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Volume 8, December
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Volume 8, June
World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2016) , Pages 587-720

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Open AccessArticle
Electric Vehicle Deployment Potential in the Yukon Territory
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 709-720; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030709 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The deployment of plug-in electric vehicles has the potential to help communities realize significant benefits. However, in cold weather climates, there are significant barriers to electric vehicle adoption. This paper conducts a market assessment in the Yukon Territory of Canada, including a review [...] Read more.
The deployment of plug-in electric vehicles has the potential to help communities realize significant benefits. However, in cold weather climates, there are significant barriers to electric vehicle adoption. This paper conducts a market assessment in the Yukon Territory of Canada, including a review of the unique characteristics of the Yukon that may facilitate electric vehicle adoption, while also recognizing the challenges in the region. We find modest potential for electric vehicles in the Yukon, with comparably modest GHG reduction potential. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Consumers' Attitudes Towards Purchasing PHEVs and HEVs in Manitoba, Canada
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 705-708; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030705 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 279
Abstract
This research focuses on Manitoba, Canada to explore the consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). An online survey will be adopted to help explore participants’ psychological distance to PHEVs and HEVs. Then, this study attempts [...] Read more.
This research focuses on Manitoba, Canada to explore the consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). An online survey will be adopted to help explore participants’ psychological distance to PHEVs and HEVs. Then, this study attempts to identify how psychological distance affects consumers’ purchasing decision. The results may help government make efficient incentive policies and improve PHEVs and HEVs adoption. Full article
Open AccessArticle
ElectriCity Innovation Challenge 2015: Experiences
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 696-704; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030696 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 298
Abstract
ElectriCity Innovation Challenge 2015 was an open innovation contest in Gothenburg, Sweden. The main purpose was to surge public interest and involvement in ElectriCity, a demonstration arena for nextgeneration’s electrified bus systems. The contest furthermore aimed to catalyse innovation that can contribute to [...] Read more.
ElectriCity Innovation Challenge 2015 was an open innovation contest in Gothenburg, Sweden. The main purpose was to surge public interest and involvement in ElectriCity, a demonstration arena for nextgeneration’s electrified bus systems. The contest furthermore aimed to catalyse innovation that can contribute to making public transport more attractive, and to test a novel innovation platform that assembles data from buses and bus stops. The outcome was six events with a total of more than 800 attendants, 48 viable prototypes with potential to increase the modal share of electrified public transport and feedback on the innovation platform’s potential for development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
German Emobility User survey 2015 – Reasons why even electro mobility friendly people are not buying electric cars!
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 691-695; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030691 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 267
Abstract
In 2015 a big survey among very electro mobility experienced people was conducted in Germany. This survey is part of the government founded “monitoring and impact research for the German showcase program for electro mobility”. As in the last years the perception gained [...] Read more.
In 2015 a big survey among very electro mobility experienced people was conducted in Germany. This survey is part of the government founded “monitoring and impact research for the German showcase program for electro mobility”. As in the last years the perception gained majority that people need more experience with electric cars, the news value of this survey is that only well-informed people were asked. Therefore, the main question in the survey was to get more information about the reasons why even well informed people with a positive attitude concerning electric cars are not yet buying them. The conclusions of this survey will be used for developing measures to activate and stimulate the German market. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Emotive – Promoting the Electric Vehicle Experience
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 685-690; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030685 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 308
Abstract
A significant obstacle for electric vehicle uptake is that consumers lack awareness of EVs and don't yet see them as a viable option. In an effort to raise public awareness of this emerging technology in British Columbia, several partners launched a public outreach [...] Read more.
A significant obstacle for electric vehicle uptake is that consumers lack awareness of EVs and don't yet see them as a viable option. In an effort to raise public awareness of this emerging technology in British Columbia, several partners launched a public outreach campaign called "Emotive - the Electric Vehicle Experience". This campaign plays on the tactile and emotional appeal of EVs and portrays them as fun and exciting. This paper will take you through the development and execution of the campaign strategy, success and challenges to-date, and how outreach efforts are being amplified through community partners and ambassadors across the province. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Methods to Identify User Needs and Decision Mechanisms for the Adoption of Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 673-684; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030673 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The knowledge on user acceptance for electric vehicles is of high relevance for several stakeholders in this new vehicle market. This study provides an overview of applied methods in adoption research in the field of electric vehicles. These methods comprehend (1) experimental studies [...] Read more.
The knowledge on user acceptance for electric vehicles is of high relevance for several stakeholders in this new vehicle market. This study provides an overview of applied methods in adoption research in the field of electric vehicles. These methods comprehend (1) experimental studies and lab-experiments, (2) interviews and focus groups, (3) surveys, (4) analyses of sales documentations and (5) social media analytics. We classify the data collection methods by two dimensions – (A) sample size and (B) degree of anonymity. We provide case study results for selected methods, identify the advantages, and show how new methods may complement the traditional approaches in future research. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Workplace Charging: Helping Employees Drive Clean Cars
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 666-672; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030666 - 30 Sep 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 297
Abstract
Workplace charging is a key to widespread electric vehicle adoption and part of a market pull strategy aimed at attracting new plug-in drivers. Drive Oregon has worked with employers throughout the Pacific Northwest to encourage the support of employee charging and while many [...] Read more.
Workplace charging is a key to widespread electric vehicle adoption and part of a market pull strategy aimed at attracting new plug-in drivers. Drive Oregon has worked with employers throughout the Pacific Northwest to encourage the support of employee charging and while many organizations develop unique approaches, best practices are emerging that can expedite future projects. Full article
Open AccessArticle
2015 E-Truck Task Force: Key Barriers Affecting E-Truck Adoption, Industry and Policy Implications, and Recommendations to Move the Market Forward
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 657-665; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030657 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 327
Abstract
CALSTART’s E-Truck Task Force (ETTF) produced a report outlining the markets for electric drive trucks (E-Trucks), the prime barriers facing their success and provided key findings and recommendations to support expanding E-Truck adoption. Four key findings have been identified by the E-Truck Task [...] Read more.
CALSTART’s E-Truck Task Force (ETTF) produced a report outlining the markets for electric drive trucks (E-Trucks), the prime barriers facing their success and provided key findings and recommendations to support expanding E-Truck adoption. Four key findings have been identified by the E-Truck Task Force as barriers currently affecting the growth and viability of E-Truck sales; 1) high incremental cost, 2) poor vehicle quality and support from supplier(s), 3) unexpected costs and energy planning with infrastructure, and 4) reduced operation in extreme climates. The E-Truck Task Force developed a set of action-oriented recommendations for overcoming each barrier. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Drive Electric Vermont: EV Market Transformation in Small and Medium Sized Communities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 650-656; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030650 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Investments in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging infrastructure are often concentrated in large metropolitan areas. True market transformation to electric drive technologies will require moving beyond urban centers to include small and medium sized areas as well as rural communities. The Drive [...] Read more.
Investments in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging infrastructure are often concentrated in large metropolitan areas. True market transformation to electric drive technologies will require moving beyond urban centers to include small and medium sized areas as well as rural communities. The Drive Electric Vermont (DEV) program was established in 2012 to shift consumers and businesses in Vermont (population 625,000) to greater awareness and use of PEVs. The US Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere program recently completed a case study of DEV to document policy, marketing, and infrastructure development activities supporting increased use of PEVs outside of major metropolitan areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Energy Independent Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 646-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030646 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Energy independent electric vehicles (EIV) are EVs that have almost unlimited range because they never need to pick up electricity. They make their own electricity from on-board solar cells etc. They should now be taken seriously as a potentially huge business and technology [...] Read more.
Energy independent electric vehicles (EIV) are EVs that have almost unlimited range because they never need to pick up electricity. They make their own electricity from on-board solar cells etc. They should now be taken seriously as a potentially huge business and technology generator. EIVs already exist as land, water and airborne vehicles, some needing no energy storage. Investment in them is at the billion dollar level and they are already spinning off technology startups exploiting their inventions into wider markets. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Patents and progress; intellectual property showing the future of electric vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 635-645; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030635 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 330
Abstract
This paper uses patenting activity to shed light on worldwide innovation trends in the electric vehicle industry. Using the patent publication collection of the European Patent Office (EPO), the authors present an analysis of worldwide patenting activity covering technologies in and around electric [...] Read more.
This paper uses patenting activity to shed light on worldwide innovation trends in the electric vehicle industry. Using the patent publication collection of the European Patent Office (EPO), the authors present an analysis of worldwide patenting activity covering technologies in and around electric vehicles. They confirm that Europe is an important market for electric vehicle technologies and present options for gaining high-quality patent protection in the region. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Added Value for Electrified Vehicles through Enhanced Active Safety
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 623-634; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030623 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The possibility of using electric drives to improve safety is presented. Several opportunities were identified and discussed briefly. In particular, two use cases are analyzed in detail: first to accelerate the lead vehicle to prevent or mitigate a rear-end collision and second, to [...] Read more.
The possibility of using electric drives to improve safety is presented. Several opportunities were identified and discussed briefly. In particular, two use cases are analyzed in detail: first to accelerate the lead vehicle to prevent or mitigate a rear-end collision and second, to control speed for mitigation of collision risk with oncoming vehicles during evasive maneuvers. Significant safety benefit was estimated in both cases and hence, a strong opportunity is seen for adding safety related value to electrified vehicles at little extra cost. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Development of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Emergence and Development of the Patent Network
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 611-622; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030611 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 340
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the global R&D network that emerged from EV and HEV technology development by firms and universities from 1998 to 2010. We visualize and analyze the development of the relevant (joint) patent network and uncover some of the key [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the global R&D network that emerged from EV and HEV technology development by firms and universities from 1998 to 2010. We visualize and analyze the development of the relevant (joint) patent network and uncover some of the key R&D dynamics within the automotive industry, such as the evolution of the R&D network over time, open innovation dynamics and university-industry collaborations. We use traditional network analytics and find that the R&D network initially became less interconnected. In recent years, we see the network tightening again and being controlled by the large OEMs, this suggests that the move towards open innovation is relative and that technologies and markets are maturing. At the same time, the network became more international and universities start being part of the network. The findings of this paper allow for assessing the relative position of each company in EV and HEV R&D network, as a result we can uncover the powerful organizations in the networks: those networks that control the knowledge generated by and flowing through the industry. The database developed within the framework of this research allows for developing an optimal network strategy both for incumbents or new entrants such as start-ups or universities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Large Scale Electric Car Sharing Stimulates EV Adoption and EVSE Infrastructure Deployment
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 609-610; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030609 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 277
Abstract
After operating Autolib’ in Paris since 2011, Bolloré has now successfully launched in North America with a first all-electric car sharing service in Indianapolis named BlueIndy. The service will allow the City to gain up to 1,000 public charge points (EVSEs) and 500 [...] Read more.
After operating Autolib’ in Paris since 2011, Bolloré has now successfully launched in North America with a first all-electric car sharing service in Indianapolis named BlueIndy. The service will allow the City to gain up to 1,000 public charge points (EVSEs) and 500 Bluecar BEVs. The service represents a new mode of electric mobility and the ability for all in Indianapolis to experience EVs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Market Diffusion of Second-life Electric Vehicle Batteries: Barriers and Enablers
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 599-608; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030599 - 30 Sep 2016
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Repurposing retired electric vehicle (EV) batteries provides a potential way to reduce EV cost hurdles. Embedded in energy storage systems, second-life EV batteries could unlock the energy storage market and generate synergic value for the energy sector. From case studies with various stakeholders, [...] Read more.
Repurposing retired electric vehicle (EV) batteries provides a potential way to reduce EV cost hurdles. Embedded in energy storage systems, second-life EV batteries could unlock the energy storage market and generate synergic value for the energy sector. From case studies with various stakeholders, this paper presents key factors that impact the market development for second-life batteries and explains why some stakeholders are more capable for the market diffusion. The results provide practical implications for both industrial players and policy makers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
New York State Grid-Interactive Vehicle Roadmap
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 587-598; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8030587 - 30 Sep 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 263
Abstract
A shift from fossil fuels to electricity for transportation energy will pose challenges for utility providers while also presenting opportunities for economic, grid reliability, and environmental benefits. Strategic integration of electric vehicles (EVs) with the grid would more fully realize the benefits that [...] Read more.
A shift from fossil fuels to electricity for transportation energy will pose challenges for utility providers while also presenting opportunities for economic, grid reliability, and environmental benefits. Strategic integration of electric vehicles (EVs) with the grid would more fully realize the benefits that EVs offer and potentially make EV ownership more affordable through the provision of reliability and resilience services to the grid. The New York State roadmap presented here was informed by a preliminary research report, gap analysis, and stakeholder feedback; it identifies the current state of grid-interactive vehicles, examines how to overcome existing barriers, and presents a strategic plan for EV grid-integration. Full article
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