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Int. J. Plant Biol., Volume 15, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 14 articles

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14 pages, 742 KiB  
Review
Algal Adaptation to Environmental Stresses: Lipidomics Research
by Ksenia Chadova
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 719-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030052 (registering DOI) - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Algal lipidomics is a new field of research that is gaining increasing popularity. The use of high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) has made it possible to accurately determine the structure of each lipid molecule in a sample. Since algae are considered as a [...] Read more.
Algal lipidomics is a new field of research that is gaining increasing popularity. The use of high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) has made it possible to accurately determine the structure of each lipid molecule in a sample. Since algae are considered as a promising source of various compounds with pharmacological and biotechnological potential, including bioactive lipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipidomics research of this group of organisms are of particular interest. The algae lipidome has high plasticity, which is due to the influence of abiotic and biotic environmental factors, and the observed changes in lipid composition are, as a rule, adaptive reactions. This review examines current research in the field of algal lipidomics, discusses the results of studying the influence of various environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, nutrient concentration, epi- and endophytic infections on the algae lipidome, and seasonal and geographical plasticity of algae lipidome; questions about the adaptation mechanisms of algae at the level of individual lipid molecular species are considered, and gaps in this area of research are noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalgae as a Powerful Tool for Biopharming Development)
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27 pages, 2997 KiB  
Review
Drought Stress Tolerance in Rice: Physiological and Biochemical Insights
by Aysha Siddika Jarin, Md. Moshiul Islam, Al Rahat, Sujat Ahmed, Pallab Ghosh and Yoshiyuki Murata
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 692-718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030051 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), an important food crop, necessitates more water to complete its life cycle than other crops. Therefore, there is a serious risk to rice output due to water-related stress. Drought stress results in morphological changes, including the inhibition of [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), an important food crop, necessitates more water to complete its life cycle than other crops. Therefore, there is a serious risk to rice output due to water-related stress. Drought stress results in morphological changes, including the inhibition of seed germination, reduced seeding growth, leaf area index, flag leaf area, increased leaf rolling, as well as the decrement of yield traits, such as plant height, plant biomass, number of tillers, and 1000-grain yield. Stress also causes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2, H2O2, and OH, which promote oxidative stress in plants and cause oxidative damage. The process of oxidative degradation owing to water stress produces cell damage and a reduction in nutrient intake, photosynthetic rate, leaf area, RWC, WUE, and stomatal closure, which may be responsible for the decrement of the transpiration rate and plant dry matter under decreasing soil moisture. Plants have the ability to produce antioxidant species that can either be enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, GPX, APX) or non-enzymatic (AsA, GSH) in nature to overcome oxidative stress. During drought, several biochemical osmoprotectants, like proline, polyamines, and sugars, can be accumulated, which can enhance drought tolerance in rice. To meet the demands of an ever-growing population with diminishing water resources, it is necessary to have crop varieties that are highly adapted to dry environments, and it may also involve adopting some mitigation strategies. This study aims to assess the varying morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses of the rice plant to drought, and the various methods for alleviating drought stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Stresses)
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9 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Yield and Agronomic Performance of Sweet Corn in Response to Inoculation with Azospirillum sp. under Arid Land Conditions
by Sergio Contreras-Liza, Cristofer Yasiel Villadeza, Pedro M. Rodriguez-Grados, Edison Goethe Palomares and Carlos I. Arbizu
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 683-691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030050 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Nitrogen is the most common limiting factor for crop productivity, and most maize cultivars require fertilizing. Here, we report on the possibility of partially replacing the nitrogenous fertilizer in sweet corn inoculated with a native strain of Azospirillum sp. in arid land on [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is the most common limiting factor for crop productivity, and most maize cultivars require fertilizing. Here, we report on the possibility of partially replacing the nitrogenous fertilizer in sweet corn inoculated with a native strain of Azospirillum sp. in arid land on the coast of Peru. We performed an agronomic experiment in a crop field with arid soil under drip irrigation in Huacho (Peru) using a commercial variety of sweet corn. The treatments were two levels of nitrogen (90 and 180 kg N ha−1), one or two applications of a native strain of Azospirillum sp. (1 × 108 CFU/mL) and a control treatment with only nitrogen fertilizer. Eleven agronomic variables related to productive aspects were evaluated by performing statistical analyses and the comparison of treatment means. Inoculation with Azospirillum sp. did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the total weight of ears, the number of ears per plant and the number of male flowers, but it significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the grain yield per hectare, the survival of plants, grain weight per plant, and the diameter and length of the cob. In some productive characteristics of sweet corn cv “Pardo”, a significant effect was found following inoculation with Azospirillum sp., which outperformed the control with only nitrogen fertilization in grain yield, suggesting that it is possible to complement the application of nitrogen to soil with the inoculation of this strain, replacing up to 50% of the levels of fertilizer application, since the benefit/cost ratio increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Microorganisms Interactions)
10 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
Maize Inbred Leaf and Stalk Tissue Resistance to the Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Can Influence Control Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana towards European Corn Borers and Fall Armyworms
by Patrick F. Dowd and Eric T. Johnson
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 673-682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030049 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Plant resistance mechanisms to pathogens can lead to a lowered efficacy of insect microbial biocontrol agents, but the influence of plant variety has been little-studied. Leaves and stalks from twelve maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds with different plant pathogen resistance were evaluated [...] Read more.
Plant resistance mechanisms to pathogens can lead to a lowered efficacy of insect microbial biocontrol agents, but the influence of plant variety has been little-studied. Leaves and stalks from twelve maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds with different plant pathogen resistance were evaluated for their influence on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. against European corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). For leaf assays with first instar caterpillars, mortality on day 2 ranged from an inbred-dependent high of 76.1% to a low of 10.0% for European corn borers in leaf assays. For stalk assays with third instar caterpillars, mortality on day 4 ranged from an inbred dependent high of 83.0% and 75.0% to a low of 0.0% and 8.3% for fall armyworms and European corn borers, respectively. Lesion size ratings due to Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) applied to tissues were often significantly correlated with the mortality levels of B. bassiana-treated caterpillars that fed on leaves and stalks. This study suggests that the influence of plant varieties on the efficacy of insect microbial pathogens can vary depending on the insect species involved and the plant tissue, and this is worth considering when new plant varieties and biocontrol strains are being developed whenever practical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Microorganisms Interactions)
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21 pages, 2592 KiB  
Article
Phycoremediation of Potato Industry Wastewater for Nutrient Recovery, Pollution Reduction, and Biofertilizer Production for Greenhouse Cultivation of Lettuce and Celery in Sandy Soils
by Soha S. M. Mostafa, Adel S. El-Hassanin, Amira S. Soliman, Ghadir A. El-Chaghaby, Sayed Rashad, Naayem M. M. Elgaml and Adel A. Awad
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 652-672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030048 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Microalgae-based wastewater treatment offers an eco-friendly opportunity for simultaneous nutrient recovery and biomass generation, aligning with the circular bioeconomy concept. This approach aims to utilize the nutrients of potato industry wastewater (PIW) for algal growth while mitigating the environmental impact of this industrial [...] Read more.
Microalgae-based wastewater treatment offers an eco-friendly opportunity for simultaneous nutrient recovery and biomass generation, aligning with the circular bioeconomy concept. This approach aims to utilize the nutrients of potato industry wastewater (PIW) for algal growth while mitigating the environmental impact of this industrial byproduct. This study focused on cultivating three cyanobacterial strains, Anabaena oryzae, Nostoc muscorum, and Spirulina platensis, in PIW and synthetic media for 30 days to assess feasibility. Growth performance was monitored by measuring chlorophyll content, dry weight (DW), optical density (OD), and pH at 3-day intervals. The high-performing cyanobacterial biomass from the laboratory findings was formulated into a biofertilizer, which was then evaluated in a controlled greenhouse experiment on celery and lettuce plants. The biofertilizer replaced conventional NPK mineral fertilizers at different levels (25%, 50%, and 75%), while a control group received 100% chemical fertilizer. The results showed favourable growth of all three cyanobacteria strains and their mixture in PIW throughout the experiment. The mixed cyanobacteria followed by Spirulina platensis exhibited the highest growth rates, achieving chlorophyll contents of 3.75 and 2.30 µg·mL−1, DWs of 1.79 g·L−1 and 1.63 g·L−1, and ODs of 0.41 and 0.38, respectively, surpassing the other treatments. The formulated biofertilizers, Spi-PIW (Spirulina platensis + potato industry wastewater) and Cyano-PIW (mixed culture+ potato industry wastewater), significantly enhanced plant height, root and stem lengths, and the number of leaves per plant in celery and lettuce compared to the control group. These biofertilizer treatments also improved chlorophyll contents, as well as macro- and micronutrient levels, in the two crops. Additionally, the application of these biofertilizers improved certain sandy soil properties, i.e., pH, total organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. In conclusion, utilizing PIW as a substrate for cultivating cyanobacteria strains and producing high-quality liquid bio-organic fertilizers holds potential for reducing recommended NPK fertilizer doses by 25–50% in celery and lettuce growth, providing an environmentally friendly approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Microorganisms Interactions)
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11 pages, 1213 KiB  
Article
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Eclipta alba
by Diwakar Aggarwal, Vasudha Datta, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Pawan Kumar and Seema Ramniwas
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 641-651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030047 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk. (Asteraceae) is a high value medicinal plant which possesses diverse medicinal properties. It is an important herb for the treatment of various disorders, and is primarily used as a hepatoprotectant. Its major biochemical constituents include wedelolactone and dimethyl-wedelolactone (coumestans), [...] Read more.
Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk. (Asteraceae) is a high value medicinal plant which possesses diverse medicinal properties. It is an important herb for the treatment of various disorders, and is primarily used as a hepatoprotectant. Its major biochemical constituents include wedelolactone and dimethyl-wedelolactone (coumestans), which possess anti-hepatotoxic properties. Due to its numerous medicinal properties, it is in high demand by the pharmaceutical industry and therefore requires urgent biotechnological interventions for its improvement. Therefore, the present study was constructed with the aim of developing an efficient genetic transformation protocol for E. alba, which will help in the mass production of the active compounds found in E. alba. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404, containing vector pBI121, was used to genetically transform the plant, and the effect of various factors such as infection type, light cycle effect, effect of pH, among others, on the genetic transformation efficiency was analyzed. Regenerated transformed shoots were confirmed using the standard Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR method. Kanamycin-resistant and beta- glucurosidaseGUS-positive shoots indicated the development of transgenic shoots in E. alba. Amplification of nptll and uidA genes confirmed the integration of t-DNA transgenic shoots. In conclusion, various factors affecting the transformation efficiency were analyzed, and a reliable A. tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation protocol was developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Biochemistry and Genetics)
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34 pages, 3244 KiB  
Review
Plant Genetic Diversity Studies: Insights from DNA Marker Analyses
by Nongthombam Bidyananda, Imlitoshi Jamir, Karolina Nowakowska, Vanlalrinchhani Varte, Wagner A. Vendrame, Rajkumari Sanayaima Devi and Potshangbam Nongdam
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 607-640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030046 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The plant adaptation response to a changing environment depends on the genetic diversity level it possesses. Genetic diversity and a thorough understanding of population indices are pivotal for decoding plant adaptation to dynamic environmental stressors. The development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular [...] Read more.
The plant adaptation response to a changing environment depends on the genetic diversity level it possesses. Genetic diversity and a thorough understanding of population indices are pivotal for decoding plant adaptation to dynamic environmental stressors. The development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular markers enables comprehensive population analyses and the precise detection of individuals and groups with unique genetic variations. Various molecular markers have been employed to assess genetic diversity, examine population structure, and delineate cluster patterns within and among populations. DNA markers revolutionize plant diversity studies by allowing detailed analyses of genetic variations, including economically significant trait-influencing genes. Despite their simplicity, they offer high reproducibility, ensuring accurate estimations of plant variation. Integrating multiple marker systems with advanced high-throughput sequencing techniques is poised to enhance the understanding and management of depleting plant genetic resources by providing a comprehensive picture of diversity at the genome-wide level. This review explores diverse molecular markers, elucidating their advantages and limitations, and highlights their impact on evaluating the genetic diversity and population structure of plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology and Biodiversity)
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8 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Phytotoxicity of Two Bauhinia Species on Four Triticum aestivum Varieties in Laboratory Bioassay
by Neeraj Yadav, Vinod Prasad Khanduri, Bhupendra Singh, Deepa Rawat and Manoj Kumar Riyal
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 599-606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030045 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Tree–crop interaction studies help to determine the effects of trees on the production and yield of agricultural crops and could help indecisions on suitable crops and tree combinations to increase the overall production from agroforestry systems. Different varieties of agricultural crops might show [...] Read more.
Tree–crop interaction studies help to determine the effects of trees on the production and yield of agricultural crops and could help indecisions on suitable crops and tree combinations to increase the overall production from agroforestry systems. Different varieties of agricultural crops might show different responses against the phytotoxic effects of Bauhinia species. This study was conducted to observe the phytotoxicity of two Bauhinia spp., i.e., Bauhinia retusa and Bauhinia variegata, on some Triticum aestivum varieties, i.e., VL-892, VI-829, VL-616, UP-2572, and UP-1109.The leaves and bark of these two species were harvested from the natural population for these experiments. On average, germination and radicle and plumule length of wheat varieties were significantly (p > 0.05) reduced by the leaf and bark extracts of both Bauhinia species. The effect of leaf and bark extracts of both Bauhinia species on seed germination percent of different wheat varieties revealed that the bark and leaf extracts showed maximum toxicity for germination percentage, and minimum influence was observed in radicle and plumule length. However, bark extracts were more toxic as compared to leaf extracts. Under leaf and bark extract concentrations, the VL 829 wheat variety showed stimulatory effects in germination and radicle and plumule growth under both Bauhinia species. On average, radicle and plumule growth of the test crop was increased with an increasing concentration of leaf and bark extract of B. variegata up to 50%, and thereafter, a decrease in radicle and plumule length was recorded. The VL 829 and UP 1109 varieties showed the lowest allelopathic effects and could be grown under both Bauhinia species with minimum yield loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology)
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13 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Inheritance of Mitochondria in Pelargonium Section Ciconium (Sweet) Interspecific Crosses
by Floris C. Breman, Joost Korver, Ronald Snijder, M. Eric Schranz and Freek T. Bakker
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 586-598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030044 - 30 Jun 2024
Viewed by 292
Abstract
We have studied the inheritance of mitochondria in Pelargonium section Ciconium using 36 interspecific crosses generated. We designed KASP markers targeting four mitochondrial loci, belonging to the mitomes of four main crossing parents, enabling tracking the transmission of each mitome in the crosses. [...] Read more.
We have studied the inheritance of mitochondria in Pelargonium section Ciconium using 36 interspecific crosses generated. We designed KASP markers targeting four mitochondrial loci, belonging to the mitomes of four main crossing parents, enabling tracking the transmission of each mitome in the crosses. These markers discriminate between an individual species versus the other section Ciconium species. We found that maternal inheritance of mitochondria is most frequent, with occasional occurrences of paternal inheritance, while biparental inheritance is rare. For a P. multibracteatum crossing series, we found ambiguous results. Our results confirm those of previous studies, namely, that paternal inheritance of mitochondria can occur in P. sect Ciconium but that the instance is rare and much less common than is the case for chloroplasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation and Characterization)
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25 pages, 6653 KiB  
Review
From Signaling to Stress: How Does Plant Redox Homeostasis Behave under Phytophagous Mite Infestation?
by Wesley Borges Wurlitzer, Mateusz Labudda, Joaquim Albenisio G. Silveira, Ronice Drebel Matthes, Julia Renata Schneider and Noeli Juarez Ferla
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 561-585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030043 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Plants are directly exposed to several biotic factors. Among these, mite species belonging to the superfamilies Eriophyoidea and Tetranychoidea stand out due to their ability to injure or even transmit viruses to their host plants. In response to infestations by these organisms, reactive [...] Read more.
Plants are directly exposed to several biotic factors. Among these, mite species belonging to the superfamilies Eriophyoidea and Tetranychoidea stand out due to their ability to injure or even transmit viruses to their host plants. In response to infestations by these organisms, reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulated by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (homeostasis), can act as signaling molecules to induce defenses or even acclimatization in attacked plants. However, depending on the severity of the stress, there can be an imbalance between ROS and antioxidants that can result in oxidative stress, leading to membrane damage by lipid peroxidation, organelle inactivation, and even cell death. In this review, we outline for the first time the current state of understanding regarding the role of cellular processes in ROS metabolism, such as signaling, the potential damage induced by ROS, and the defense role of enzymatic antioxidant systems involved in the plant–mite relationship. Furthermore, we identify several gaps between redox metabolism and plant defense against phytophagous mites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Communication)
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10 pages, 1008 KiB  
Article
Pre-Harvest Chemical Compounds Influence Lily (Lilium × elegans) Leaf and Flower Indigenous Phenols, Flavonoids and Gibberellic Acid Levels
by Ahmed AlFayad and Yahia Othman
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 551-560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030042 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The global cut flower industry, including lilies, represents a highly promising investment. Therefore, improving the quantity and quality of these commercially significant flower species is crucial. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the influence of different pre-harvest chemical compounds on [...] Read more.
The global cut flower industry, including lilies, represents a highly promising investment. Therefore, improving the quantity and quality of these commercially significant flower species is crucial. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the influence of different pre-harvest chemical compounds on endogenous GA3, phenol, flavonoids and total antioxidants levels on the leaf and petals parts of Longiflorum-Asiatic (Lilium × elegans cv. Cevennes, yellow) lily and to (2) assess the effect of these compound on the flower quality component. The study was conducted over two cycles in both greenhouse and laboratory settings. Lily bulbs were transplanted into 10 L pots and grown for 70 days. Treatments were applied by spraying twice with a five-day interval on the flowers still on the plants and not yet fully opened. The treatments included 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8HQS) at 100, 200, and 400 mg L−1; salicylic acid (SA) at 100 and 200 mg L−1; SmartFresh™ at 1 and 2 mg L−1; Harvista™ at 150 mg L−1; GA₃ at 50 mg L−1; and a control (water). The lily stems were harvested when one of the flowering buds began to open but was not fully opened. A post-harvest assessment was conducted in the laboratory at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C). The results showed that the lily leaf had a much higher endogenous concentration of GA3 (256%) and lower concentrations of total phenols (22%), flavonoids (28%), and antioxidant activity (14%) when compared to flower petals. In addition, the foliar application of flower preservative compounds one week before harvesting significantly improved the endogenous levels of GA3, total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants activity, especially SmartFresh™ at rate of 1 mg L−1. In terms of flower quality, SmartFresh™, at rate of 1 mg L−1, and 8-HQS, at rate of 200, had consistently higher vase lives compared to the control treatment across the two experimental cycles. Compared to the control, SmartFresh™ (the post-harvest ethylene control) increased the vase life of lily flowers by 35% at cycle 1 and 31% at cycle 2 while 8-HQS, at rate of 200 mg L−1, increased the vase life by 21% and 15% at cycles 1 and 2, respectively. However, no significant effect was found in the petal flower color coordinates (L*, a* and b*) across the treatments. Overall, the foliar application of preservative compounds (such as SmartFresh™) at the pre-harvest stage potentially stimulates the endogenous levels of GA3, total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants activity, leading to better improvements in post-harvest flower quality, specifically vase life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Biochemistry and Genetics)
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9 pages, 4452 KiB  
Article
Passion Fruit Cultivation: An Approach to Internal Leaf Anatomy
by Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, José Carlos Cavichioli, Thiago de Souza Ferreira, Aldeir da Silva and Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 542-550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030041 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Some species of the genus Passiflora have leaf morphological adaptations that grow to influence the development of the plant in producing areas. Hence, the objective of this work is to quantify and characterize the leaf anatomy of passion fruit species distributed in the [...] Read more.
Some species of the genus Passiflora have leaf morphological adaptations that grow to influence the development of the plant in producing areas. Hence, the objective of this work is to quantify and characterize the leaf anatomy of passion fruit species distributed in the South American region, which can become an important strategy in the selection of species more adapted to the environment where they will be grown. This work evaluates the abaxial and adaxial cuticle thickness (ABCT and ADCT), abaxial and adaxial epidermis thickness (ABET and ADET), xylem diameter (XD), phloem diameter (PD), and thickness of the palisade parenchyma (TPP), of the species Passiflora quadrangularis L., Passiflora foetida L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Passiflora gibertii N.E Brown, Passiflora coccinea Aubl, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora tenuifila Killip, Passiflora caerulea L., and Passiflora cincinnata Mast. Passion fruit species present differences in leaf anatomy, which may influence the plant’s development. The species Passiflora quadrangularis L. showed a greater thickness of cuticles, epidermis, conducting vessels, and palisade parenchyma. The species Passiflora edulis has higher density and stomatal functionality. All Passiflora species formed druses on their leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology)
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8 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
Elicitor-Mediated Enhancement of α-Tocopherol in Cell Suspension Cultures of Nicotiana tabacum
by Mani Chandra Harish, Shanmugaraj Balamurugan and Ramalingam Sathishkumar
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 534-541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030040 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Plant cell and tissue culture have been used as the alternative and potential renewable source for the production of valuable phytochemicals. Elicitation offers a reliable in vitro approach to produce or enhance potential phytochemicals. α-tocopherol, which is an isoform of vitamin E, is [...] Read more.
Plant cell and tissue culture have been used as the alternative and potential renewable source for the production of valuable phytochemicals. Elicitation offers a reliable in vitro approach to produce or enhance potential phytochemicals. α-tocopherol, which is an isoform of vitamin E, is a potent fat-soluble phytochemical known in nature. The present study focused on enhancing the production of α-tocopherol in the cell suspension culture through an elicitation approach. Suspension cultures of Nicotiana tabacum were established from the leaf disk-derived callus. The cell suspension cultures were treated with different elicitors (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract) at the lag phase of the cell growth cycle. The effects of elicitors on cell cultures were determined in terms of biomass, and α-tocopherol enhancement was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different elicitors depending on the concentration exerted different effects on cell growth and α-tocopherol production. Methyl jasmonate treatment showed the significantly highest increase in α-tocopherol on the 6th day of treatment in tobacco suspension cultures. Methyl jasmonate at the concentration of 150 μM enhanced α-tocopherol content to 24-fold over the control. This study clearly shows that the elicitors had the potential to increase the accumulation of α-tocopherol considerably in tobacco cell cultures. The outcomes of this study could be of considerable importance to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Biochemistry and Genetics)
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17 pages, 3865 KiB  
Article
Impact of Tomato Grafts on the Potato Tuber Metabolome and Skin Colour
by Vanda Villányi, Khongorzul Odgerel, Cathrine O. Okaroni and Zsófia Bánfalvi
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(3), 517-533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15030039 - 21 Jun 2024
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Grafting is a traditional research and crop production technique used to study the long-distance movement of molecules, reduce disease susceptibility, and improve yield, quality, and nutrient content. Tomato/potato grafts are rare examples of successful interspecies grafting, even resulting in commercially available products. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Grafting is a traditional research and crop production technique used to study the long-distance movement of molecules, reduce disease susceptibility, and improve yield, quality, and nutrient content. Tomato/potato grafts are rare examples of successful interspecies grafting, even resulting in commercially available products. Nevertheless, information on the effect of tomato on the quality parameters of potato tubers is scarce. In this study, the tomato cultivar ‘Mobil’ was grafted with the potato cultivars ‘White Lady’, ‘Hópehely’, and ‘Désirée’, and the phenotype, metabolite composition, and starch and protein contents of the tubers were analysed. Anthocyanins were isolated from the tuber skins, and the expression level of the transcription factor ANTHOCYANIN1 (StAN1) was evaluated. Out of the 112 identified metabolites, the concentrations of twelve compounds were altered in the same direction in all three cultivars. Compared to the self-grafted control, the starch content of tubers was increased in each cultivar, while the protein level remained unaltered in ‘White Lady’ and ‘Hópehely’. The oval tubers became roundish. The tomato scion increased the anthocyanin content of ‘Hópehely’ and ‘Désirée’ tuber skins, which was correlated with the upregulation of StAN1 expression. These results indicate that tomato scion has a significant impact on the quality parameters of potato tubers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Biochemistry and Genetics)
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