulate Inflammation
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103207 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Chronic inflammatory diseases are often initiated and guided by the release of proinflammatory mediators. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused by an imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the joints, thereby favoring chronic inflammation and joint damage. Here, we investigate if short-term [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammatory diseases are often initiated and guided by the release of proinflammatory mediators. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused by an imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the joints, thereby favoring chronic inflammation and joint damage. Here, we investigate if short-term high-fiber dietary intervention shifts this towards anti-inflammatory mediators. Healthy controls (n = 10) and RA patients (n = 29) under routine care received daily high-fiber bars for 15 or 30 days, respectively. Stool and sera were analyzed for pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. A high-fiber dietary intervention resulted in increased anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), decreased proarthritic cytokine concentrations, along with a durable shift in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Together, these results further strengthen high-fiber dietary interventions as a practical approach complementing existing pharmacological therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Interventions for Chronic Pain and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Mediterranean Diet’s Adherence in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3206; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103206 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Background: Nutritional support is very important in the treatment of Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The role of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been understudied in children with IBD. The aims of this study were to assess the dietary intakes of IBD children [...] Read more.
Background: Nutritional support is very important in the treatment of Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The role of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been understudied in children with IBD. The aims of this study were to assess the dietary intakes of IBD children in comparison with healthy controls (HCs), their adherence to MD; and the relationship between inflammation and dietary behaviors. Methods: Paediatric IBD patients in clinical remission and HCs were enrolled. The nutritional status and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was evaluated through a 3-day food diary and the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Children and Adolescents (KIDMED). Results: The analysis of food diaries showed a significantly higher kilocalorie intake in IBD patients compared to HCs (p = 0.012), an increase in carbohydrates (p = 0.015) and in protein intake (p = 0.024). Both IBD and HCs have an intermediate adherence to MD. The comparison between Crohn’s disease (CD) and Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients showed significant difference in protein intake in CD patients (p = 0.047), as well as for vitamin D (p = 0.044) and iron intake (p = 0.023). Interestingly; in IBD patients we found a significant association between adherence to MD and a low level of fecal calprotectin (p = 0.027). Conclusion: Children with IBD in remission have a sub-optimal food intake compared to HCs. MD seems to correlate to decreased intestinal inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Synbiotic Containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Opuntia humifusa on a Murine Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3205; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103205 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The administration of a combination of probiotics and prebiotics is expected to be a promising strategy for improving irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a synbiotic containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Opuntia humifusa extract for symptomatic improvement [...] Read more.
The administration of a combination of probiotics and prebiotics is expected to be a promising strategy for improving irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a synbiotic containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Opuntia humifusa extract for symptomatic improvement of IBS in a murine model and to evaluate the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of this synbiotic. A total of 20 male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks with IBS induced by restraint stress were assigned into four groups and administered L. paracasei as a probiotic and O. humifusa extract as a prebiotic for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was stool consistency at week 4. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of the synbiotic, fecal microbial analysis was conducted, and the serum corticosterone levels, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in the colon tissue, and expression of tight junction proteins were investigated. All three treatment groups showed significantly lower scores for stool consistency than the control group at week 4 (all p < 0.001). When compared with the control group, the synbiotic groups showed a significantly greater abundance of L. paracasei in fecal microbial analysis, lower serum corticosterone levels, lower TNF-α levels in the colon tissue, and higher expression of tight junction proteins. This novel synbiotic containing L. paracasei and O. humifusa extract can improve the stool consistency in a murine model of IBS. It may be a promising treatment option for IBS, and human studies are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fiber and Prebiotic Interventions in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: What Role Does the Gut Microbiome Play?
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3204; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103204 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex but is thought to be linked to an intricate interaction between the host’s immune system, resident gut microbiome and environment, i.e., diet. One dietary component that has a major impact on IBD risk and [...] Read more.
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex but is thought to be linked to an intricate interaction between the host’s immune system, resident gut microbiome and environment, i.e., diet. One dietary component that has a major impact on IBD risk and disease management is fiber. Fiber intakes in pediatric IBD patients are suboptimal and often lower than in children without IBD. Fiber also has a significant impact on beneficially shaping gut microbiota composition and functional capacity. The impact is likely to be particularly important in IBD patients, where various studies have demonstrated that an imbalance in the gut microbiome, referred to as dysbiosis, occurs. Microbiome-targeted therapeutics, such as fiber and prebiotics, have the potential to restore the balance in the gut microbiome and enhance host gut health and clinical outcomes. Indeed, studies in adult IBD patients demonstrate that fiber and prebiotics positively alter the microbiome and improve disease course. To date, no studies have been conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of fiber and prebiotics in pediatric IBD patients. Consequently, pediatric IBD specific studies that focus on the benefits of fiber and prebiotics on gut microbiome composition and functional capacity and disease outcomes are required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Death between Statins and Omega-3 Supplementation: A Meta-Analysis and Network Meta-Analysis from 55 Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103203 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Statins and omega-3 supplementation have shown potential benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), but their comparative effects on mortality outcomes, in addition to primary and secondary prevention and mixed population, have not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of statins [...] Read more.
Statins and omega-3 supplementation have shown potential benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), but their comparative effects on mortality outcomes, in addition to primary and secondary prevention and mixed population, have not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of statins and omega-3 supplementation and indirectly compare the effects of statin use and omega-3 fatty acids on all-cause mortality and CVD death. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from meta-analyses published until December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to indirectly compare the effect of statin use versus omega-3 supplementation in a frequentist network meta-analysis. In total, 55 RCTs were included in the final analysis. Compared with placebo, statins were significantly associated with a decreased the risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86–0.94) and CVD death (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80–0.92), while omega-3 supplementation showed a borderline effect on all-cause mortality (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94–1.01) but were significantly associated with a reduced risk of CVD death (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87–0.98) in the meta-analysis. The network meta-analysis found that all-cause mortality was significantly different between statin use and omega-3 supplementation for overall population (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85–0.98), but borderline for primary prevention and mixed population and nonsignificant for secondary prevention. Furthermore, there were borderline differences between statin use and omega-3 supplementation in CVD death in the total population (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.82–1.04) and primary prevention (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.68–1.05), but nonsignificant differences in secondary prevention (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.66–1.43) and mixed population (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.75–1.14). To summarize, statin use might be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality than omega-3 supplementation. Future direct comparisons between statin use and omega-3 supplementation are required to confirm the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Non-Alcoholic Beverages with Major Depressive Disorder History and Depressive Symptoms Clusters in a Sample of Overweight Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103202 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Background: Meta-analysis of observational studies concluded that soft drinks may increase the risk of depression, while high consumption of coffee and tea may reduce the risk. Objectives were to explore the associations between the consumption of soft drinks, coffee or tea and: (1) [...] Read more.
Background: Meta-analysis of observational studies concluded that soft drinks may increase the risk of depression, while high consumption of coffee and tea may reduce the risk. Objectives were to explore the associations between the consumption of soft drinks, coffee or tea and: (1) a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and (2) the severity of depressive symptoms clusters (mood, cognitive and somatic/vegetative symptoms). Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis based on baseline and 12-month-follow-up data collected from four countries participating in the European MooDFOOD prevention trial. In total, 941 overweight adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms aged 18 to 75 years were analyzed. History of MDD, depressive symptoms and beverages intake were assessed. Results: Sugar-sweetened soft drinks were positively related to MDD history rates whereas soft drinks with non-nutritive sweeteners were inversely related for the high vs. low categories of intake. Longitudinal analysis showed no significant associations between beverages and mood, cognitive and somatic/vegetative clusters. Conclusion: Our findings point toward a relationship between soft drinks and past MDD diagnoses depending on how they are sweetened while we found no association with coffee and tea. No significant effects were found between any studied beverages and the depressive symptoms clusters in a sample of overweight adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
Breakfast Characteristics and Its Association with Daily Micronutrients Intake in Children and Adolescents–A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103201 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Breakfast is an important source of key nutrients in the diet. For this reason, the aim of this review was to investigate the associations between breakfast consumption and daily micronutrients intake in both children and adolescents (aged 2–18 years). A peer-reviewed systematic search [...] Read more.
Breakfast is an important source of key nutrients in the diet. For this reason, the aim of this review was to investigate the associations between breakfast consumption and daily micronutrients intake in both children and adolescents (aged 2–18 years). A peer-reviewed systematic search was conducted in three datasets (PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library) in February 2020 in English and Spanish. Two independent reviewers evaluated 3188 studies considering the AXIS critical appraisal and PRISMA methodologies. Meta-analysis was carried out comparing results according to type of breakfast consumed (Ready to eat cereals (RTEC) breakfast or other types of breakfast) and breakfast skipping. Thirty-three articles were included in the systematic review (SR) and 7 in the meta-analysis. In the SR, we observed that those children and adolescents who usually consume RTEC at breakfast had a higher consumption of B-vitamins than those not consuming RTEC at breakfast. Breakfast consumers had a higher mineral intake (iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iodine) than breakfast skippers. In the Meta-Analysis, RTEC consumers had significantly higher vitamin C intake than breakfast skippers (Standard Mean Difference (SMD), −4.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): −5.09, −3.16). Furthermore, those children who usually consume breakfast had significantly higher daily intake of calcium than breakfast skippers (SMD, −7.03; 95%CI: −9.02, −5.04). Our review proposes that breakfast consumption seems to be associated with higher daily micronutrients intake than breakfast skippers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Inulin Supplementation Disturbs Hepatic Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism Independent from Housing Temperature
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103200 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Dietary fibers are fermented by gut bacteria into the major short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Generally, fiber-rich diets are believed to improve metabolic health. However, recent studies suggest that long-term supplementation with fibers causes changes in hepatic bile acid [...] Read more.
Dietary fibers are fermented by gut bacteria into the major short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Generally, fiber-rich diets are believed to improve metabolic health. However, recent studies suggest that long-term supplementation with fibers causes changes in hepatic bile acid metabolism, hepatocyte damage, and hepatocellular cancer in dysbiotic mice. Alterations in hepatic bile acid metabolism have also been reported after cold-induced activation of brown adipose tissue. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of short-term dietary inulin supplementation on liver cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in control and cold housed specific pathogen free wild type (WT) mice. We found that short-term inulin feeding lowered plasma cholesterol levels and provoked cholestasis and mild liver damage in WT mice. Of note, inulin feeding caused marked perturbations in bile acid metabolism, which were aggravated by cold treatment. Our studies indicate that even relatively short periods of inulin consumption in mice with an intact gut microbiome have detrimental effects on liver metabolism and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Liver-Related Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of “High in” Nutrient Specific Front of Package Labels—A Retail Experiment with Canadians of Varying Health Literacy Levels
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3199; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103199 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Background: In 2018, Health Canada, the Federal department responsible for public health, put forward a regulatory proposal to introduce regulations requiring a “High in” front-of-package label (FOPL) on foods that exceed predetermined thresholds for sodium, sugars, or saturated fat. This study evaluated the [...] Read more.
Background: In 2018, Health Canada, the Federal department responsible for public health, put forward a regulatory proposal to introduce regulations requiring a “High in” front-of-package label (FOPL) on foods that exceed predetermined thresholds for sodium, sugars, or saturated fat. This study evaluated the efficacy of the proposed FOPL as a quick and easy tool for making food choices that support reduction in the intakes of these nutrients. Methods: Consumers (n = 625) of varying health literacy levels (HL) were assigned to control (current labeling with no FOPL) or one of four FOPL designs. They completed six shopping tasks, designed to control for internal motivations. Efficacy was measured with correct product selection and response time (seconds) to make food choices using repeated measures statistical modeling, adjusting for HL, task type, and task order. Eye-tracking and structured interviews were used to gather additional insights about participants’ choices. Results: Overall, FOPL was significantly more effective than current labeling at helping consumers of varying HL levels to identify foods high in nutrients of concern and make healthier food choices. All FOPL were equally effective. Conclusions: “High in” FOPL can be effective at helping Canadians of varying HL levels make more informed food choices in relation to sugars, sodium, and saturated fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Micronutrients in Support of the Immune Response against Viral Infections
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3198; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103198 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Viral infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the importance of public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations in reducing their spread is well established. Furthermore, it is well known that proper nutrition can help support optimal immune function, [...] Read more.
Viral infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the importance of public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations in reducing their spread is well established. Furthermore, it is well known that proper nutrition can help support optimal immune function, reducing the impact of infections. Several vitamins and trace elements play an important role in supporting the cells of the immune system, thus increasing the resistance to infections. Other nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, help sustain optimal function of the immune system. The main aim of this manuscript is to discuss of the potential role of micronutrients supplementation in supporting immunity, particularly against respiratory virus infections. Literature analysis showed that in vitro and observational studies, and clinical trials, highlight the important role of vitamins A, C, and D, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc in modulating the immune response. Supplementation with vitamins, omega 3 fatty acids and zinc appears to be a safe and low-cost way to support optimal function of the immune system, with the potential to reduce the risk and consequences of infection, including viral respiratory infections. Supplementation should be in addition to a healthy diet and fall within recommended upper safety limits set by scientific expert bodies. Therefore, implementing an optimal nutrition, with micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, might be a cost-effective, underestimated strategy to help reduce the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection)
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Fat Diet Increases Gut Microbiota Biodiversity and Energy Expenditure Due to Nutrient Difference
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3197; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103197 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 516
Abstract
A high-fat diet (HFD) can easily induce obesity and change the gut microbiota and its metabolites. However, studies on the effects of high-fat diets on the host have drawn inconsistent results. In this study, the unexpected results showed that the refined HFD increased [...] Read more.
A high-fat diet (HFD) can easily induce obesity and change the gut microbiota and its metabolites. However, studies on the effects of high-fat diets on the host have drawn inconsistent results. In this study, the unexpected results showed that the refined HFD increased gut microbiota diversity and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), causing an increase in energy metabolism. Further analysis revealed these changes were caused by the different fiber content in these two diets. Male C57BL/6J mice (4–5 weeks old) were fed either HFD or refined low-fat diet (LFD) for 14 weeks. The metabolic rates, thermogenesis, gut microbiome, and intestinal SCFAs were tested. The HFD triggered obesity and disturbed glucose homeostasis. Mice fed HFD ingested more fiber than mice fed LFD (p < 0.0001), causing higher intestinal SCFA concentrations related to the increased abundances of specific bacteria in the HFD group. Also, the HFD increased metabolic heat and up-regulated thermogenesis genes uncoupling protein 1(Ucp-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) expression in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). It was revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing that the HFD increased gut microbial diversity, which enriched Desulfovibrionaceae, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, and Mucispirillum, meanwhile, reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Faecalibaculum, and Blautia. The predicted metabolic pathways indicated HFD increased the gene expression of non-absorbed carbohydrate metabolism pathways, as well as the risks of colonization of intestinal pathogens and inflammation. In conclusion, the HFD was obesogenic in male C57BL/6J mice, and increased fiber intake from the HFD drove an increase in gut microbiota diversity, SCFAs, and energy expenditure. Meanwhile, the differences in specific nutrient intake can dissociate broad changes in energy expenditure, gut microbiota, and its metabolites from obesity, raising doubts in the previous studies. Therefore, it is necessary to consider whether differences in specific nutrient intake will interfere with the results of the experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy on Infant Neurodevelopment: The ECLIPSES Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3196; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103196 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Vitamin D status during pregnancy is involved in numerous physiological processes, including brain development. In this study, we assess the association between vitamin D status during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment (cognitive, language, and motor skills). From an initial sample of 793 women (mean [...] Read more.
Vitamin D status during pregnancy is involved in numerous physiological processes, including brain development. In this study, we assess the association between vitamin D status during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment (cognitive, language, and motor skills). From an initial sample of 793 women (mean age 30.6) recruited before the 12th week of pregnancy, 422 mother–infant pairs were followed up to a postpartum visit. Vitamin D levels were assessed in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, and socio-demographic, nutritional, and psychological variables were collected. At 40 days postpartum, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were administered to the infants and several obstetrical data were recorded. Independently from several confounding factors, deficient vitamin D levels in the first trimester of pregnancy (<30 nmol/L) predicted a worse performance in cognitive and language skills. Language performance worsened with lower vitamin D levels (<20 nmol/L). In the third trimester, this highly deficient level was also associated with lower motor skills. Vitamin D deficiency was therefore associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. More studies are needed to determine specific recommendations with regard to vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy in order to promote an optimal course for pregnancy and optimal infant neurodevelopment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Maternal Nutrition on Cognitive Function of Children)
Open AccessArticle
The Extract of Arctium lappa L. Fruit (Arctii Fructus) Improves Cancer-Induced Cachexia by Inhibiting Weight Loss of Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103195 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Background: Cachexia induced by cancer is a systemic wasting syndrome and it accompanies continuous body weight loss with the exhaustion of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cancer cachexia is not only a problem in itself, but it also reduces the effectiveness of treatments [...] Read more.
Background: Cachexia induced by cancer is a systemic wasting syndrome and it accompanies continuous body weight loss with the exhaustion of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cancer cachexia is not only a problem in itself, but it also reduces the effectiveness of treatments and deteriorates quality of life. However, effective treatments have not been found yet. Although Arctii Fructus (AF) has been studied about several pharmacological effects, there were no reports on its use in cancer cachexia. Methods: To induce cancer cachexia in mice, we inoculated CT-26 cells to BALB/c mice through subcutaneous injection and intraperitoneal injection. To mimic cancer cachexia in vitro, we used conditioned media (CM), which was CT-26 colon cancer cells cultured medium. Results: In in vivo experiments, AF suppressed expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and atrophy of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. As a result, the administration of AF decreased mortality by preventing weight loss. In adipose tissue, AF decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by restoring AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In in vitro model, CM increased muscle degradation factors and decreased adipocytes differentiation factors. However, these tendencies were ameliorated by AF treatment in C2C12 myoblasts and 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our study demonstrated that AF could be a therapeutic supplement for patients suffering from cancer cachexia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Effects of Ginger Extract on Polyphenol Profiles and the Subsequent Impact on the Fecal Microbiota by Simulating Digestion and Fermentation In Vitro
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103194 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 375
Abstract
The beneficial effects of ginger polyphenols have been extensively reported. However, their metabolic characteristics and health effects on gut microbiota are poor understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the digestion stability of ginger polyphenols and their prebiotic effects on gut [...] Read more.
The beneficial effects of ginger polyphenols have been extensively reported. However, their metabolic characteristics and health effects on gut microbiota are poor understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the digestion stability of ginger polyphenols and their prebiotic effects on gut microbiota by simulating digestion and fermentation in vitro. Following simulated digestion in vitro, 85% of the polyphenols were still detectable, and the main polyphenol constituents identified in ginger extract are 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in the digestive fluids. After batch fermentation, the changes in microbial populations were measured by 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In mixed-culture fermentation with fecal inoculate, digested ginger extract (GE) significantly modulated the fecal microbiota structure and promoted the growth of some beneficial bacterial populations, such as Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus. Furthermore, incubation with GE could elevate the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accompanied by a decrease in the pH value. Additionally, the quantitative PCR results showed that 6-gingerol (6G), as the main polyphenol in GE, increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium significantly. Therefore, 6G is expected to be a potential prebiotic that improves human health by promoting gut health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Decreased Histone Acetylation Levels at Th1 and Regulatory Loci after Induction of Food Allergy
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103193 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy against cow’s milk protein fractions such as whey is one of the most common food-related allergic disorders of early childhood. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism, shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergies. However, its role [...] Read more.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy against cow’s milk protein fractions such as whey is one of the most common food-related allergic disorders of early childhood. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism, shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergies. However, its role in food allergy remains unknown. IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy was successfully induced in a mouse model, as demonstrated by acute allergic symptoms, whey-specific IgE in serum, and the activation of mast cells upon a challenge with whey protein. The elicited allergic response coincided with reduced percentages of regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, matching decreased levels of H3 and/or H4 histone acetylation at pivotal Treg and Th17 loci, an epigenetic status favoring lower gene expression. In addition, histone acetylation levels at the crucial T helper 1 (Th1) loci were decreased, most probably preceding the expected reduction in Th1 cells after inducing an allergic response. No changes were observed for T helper 2 cells. However, increased histone acetylation levels, promoting gene expression, were observed at the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) gene, a proallergic B cell locus, which was in line with the presence of whey-specific IgE. In conclusion, the observed histone acetylation changes are pathobiologically in line with the successful induction of cow’s milk allergy, to which they might have also contributed mechanistically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perinatal Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Intravenous Glutamine Administration Improves Glucose Tolerance and Attenuates the Inflammatory Response in Diet-Induced Obese Mice after Sleeve Gastrectomy
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103192 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Obesity is a health problem associated with many metabolic disorders. Weight reduction can effectively alleviate obesity-associated complications. Sleeve gastrectomy is a commonly used bariatric surgery and is considered safe and effective for improving outcomes. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with anti-oxidative and [...] Read more.
Obesity is a health problem associated with many metabolic disorders. Weight reduction can effectively alleviate obesity-associated complications. Sleeve gastrectomy is a commonly used bariatric surgery and is considered safe and effective for improving outcomes. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study used a mouse model of sleeve gastrectomy to investigate the impacts of intravenous GLN administration on glucose tolerance and adipocyte inflammation short-term after surgery. C57BL6 male mice were divided into normal control (NC) and high-fat diet groups. The high-fat diet provided 60% of energy from fat for 10 weeks to induce obesity. Mice fed the high-fat diet were then assigned to a sham (SH) or sleeve gastrectomy with saline (S) or GLN (G) groups. The S group was intravenously injected with saline, while the G group was administered GLN (0.75 g/kg body weight) via a tail vein postoperatively. Mice in the experimental groups were sacrificed on day 1 or 3 after the surgery. Results showed that obesity resulted in fat accumulation, elevated glucose levels, and adipokines production. Sleeve gastrectomy aggravated expressions of inflammatory cytokine and macrophage infiltration markers, cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), epidermal growth factor-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 (EMR-1), and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, in adipose tissues. Treatment of obese mice with GLN downregulated hepatic proteomic profiles associated with the gluconeogenesis pathway and improved glucose tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and adipose tissue inflammation were attenuated after the sleeve gastrectomy. These findings imply that postoperative intravenous GLN administration may improve glucose tolerance and attenuate inflammation shortly after the bariatric surgery in subjects with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
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