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Volume 13, June

Neurol. Int., Volume 13, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The median-to-ulnar communicating branch (MUC) is an asymptomatic variant of the upper limb innervation that can lead to misinterpretation of neurography in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In our laboratory, MUC was present in 36 patients and was bilateral in 53%. MUC type II was the most common subtype encountered (74%) and more coexisting MUC types were found in the majority of tested limbs. The severity of CTS correlated with the presence of positive onset, faster CV, or double components. View this paper
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Article
Post-Operative Assessment of Ulnar Nerve Tension Using Shear-Wave Elastography
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 469-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030046 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Background: Ulnar nerve compression at the elbow level is the second-most common entrapment neuropathy. The aim of this study was to use shear-wave elastography for the quantification of ulnar nerve elasticity in patients after ulnar nerve decompression with anterior transposition and in the [...] Read more.
Background: Ulnar nerve compression at the elbow level is the second-most common entrapment neuropathy. The aim of this study was to use shear-wave elastography for the quantification of ulnar nerve elasticity in patients after ulnar nerve decompression with anterior transposition and in the contralateral non-operative side. Method: Eleven patients with confirmed diagnosis and ulnar nerve decompression with anterior transposition were included and examinations were performed on an AixplorerTM ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France). Results: We observed significant differences at 0-degree (p < 0.001), 45-degree (p < 0.05), 90-degree (p < 0.01) and 120-degree (p < 0.001) elbow flexion in the shear elastic modulus of the ulnar nerve in the operative and non-operative sides. There were no statistically significant differences between the elasticity values of the ulnar nerve after transposition at 0-degree elbow flexion and in the non-operative side at 120-degree elbow flexion (p = 0.39), or in the ulnar nerve after transposition at 120-degree elbow flexion and in the non-operative side at 0-degree elbow flexion (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Shear-wave elastography has the potential to be used postoperatively as a method for assessing nerve tension noninvasively by the estimation of mechanical properties, such as the shear elastic modulus. Full article
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Case Report
Unilateral Trigeminal Sensory Neuropathy with Sjögren’s Syndrome with Liver and Renal Impairment
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 464-468; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030045 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Liver and renal involvement is a rare event in Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome is characterized by the progressive immune-mediated destruction of epithelial tissues of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Sensory ganglionitis, accompanied by T-cell invasion, occurs in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome, resulting in [...] Read more.
Liver and renal involvement is a rare event in Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome is characterized by the progressive immune-mediated destruction of epithelial tissues of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Sensory ganglionitis, accompanied by T-cell invasion, occurs in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome, resulting in sensory neuropathy of the face or limbs. Patients are assessed by quantitative sensory testing. A 76-year-old woman presented with numbness of her left face and was subsequently diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis, and was found to have renal failure. Detection of her serum anti-Ro/SSA antibody was strongly positive. Shirmer’s test or a salivary volume in the gum test also showed positive results. Her somatosensory disturbance severity was higher in the trigeminal area than in the forearm, suggesting that the trigeminal nerve is more susceptible than other parts of the nervous system in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis. A simple sensory test could be performed during regular check-ups, as sensory deficits might develop after patients are diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis. Full article
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Review
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Clozapine: Clinically Relevant Interactions and Considerations
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 445-463; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030044 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
The monoamine hypothesis of depression attributes the symptoms of major depressive disorders to imbalances of serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine in the limbic areas of the brain. The preferential targeting of serotonin receptor (SERT) by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has offered an opportunity [...] Read more.
The monoamine hypothesis of depression attributes the symptoms of major depressive disorders to imbalances of serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine in the limbic areas of the brain. The preferential targeting of serotonin receptor (SERT) by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has offered an opportunity to reduce the range of these side effects and improve patient adherence to pharmacotherapy. Clozapine remains an effective drug against treatment-resistant schizophrenia, defined as failing treatment with at least two different antipsychotic medications. Patients with schizophrenia who display a constellation of negative symptoms respond poorly to antipsychotic monotherapy. Negative symptoms include the diminution of motivation, interest, or expression. Conversely to the depressive symptomology of interest presently, supplementation of antipsychotics with SSRIs in schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms lead to synergistic improvements in the function of these patients. Fluvoxamine is one of the most potent inhibitors of CYP1A2 and can lead to an increase in clozapine levels. Similar increases in serum clozapine were detected in two patients taking sertraline. However, studies have been contradictory as well, showing no such increases, which are worrying. Clinicians should be aware that clozapine levels should be monitored with any coadministration with SSRIs. Full article
Case Report
Improvement of Tardive Dyskinesia during Mindfulness Meditation
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 439-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030043 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Background: We report the case of a patient presenting with orofacial tardive dyskinesia (TD), following administration of a first-generation antipsychotic (Loxapine). Intervention: Four weeks of repeated sessions of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) protocols were administered, with TD hetero-quantified [...] Read more.
Background: We report the case of a patient presenting with orofacial tardive dyskinesia (TD), following administration of a first-generation antipsychotic (Loxapine). Intervention: Four weeks of repeated sessions of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) protocols were administered, with TD hetero-quantified before and during each session via the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Results: The dyskinesia ameliorated quantitatively and qualitatively (1) during each session, and (2) at resting conditions in the long term. During some sessions, after which patients’ compliance was auto-evaluated as maximal, complete arrest of the TD was observed. Hypothesis and Conclusion: We suggest mindfulness meditation as a novel adjunctive therapeutic approach for tardive dyskinesia, and invite for further clinical and neurological investigations. Full article
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Case Report
Walking with UAN.GO Exoskeleton: Training and Compliance in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 428-438; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030042 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Background: Multiple sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects myelin in the central nervous system. It is complex and unpredictable and occurs predominantly in young adults, causing increasing disability and a significantly lower quality of life. Recent studies investigated how rehabilitation training [...] Read more.
Background: Multiple sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects myelin in the central nervous system. It is complex and unpredictable and occurs predominantly in young adults, causing increasing disability and a significantly lower quality of life. Recent studies investigated how rehabilitation training through the use of a robotic exoskeleton can influence walking recovery in patients with a serious neurological disease. Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze the first approach of a multiple sclerosis patient to a robotic exoskeleton for the lower limbs, in order to assess the effectiveness of the protocol on walking ability, adaptability of the device, level of appreciation, variations in parameters related to walking, and fatigue perception. Methods: This study was conducted on a 71-year-old male diagnosed with primary progressive multiple sclerosis since 2012, with an EDSS score of 6. The patient underwent a cycle of 10 sessions of treatment with the exoskeleton for the lower limbs, the UAN.GO, lasting 1 h 30 min. Pre- and post-treatment evaluations were carried out with the 6 min walking test, the Fatigue Severity Scale, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and a Likert scale for review. During each session, blood pressure, heart rate, and peripheral saturation were monitored; in addition, the perception of fatigue by the Borg scale was studied. Result: A comparison between the initial and final evaluations showed improvements in the walked distance at 6 MWT (T0 = 53 m/T1 = 61 m). There was a positive trend in saturation and heart rate values collected during each session. Further improvements were found by the Borg scale (T0 = 15/T1 = 11). Discussion: The data collected in this case report show promising results regarding the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients with the UAN.GO exoskeleton, with benefits on both motor performance and vital parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis)
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Review
A Systematic Review of Severe Neurological Manifestations in Pediatric Patients with Coexisting SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 410-427; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030041 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 infection in children produces mild respiratory symptoms or no symptoms at all in most cases. Some pediatric patients develop a severe complication associated with high mortality, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In both scenarios, there are reports of neurological manifestations. [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 infection in children produces mild respiratory symptoms or no symptoms at all in most cases. Some pediatric patients develop a severe complication associated with high mortality, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In both scenarios, there are reports of neurological manifestations. This article aims to review the cases of pediatric patients with severe neurological issues and a coexisting positive SARS-CoV-2 test. A literature search was performed between March 2020 and May 2021. The results included the data from 41 studies, with 159 children with severe neurological manifestations, within an age range from 24 h to 17 years. The neurological disorders included 38 cases with stroke, 32 with encephalitis, 22 with encephalopathy, and 10 with Guillain–Barre syndrome. Sixty-five out of 159 cases with severe neurological manifestations were diagnosed with MIS-C. Direct neuroinvasion and the exaggerated immune response in some patients seem to be the most critical factors triggering these manifestations. Further research in the ongoing pandemic is needed to elucidate the precise mechanism. Full article
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Interesting Images
A Novel Case of Bifacial Diplegia Variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome Following Janssen COVID-19 Vaccination
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 404-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030040 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder which attacks the peripheral nervous system. Antecedent infection or vaccine administration are known to precipitate the onset of this disorder. Its typical presentation leads to a symmetric, rapidly progressive, ascending paresis with associated sensory deficits [...] Read more.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder which attacks the peripheral nervous system. Antecedent infection or vaccine administration are known to precipitate the onset of this disorder. Its typical presentation leads to a symmetric, rapidly progressive, ascending paresis with associated sensory deficits and impaired reflexes. We present a rare case of a bi-facial diplegia variant of GBS, within four weeks of the COVID-19 vaccination. Due to its chronology, clinical manifestations, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, we propose this case to be a rare complication of the COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
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Editorial
Keep S’Myelin: World Brain Day 2021 Editorial for Residents and Junior Doctors Page—Neurology International MDPI
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 402-403; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030039 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Every five minutes someone in the world is diagnosed with multiple sclerosis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Brain Health Initiative: Advocacy in Global Neurology)
Review
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Adverse Effects: A Narrative Review
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 387-401; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030038 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in the world, affecting 4.4% of the global population. Despite an array of treatment modalities, depressive disorders remain difficult to manage due to many factors. Beginning with the introduction of fluoxetine to the United States in [...] Read more.
Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in the world, affecting 4.4% of the global population. Despite an array of treatment modalities, depressive disorders remain difficult to manage due to many factors. Beginning with the introduction of fluoxetine to the United States in 1988, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) quickly became a mainstay of treatment for a variety of psychiatric disorders. The primary mechanism of action of SSRIs is to inhibit presynaptic reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin transporter, subsequently increasing serotonin at the postsynaptic membrane in the serotonergic synapse. The six major SSRIs that are marketed in the USA today, fluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine, are a group of structurally unrelated molecules that share a similar mechanism of action. While their primary mechanism of action is similar, each SSRI has unique pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effect profile. One of the more controversial adverse effects of SSRIs is the black box warning for increased risk of suicidality in children and young adults aged 18–24. There is a lack of understanding of the complexities and interactions between SSRIs in the developing brain of a young person with depression. Adults, who do not have certain risk factors, which could be confounding factors, do not seem to carry this increased risk of suicidality. Ultimately, when prescribing SSRIs to any patient, a risk–benefit analysis must factor in the potential treatment effects, adverse effects, and dangers of the illness to be treated. The aim of this review is to educate clinicians on potential adverse effects of SSRIs. Full article
Article
Surgical Management for Dystonia: Efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation in the Long Term
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 371-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030037 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Introduction: Dystonia is a movement disorder substantially affecting the quality of life. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is used intramuscularly as a treatment for dystonia; however, not all dystonia patients respond to this treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson’s disease [...] Read more.
Introduction: Dystonia is a movement disorder substantially affecting the quality of life. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is used intramuscularly as a treatment for dystonia; however, not all dystonia patients respond to this treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor, but it can help in dystonia as well. Objectives: We studied a total of 67 dystonia patients who were treated with DBS over a period of 7 years to find out the long-term efficacy of DBS in those patients. First, we calculated patient improvement in post-surgery follow-up programs using the Global Dystonia Severity scale (GDS) and Burke–Fahn–Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS). Secondly, we analyzed the scales scores to see if there was any statistical significance. Methods: In our study we analyzed patients with ages from 38 to 78 years with dystonia who underwent DBS surgery between January 2014 and December 2020 in four different centers (India, Kuwait, Egypt, and Turkey). The motor response to DBS surgery was retrospectively measured for each patient during every follow-up visit using the GDS and the BFMDRS scales. Results: Five to 7 years post-DBS, the mean reduction in the GDS score was 30 ± 1.0 and for the BFMDRS score 26 ± 1.0. The longitudinal change in scores at 12 and 24 months post-op was also significant with mean reductions in GDS and BFMDRS scores of 68 ± 1.0 and 56 ± 1.0, respectively. The p-values were <0.05 for our post-DBS dystonia patients. Conclusions: This study illustrates DBS is an established, effective treatment option for patients with different dystonias, such as generalized, cervical, and various brain pathology-induced dystonias. Although symptoms are not completely eliminated, continuous improvements are noticed throughout the post-stimulation time frame. Full article
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Review
A Comprehensive Approach to Rehabilitation Interventions in Patients with Angelman Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 359-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030036 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Angelman syndrome is a rare genetic disease affecting the central nervous system and neurobehavioral development causing severe mental, linguistic, and physical disabilities. The purpose of this review was to analyze the most recent evidence regarding the rehabilitation of subjects affected by this syndrome. [...] Read more.
Angelman syndrome is a rare genetic disease affecting the central nervous system and neurobehavioral development causing severe mental, linguistic, and physical disabilities. The purpose of this review was to analyze the most recent evidence regarding the rehabilitation of subjects affected by this syndrome. The review was carried out in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 3661 studies were identified in the databases. Once the inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied, 15 studies were considered for the paper’s preparation. The level of evidence of the studies was established according to the criteria of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine—Levels of Evidence. From the selected studies, five rehabilitative approaches emerged: physiotherapy, applied behavioral analysis, toilet training, microswitch-cluster technology, and augmentative and alternative communication. Although the studies did not have a high level of evidence, the reported results appear to be encouraging and pave the way for further studies. It seems that individualized and multidisciplinary rehabilitation interventions help to improve patients’ autonomy and quality of life. In some studies, the caregivers’ role was fundamental to identify preferences and long-term improvements. Further studies on larger populations and with better methodological quality are needed to confirm the results. Full article
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Review
Paliperidone to Treat Psychotic Disorders
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 343-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030035 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Purpose of Review: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. It covers the background and presentation of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, as well as the mechanism of action and [...] Read more.
Purpose of Review: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. It covers the background and presentation of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, as well as the mechanism of action and drug information for paliperidone. It covers the existing evidence of the use of paliperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Recent Findings: Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder lead to significant cognitive impairment. It is thought that dopamine dysregulation is the culprit for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Similar to other second-generation antipsychotics, paliperidone has affinity for dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Paliperidone was granted approval in the United States in 2006 to be used in the treatment of schizophrenia and in 2009 for schizoaffective disorder. Summary: Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have a large impact on cognitive impairment, positive symptoms and negative symptoms. Patients with either of these mental illnesses suffer from impairments in everyday life. Paliperidone has been shown to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Treatment of Schizophrenia)
Article
Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis: Educational Level as a Protective Factor
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 335-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030034 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Most people with MS experience cognitive deficits especially in attention, memory, information processing, and executive functions, negatively impacting on their quality of life. Cognitive variables of short-term memory, logical memory, and verbal fluency in 65 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were analysed in [...] Read more.
Most people with MS experience cognitive deficits especially in attention, memory, information processing, and executive functions, negatively impacting on their quality of life. Cognitive variables of short-term memory, logical memory, and verbal fluency in 65 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were analysed in conjunction with sociodemographic variables such as sex, age, and educational level that might influence disease progression. We found that psychoeducational variables exerted a significant effect on the cognitive status of patients with MS. Thus, when considering sex, age, educational level, and type of MS (SPMS or RRMS), tests for between-subject effects revealed statistically significant differences in all three cognitive variables. In addition, we found that the type of MS and time since onset also generated significant cognitive differences. Our study shows that educational achievement or level is a protective factor against the disease, acting as a source of intellectual enrichment that promotes cognitive reserve in patients with MS. Further longitudinal studies assessing disease progression and prognosis in patients with MS would be useful in order to determine the specific importance of these variables in such patients and in strategies that could enhance their performance in neuropsychological assessment tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis)
Case Report
SARS-CoV-2 Infection Causes Relapse of Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Literature
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 328-334; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030033 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Recurrent episodes of hypersomnia, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, are the basic clinical features of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). Our case report describes a patient who was diagnosed with KLS at the age of 20. With appropriate therapy, the disease had a [...] Read more.
Recurrent episodes of hypersomnia, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, are the basic clinical features of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). Our case report describes a patient who was diagnosed with KLS at the age of 20. With appropriate therapy, the disease had a satisfactory course until patient had a moderate form of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which led to a significant exacerbation of all symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 virus can cause almost any neurological disease, and relapse of KLS is another evidence of neurotropicity of the virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Sleep Disorders)
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Article
Association between Body Composition and Dysphagia in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 315-327; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030032 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Background: The influence of changes in body composition on swallowing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is unknown. Understanding the interrelation between body compartments and dysphagia may establish specific treatments related to both nutritional aspects as to myofunctional ones designed to [...] Read more.
Background: The influence of changes in body composition on swallowing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is unknown. Understanding the interrelation between body compartments and dysphagia may establish specific treatments related to both nutritional aspects as to myofunctional ones designed to delay swallowing loss. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and dysphagia during the course of the disease. Methods: The protocol of this study included assessments carried out quarterly for one year and included: analysis of body composition by multi-frequency segmental bioimpedance, nutritional diagnosis, maximum strength test of the tongue and lips, analysis of swallowing using the Functional Oral Intake Score (FOIS) and Swallowing Rating Scale of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), speech intelligibility and analysis of disease severity. To measure the degree of relationship between quantitative variables, Spearman’s correlation was used. Results: Thirty-four patients were evaluated, 28 Spinal Group and 6 Bulbar Group. The results did not show any significant differences in the analysis of body composition between the groups. Positive associations were found between body compartments and swallowing analysis. The phase angle showed a strong correlation between the FOIS scales (r = 0.74, p < 0.01), ASHA (r = 0.77, p < 0.01) and tongue (r = 0.66, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Changes in body compartments were related to swallowing functionality and speech intelligibility in ALS patients, emphasizing the importance of analyzing body compartments for decision making by the interdisciplinary team. Although these preliminary data were collected in a small sample size, they serve to motivate future studies in this area. Full article
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Article
Median-to-Ulnar Nerve Communication in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Electrophysiological Study
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 304-314; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030031 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The median-to-ulnar communicating branch (MUC) is an asymptomatic variant of the upper limb innervation that can lead to interpretation errors in routine nerve conduction studies. The diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) or ulnar nerve lesions can be complicated by the presence of [...] Read more.
The median-to-ulnar communicating branch (MUC) is an asymptomatic variant of the upper limb innervation that can lead to interpretation errors in routine nerve conduction studies. The diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) or ulnar nerve lesions can be complicated by the presence of MUC. In this study, we describe electrophysiological features of MUC in CTS patients presenting to our clinic. We enrolled MUB cases from consecutive CTS patients referred to our laboratory between the years 2014 and 2019. MUC was present in 53 limbs (36 patients) from the studied population. MUC was bilateral in 53% of patients. MUC type II was the most common subtype (74%), followed by types III and I; more coexisting MUC types were found in the majority of tested limbs. A positive correlation was demonstrated between the severity of CTS and the presence of positive onset, faster CV, or a double component of the compound muscle action potentials. We emphasize the importance of suspecting the presence of MUC in CTS in the presence of a positive onset or a double component in routine motor conduction studies. Full article
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Editorial
What the Aftermath of the Global Pandemic Will Mean for Neurologists
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 297-303; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030030 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 711
Abstract
The emergence of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has had a widespread public health impact, thus causing a significant socioeconomic burden [...] Full article
Review
Aripiprazole Lauroxil, a Novel Injectable Long-Acting Antipsychotic Treatment for Adults with Schizophrenia: A Comprehensive Review
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 279-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030029 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Purpose of Review. This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of Aripiprazole lauroxil for schizophrenia. This review presents the background, evidence, and indications for using aripiprazole lauroxil to treat schizophrenia in the context of current theories on the development [...] Read more.
Purpose of Review. This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of Aripiprazole lauroxil for schizophrenia. This review presents the background, evidence, and indications for using aripiprazole lauroxil to treat schizophrenia in the context of current theories on the development of schizophrenia. Recent Findings. Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health disorder that currently affects approximately 3.3 million people in the United States. Its symptoms, which must be present for more than six months, are comprised of disorganized behavior and speech, a diminished capacity to comprehend reality, hearing voices unheard by others, seeing things unseen by others, delusions, decreased social commitment, and decreased motivation. The majority of these symptoms can be managed with antipsychotic medication. Aripiprazole lauroxil is a long-acting intramuscular injection that works as a combination of partial agonist activity at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors combined with antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors. It can be dosed as a 4-, 6-, or 8-week injection, depending on oral dosage. Aripiprazole lauroxil was FDA approved in October of 2015. Summary. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder if left untreated. There are multiple medications to help treat schizophrenia. One antipsychotic agent, aripiprazole lauroxil, offers long duration injections that optimize and improve compliance. Known side effects include weight gain, akathisia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and orthostatic hypotension. Aripiprazole lauroxil is an FDA-approved drug that can be administered monthly, every six weeks, or every two months and has been shown to be both safe and effective. Full article
Article
Common Carotid Artery Volume Flow: A Comparison Study between Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging and Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(3), 269-278; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13030028 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Volume flow estimation in the common carotid artery (CCA) can assess the absolute hemodynamic effect of a carotid stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare a commercial vector flow imaging (VFI) setup against the reference method magnetic resonance phase contrast angiography [...] Read more.
Volume flow estimation in the common carotid artery (CCA) can assess the absolute hemodynamic effect of a carotid stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare a commercial vector flow imaging (VFI) setup against the reference method magnetic resonance phase contrast angiography (MRA) for volume flow estimation in the CCA. Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with VFI and MRA over the CCA. VFI had an improved precision of 19.2% compared to MRA of 31.9% (p = 0.061). VFI estimated significantly lower volume flow than MRA (mean difference: 63.2 mL/min, p = 0.017), whilst the correlation between VFI and MRA was strong (R2 = 0.81, p < 0.0001). A Bland–Altman plot indicated a systematic bias. After bias correction, the percentage error was reduced from 41.0% to 25.2%. This study indicated that a VFI setup for volume flow estimation is precise and strongly correlated to MRA volume flow estimation, and after correcting for the systematic bias, VFI and MRA become interchangeable. Full article
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